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J? ABER (Basil], an eminent Lutheran diving was born 
in 1520, »t Soraw in Lusatia, on the confines of Silesia. 
He Was bred to letters, and successively became a teacher 
in the schools at N&c^ ' - - - ■ 

burg, and lastly, rectO" 
furt. He was a zeajp 

German, the remarks "T-iuSji 
also observations on C v'^lry^ 
was concerned in *h'> !.''-> ^.j- 
chief foundation of i " 'iftiS i '1 
tionis Scholasticffi," an undertaking which required' the 
labour of many able men to render it complete. Tt was 
first published in 1 57 1. After his death it was augmented 
and improved by Buchner, Thomaaius, the great Christo- 
pher Cellarius, and the Gracvius's, father and son. The 
edition published at the Hague in 1735, in 2 vols, folio, 
was lung esteemed the bestj but that by John Henry Leich, 
puhlished at Francfort in 1749, 2 vols. foL is thought 
superior. ' 

FABER (John], sirnamed from one of his works, the 
Hammer of Heretics, " Malleus Hereticonim," was bom 
in Soabia in 1479, and distinguished himself in the uni- 
versities of Germany in the sixteenth century. In 1519 
be was appointed vicar-general to the bishop of Constance ; 
in 1526, Ferdinand king of the Romans, afterwards em- 
peror, uamed bim as his confessor, and in 1531, advanced 

( < M«ttri.— Did. Hilt— 8>Kii OnvMub 

V«t. XIV. B 

2 F A B E ft. 

him to the see of Vienna. He died in 1542, at the age of 
sixty-three. His works are comprised in three volumes 
folio, printed at Cologne in 1537 — 1541; but that for 
which he was most celebrated was entitled '^Malleus Hse* 
reticorum/' in which he discusses many controversial 
points with considerable warmth, and was considered by 
those of his persuasion as a formidable enemy to the re- 
formers. Luther having been one of his opponent*, Eras- 
mus said, when he was advanced to the episcopacy, ** that 
LuCberr, poor as he was, found means to eni;ich his enemies.*' 
He was impetuous in argument, and his enemies attributed 
to him many indiscreet expressions, the consequence of 
the anger he felt in being conquered in debate. There 
was another divine of the same names, and who lived about 
the same time,, and distinguished himself by many contro* 
versial writings against the reformed religion^ which ailL6 
llo longer remembered. ' 

FABER (Jom«), is the name of two engravers whose 
works are held in some estimation among portrait-collec- 
tors. The elder was born in Holland, where he learned 
the art of mezzotinto-scraping, and also drew portraits 
from the life, on vellum, with a pen. What time he came 
into England does not appear, but he resided here a con- 
siderable time, in Fountain court in the Strand, London. 
He died at Bristol in May 1721. He drew many of the 
portraits which be engraved from nature, but they are not 
remarkable either for taste or execution. His most esteemed 
works were, a collection of the founders of the colleges of 
Oxford, half sheet prints, the beads of the philosophers 
from Rubens, and a portrait of Dr. Wallis the mathema- 
tician, from Kueller. The other John Faber, the younger, 
was his son, and lived in London, at the Golden Head in 
Bloomsbury-square, where Strutt thinks he died in 1756. 
Like his father, he confined himself to the. engraving of 
portraits in mezzotinto ; but he excelled him in eveiy 
requisite of the art. The most esteemed works are the 
portraits of the Kit-Cat club, and the Beauties of Hamp-^ 
ton Court. Some of his portraits are bold, free, and 
heautiful. * 


FABERT (Abraham), an eminent French ofliicer,. wits 
the son of a bookseller at Mentz (author of *' Notes sur la 

> :Jkforeri-i«a£Uiphi. ? 8tmit'« Dtot.**;Walpgle't Anecdotes. 

F A B E R T. S 


CoQtutee de Lorraine,'' l&57^ fol.) He was educated with 
tbe duke d^Epernon, and saved the royal army at the fa- 
mous retreat uf Mehtz ; which has been compared by some 
authors to that of Xenopbon*s 10,000. Beiug wounded in 
the thigh by a musket at the siege of Turin, ^M. deTu- 
reane, and cardinal de la Valette, to whom he'was aid de 
oamp, intreated him to submit to an amputation, which 
was the advice of all the surgeons ; but he replied, ** I 
must not die by piece-meal ; death shall have me intire, or 
not at all/' Having, however, recovered from this wound, 
he was afterwards made governor of Sedan ; where h^ 
erected strong fortifications, and with so much oeconomy, 
that his faajesty never, had any places better secured at 
so little ' expence. In i654hetook Stehay, and was stp« 
pointed mariecbal of France in 1658. His merit, integrity^ 
and modesty, gained him the esteem both of his sovereign 
and the grandees. He refused the collar of the king^s 
vrders, saying it should never be worn but by the ancient 
nobility ; and it happened, that though his family had been 
ennobled by Henry IV. he could not produce the qualifi- 
cations necessary for that dignity, and *^ would not,'* as 
be said, ^^ have bis cloke decorated with a cross, and his 
soul disgraced by an imposture/' Louis Xiy. himself an« 
swered his letter of thanks in the following terms: <'No^ 
person to whom I shall give this collar, will ever receive 
inore -boaoiir from it in the world, than you have gained in 
my opinion, by your noble refusal, proceeding from so 
generous a principle.'' Marechal Fabert died at Sedan, 
May 17, 1662, aged sixty-three. His Life, by father 
3arre, regular canofi of St. Genevieve, was published at 
Paris, 1752, 2 vols. l2tno. 'There is one older, in one 
thin vol. 12mo. * 


FABIUS MAXIMUS (Quintus, sumamed Rullianus), 
was a celebrated Roman, who was five times consul, three 
times dictator, and triumphed twice or more, yet was aU 
ways distinguished by his modesty and equanimity. The 
first public ofEce in which we trace him, is that of curule 
sdiie, which he bore in the year before Christ 330, In 
the year. 324, he was named master of the horse by the 
dictator L. Papirius Cursor, in the war against the Sam* 
nicest and/ having given battle to the enemy in tbe 

; f Moreri.— Diet, Hiit, 
ti 2 

4, F A B I U S. 

absene^ of tbe dictatoiv contrary to his express order, dioogtr 
cdilipletely victorious, was capitally condemned; and 
tbrotigh the strictness of Roman discipline, and the in* 
flexible severity of tbe dictator, would have been executed 
bad be not been first rescued by tbe army, and then- 
strongly interceded for by tbe senate and people of Rome; 
His first consulship was three years af^er, in the year 321 
Bw C. It was not till tbe year 30.^ B. C. when be bore tbe 
6ffice of censor^ that be acquired the simame of Maximum 
which afterwards was continued in bis family, and was 
given him in consequence of his replacing tbe low and tur« 
bulent'mob of Rome in tbe four urban tribes^ and thereby^ 
diminishing their authority, which, when they were scat- 
tered in tbe various tribes, bad been considerable on ac* 
count of their numbers. His last consulship was in the 
year 294 B. C. and it is not likely that be lived many years 
after that period. We find him, however, three year» 
after, attending tbe triumph of bis son the proconsul, a 
very old man, and celebrated by tbe historians for bis mo-» 
dest demeanour, and respectful acknowledgment of faia 
son^s public dignity. ' 

FABIUS MAXIMUS (Quintvs, sumamed VEKRtrcosm 
and Cunctator), a noble Roman^ was tbe fourth in de- 
scent from the preceding, and in a very similar career of 
honours, obtained yet more glory than his ancestor. He 
also was consul fiv^ times, in the years 283 Ant. Chr. 228, 
£15, 214, and 210; and dictator in the years 221 and 217. 
His life is among those written by Plutarch. In his first 
consulship, he obtained the honour of a triumph for » 
signal victory over the Ligurians. His second consulship 
produced no remarkable event) nor, indeed, bis first dic- 
tatorship, which seems to have been only a kind of civil 
appointment, for the sake of holding comitia, and^ was 
frustrated by some defect in the omens. But in tbe con- 
sternation which followed the defeat at Tbrasymene, bis 
country had recourse to him as the person most able to' 
retrieve affairs, and be was created dictator a second time« 
In thU arduous Siituation he achieved immortal fame, by 
liis prodence in perceiving that the method of wearing out 
au invader was to protract the war, and avoid •a general 
engagement, and his steady perseverance in preserving 
that system. By this conduct he finally attained the bo^ 

1 livyj'-ilooke*! Ronmi Hi^ 

F A B I U 9. $ 

noarable title of Cctnctatoii, or protector. But before 
he could obtain the praise he merited^ be bad to contend 
not onl^ with the wiles and abilities of Hannibal^ but with 
che impatience and imprudence of his coufitrymen. The 
former he was able to baffle, the latter nearly proved fatri 
to Rome. ^^ If Fabius/* said Hannibal, '* is so great a 
commander as he is reported to be, let him come forth 
and grre me battle.'^ ** If Hannibal/' said Fabius in re- 
ply, *< is so great a commander as he thinks himself, let 
him compel me tq iC^ A battle in Apulia^ however, was 
brought on by the rashness of his master of the horse^ Mi- 
nucius, and it required all the ability of Fabius to prevent 
^n entire defeat His moderation towards Minucius after- 
^s, was equal to his exertions in the contest. Aftet 
be iiad laid down his office, the consul Pauhis iCmifius 
endeavoured to tread in his stepa; but rashness again pre- 
vailed over wisdom, and the defeat at Cannss ensued iik 
the year 215, and then the Romans began to do full justice 
to the prudence of Vabius. He was called the shield, as 
Marcellus the sword of the republic ; and, by an honour 
almost unprecedented, was continued in the consulship 
for two successive years. He recovered Tarentum before 
Hannibal ^ould relieve it, and continued to oppose that 
general with great and successful skill. It has been laiti 
to his charge that when Scipio proposed to carry the war 
into Africa, he opposed that measure through envy ; and 
Plutarch allows that though he was probably led at first to 
disapprove," from the cautious nature of his temper, he 
afterwards became envious of the rising glory of Scipio;* 
It is, however, possible, that he might think it more glo- 
i^Qus to drive the enemy by force out of Italy, than to draw 
hkn away by a diversion. Whether this were the case or 
not, he did not live to see the full result of the measure, 
for be died in the year 2Q3, at a very advanced age, be- 
ing,' according to some authors, near a hundred. This was 
nhe very year preceding the decisive battle of Zama, which 
concluded the second Punic war. The highest encomiums 
are bestowed by Cicero upon Fabius, under the person of 
Cato^ who just remembered him j and' had treasured many 
^f his^ sayings^^ 

: FAB4VS (PicTOtt), a Roman historian, the first prose 
writer on the subject of Roman hbtory, was the spn of C. 

1 Plutft«clr.-»£ivy.-^bok(B't Romav dist. 

€ F A B I U & 

Fabius Pictor, who was consul with Ogulnius GalUis in, 
the year 27 1 B. C. and grandson of the Fabius who painted' 
the temple of health, from whom this branch of the family 
obtained the name of Pictor. He was nearly related to 
the preceding Fabius, and after the battle of Canns^ was 
sent to the Delphic oracle to inquire by what supplications 
the gods might be appeased. He wrote the history of this 
war with Hannibal, and is cited by Livy as authority in it. 
The fragments of his annals that remain in the works of 
the ancients, whether in Greek or Latin, for he wrote in 
both, relate chiefly to the antiquities of Italy, the begins 
nings of Rome, or the acts of the Romans. He is cen* 
sured .by Polybius, as too partial to the Romans, and not 
even just to the Carthaginians. His style was doubtless 
that of his age, unformed, and imperfect. An history, 
circulated as his, consisting of two books, one on the 
golden age, the other on the origin of Rome, is now known 
to have been a fqrgery of Antiius of Viterbo. ' 

FABRA (Aloysio, or Loins 0ella), an Italian phy« 
Mcian, was born at Ferrara in 1655. His father was a 
surgeon of much reputation, and recommended the me- 
dical profession to this son, who after the usual course of 
studies, took his degree of doctor at Ferrara, where he 
became afterwards first professor of medicine. He died 
IVIay 5, 1723, aftet having published various dissertations 
on medical subjects and cases, which were collected in a 
quarto volume, and published at Ferrara in 1712 under the 
title *^ Dissertationes Physico-medicse.** Haller speaks 
rather slightingly of this author's works. * 

FABRE D'EGLANTINE (Philip Francis Nazaire), 
4>ne of the agents in the French revolution, was born at 
Carcassane, Dec. 28, 1755,. and was educated in polite 
literature and natural philosophy by his parents, whom he 
quitted in his youths and becaipe. by turns a painter, mu- 
sician, engraver, poet, and actor. He performed on the 
^stages of Versailles, Brussels, and Lyons, but with no 
great success. As a writer fpr the stage, however, he was 
allowed considerable aierit,^ and obtained, on one occasion,^ 
at the Floralia, the prize of the Eqlantin^^ the na^ie o|^ 
which he added to his own. In 1786 he published in,« 
French periodical work, <^ Les Etrennes du^ Parnasse," a 
little poem called *< Chalons sur Marne,*' in which he 

> VcMMmt 4e H\»U JLat-^^wa OoonMil, « Msnfet wa^ fiallen-i^-JDict |litt^ 

F A B R & 1 


dtew 4' vtry charmiirg picture of the moral pleasures that 
«vere to be found iu that place and its neighbourhood. 
This piece, however, fell very short of the celebrity to 
^hich he afterwards atuined. In. 1789 and 1790 be pub«> 
lished two comedies, " Le Philinte," and " L'Intrigue 
£pi9tolaire,*' the former of which was reckoned one of the 
best French pieces of the last century. 

He was soon, however, called to perform a more im* 
i>ortant part on the revolutionary stage, being chosen, in 
1792, a deputy to the national convention. For this of** 
fice be had ail the negative qualities that were necessary, 
no regard for religion or civil subordination ; and accord** 
Jngly took a very active part in the insurrection of Aug. 10, 
and the prison massacres of the September following ; the 
latter are called <^ measures which %fould save France.^* 
After this, it was in character to vote for the death of th^ 
king. It was generally supposed that he contributed with 
Banlon and Robespierre to the massacre of May 31, 1793^ 
when the Girondine faction was overthrown by. a popular 
insurrection. What gives the appearance of authenticity 
to this supposition is, that Fabre himself, some days after- 
wards, observed to a friend, that the domineering spirit o£ 
the Girondines, who had engrossed all power and office, 
had induced him and his colleagues, in order to shake o^ 
the yoke, to throw themselves into the hands of the saris'* 
ctdoterie ; but that he could not help, however, foreboding 
dangerous consequences from that day, May 31st, as the 
same mob which they had taught to despise the legislature^ 
might, at the instigation of another faction, overthrow him 
in bis turn. 

On the overthrow of the Girondine party, andtheesta* 
blishment in .power of the simsculoterie^ Fabre began to 
render himself more conspicuous. As a member of the 
committee of public safety, he demanded of the jacobin/s 
^' a manifesto furnished with 300,000 signatures, for the 
formation of a faction, *or holy league of publia safety,^* 
and was one of the uistigators of the decree that ordained 
that all the English and Hanoverian prisoners should be • 
shot,, which, however, we believe, was never carried into 
execution. He was also appointed a member of the com^ . 
mittee of public instruction, and in August 1793 gave hit 
vote for suppressing all academies and literary corporations! 
which, from their privileges and aristocratic spirit, were 
considered as unfriendly to a truly republicap goverpmeiit. 

t F A & R E, 

la Oetober 17dS, he submitted to the^ national ewveodoii 
the plan of a new calendar, whiQb wa3 afterwards adepied^^ 
bat which, absurd as we find it, is ss^id net to have . been 
mi his own composition. 

In the winter of 1793, the Sansculoterie became divided 
into two parts or factions^ the jacobins and cordeliers, e^ 
in other words, the. Robespierrists, and the Dantonists. 
Fabre was of the faction of Danton, and was confined with 
Danton^s adherents, in the prison of the Luxemburgh, After 
a month's imprisonment, Fabre was, with many others^ 
dragged to the scaffold in April 1794, where he was exe^ 
euted in the thirty-fifth year of his age. Mercier, who 
^as bis colleague, speaks of him thus in his <^ Tableau da 
Paris :^ '^ He was a promoter and panegyrist of the revoV 
luttonary system, the friend, the companion, the adviser of 
the pro«-consuls, who carried throughout France, fire and 
sword, devastation and death.^^ In 1802 a collection of 
bis works was published in 2 vols. Svo, oontaioiog somcf 
|>osthumous pieces. ^ 

FABRE (John Claitbius), a voluminous French writer, 
or rather compiler, was born April 25, 1668, at Pari% the 
sou of an eminent surgeon. He was subdeacon, and ba^ 
cbplor of the Sorbonne, and had been second teacher at 
St. Quintin, when he entered the congregation of the ora- 
tory at Paris. He rose to be successively professor of pbi« 
losophy at Rumilly in, Savoy, at Toulon, Riom^ Mans, and 
Nantes ; afterwards taught theology^ three years at Riom» 
and during three more at the seminary of the congregat 
tion at Lyons. While he^lived in the last named city, he 
published a small dictionary, Latin and French^ 8^o, com^ 
piled from the best classical authors, which bas passed 
through several editions ; and he also published at Lyons^ 
in I70d, a new edition of Richelet's dictionary, 2 vols. folio> 
under the title of Amsterdam, which edition was suppressed 
on account of several theological articlea respectmg the 
^i&Ars of the times ; and because in his list of authors, be 
bestowed great encomiums on Messrs. of; Port Royal^ but 
none on their adversaries. This obliged quit the 
oratory, and retire to Clermont in Auvergne^ wbere, being 
destitute of a maintenance, he undertook the education of 
some children, and had recourse to father Tellier, a Jesuit^ 
ibe king*s confessor, wbp twice suppbed bint with money. 

• * ♦. 
i nicU i2^t.-«3ioa* Moderiie.«^$u|)pleuieat to Uie £iicyclop«dift BriUumica.^ 

• y 

F A B R IS. -9 

In the btter erid of 17 1 5, Fabre again jentered the congre- 
gation of the oratary» and was sent to Douay, where he 
.wrote a amall paqaphlet, entitled <^ Entretiens de Cbrisiine, 
et de Pelagie, sur la lecture de TEcriture-Saintef* which 
is still in request. Having afterwards preached the Sun* 
day sermons of the oratory of Tragany with great credit (for 
he bad also talents for preaching), he went to reside at 
Montmorency, towards the end of 1723, and there began 
bis ^^ Continuation de PHistoire Ecclesiastique, de feu M* 
rAbb6 Fleury ;*' and published 16 vols. 4to or 12aio, which 
induced his superiors to invite him again to their houses^ 
'- Rue St. Honors, at Paris, where he died, October 92, 1755^ 
^i^d eightyrfive^ much lamented by bis brethren and 
friends, for his mildness, candour, modesty, and virtue. 
The discourse ^^ Sur le renouvellement des Etudes eccle** 
siastiques," &c. at the beginning of the thirteenth volume 
«f the Continuation, is by the abb£ Goujet. This Conti* 
Auation discovers great learning, and facility in writings 
but has neither the wit, penetration, character,, style, nor 
accuracy of judgment possessed by the abb€ Fleury. Fabre 
would have carried it on much faitber> but was forbidden 
lo print any new voIiMnes. He made the index to M. de 
Thou's history translated into French^ 4lo^ and had begua 
one to the *^ Journal des' S^avans,** but soon gave up his 
undertaking to the abb6 de Claustre, to whom the public 
owes that useful work, 10 vols. 4tOt Fabre also left a mo« 
derate translation of Virgil, 4 vols. 12 mo, and a trsmslatioii 
of the Fables of Phsedrus^ Paris, 1728, 12mo, with notes. ^. 
FABRETTI (Ri^PfiAEL), a very learned antiquary of 
Italy, was bom at Urbino^ of a noble family, in 1619. After 
he bad passed through his first studied at Cagli, he returned 
to Urbino to finish himself in the law, in wUch he was ad« 
niitted doctor at eighteen. Having an elder brother at 
Rome, who was an eminent advocate, he also went thithei!:, 
and applied himself to the bar ; where he soon distingui^ed 
himself to such advantage, that he was likely to advance fajii 
fortune. Cardinal Imperial] entertained so great an esteem 
for him, that he sent him into Spain, to negociajte seversiL 
important and difficult affairs ; which he did with such suc- 
cess that the office of the procurator fiscal of that kingdooa 
laUing vacant, the cardinal proeured it for him. Fabretti 
continued thirteen jrears in Spain^ where he was for s<me 

1 Moreri.<*-X)ict Hist, de l«*ArocaU 



10 F A B R E T T I. 

^ime auditor general of the Nunciature. These employ-* 
inents^ however, did not engage hiui so mucby but that be 
found time to read the ancients, and apply himself to po« 
lite literature. He returned to Rome with cardinal Bo** 
nelli, who bad been nuncio in Spain ; and from his do- 
mestic became bis most intimate friend* He was appointed 
judge of the appeals to the Capitol; which post he after* 
wards quitted for that of auditor of the legation of Urbino, 
under the cardinal legate Cerri. His residence in his own 
country gave him an opportunity of settling his own pri- 
vate affairs, which had been greatly disordered during his 
absence. He continued there three years, which appeared 
very long to him, because his inclination to study and an* 
tiquities made him wish to settle at Rome, where he might 
easily gratify those desires to the utmost. He readily ac« 
cepted, therefore, the invitation of cardinal Corpegna, the 
pope's vicar, who employed him in drawing up the apos* 
tolical briefs, and other dispatches belonging to his office^ 
and gave hini the inspection of the reliques found at Rome 
and parts adjacent. Alexander VII I. whom Fabretti had 
served as auditor when cardinal, made him secretary of the 
memorials, when he was advanced to the pontificate ; and 
, bad so great a value and affection for htm, that he would 
certainly haye raised him to higher dignities, if he had lived 
a little longen 

Upon the death of Alexander, Fabretti retired from bu«. 
ainess, and devoted himself entirely to his favourite amuse- 
ment. He went to search antiquities in the country about . 
Rome, without any other companion than his horse, and 
without any regard to the heat or inclemency of the wea- 
ther. , As be always made use of the same horse, his friends 
gave that animal, by way of jest, the name of Marco Polo, 
the famous traveller ; and said> that this horse used to dis- 
cover ancient monuments by the smell, and to stop of him- 
self' immediately when he came to any ruins of an old 
building. Fabretti was so well pleased with the name given 
to his horse, that he used it to write a letter to one of hii 
friends iu an ironical strain, yet full of learning, upon the 
study of antiquity : but this letter was never printed. In« 
iiocent XII. obliged him to quit bis retirement; and made 
faim keeper of the archives of the castle of St. Angelo ;^a 
post, whicb is never given but to men of the most approved 
integrity, since he who eiyoys that place is master of all 
the secrets of -the pope's temporal estt^te. All these dif« 

r A B R E T T L II 

ftrent employments never interrupted bis researches into 
amiquity ; and he collected enough to adorn his paternal 
house at Urbino^ as well as that which he had built at Rome 
after the death of Alexander VIII. Neither could old age 
divert him from his studies, nor hinder him from labouring 
at the edition of his works, which he printed at his own 
house. He died Jan. 7, 1700. He was a member of the 
academy of the Assorditi at Urbino^ and the Arcadi at 

^ He was the author of the foUowing works : 1 . '^ De Aquis 
& Aqus-ductibus Veteris fiomee Dissertatiooes tres,** 
Rom«, 1680, 4to. This book may serve to illustrate Fron« 
tinus, who has treated of the aqueducts of Rome, as they 
were in his time under the emperor Trajan. It is inserted 
in the^ourth volume of Grtevias^s *^ Thesaurus Antiquita- 
torn Romanarum.^' 2.. '* De Columna Trajana Syntagma. 
Accesseruntexplicatio Veteris TabellsB Anaglyphae Homeri 
Iliadem, atque ex Stesichoro, Arctino, et Lesche Ilii exci* 
dium continentis, et emissarii lacus Fi^cini description* 
Romas, 1683, folio. 3. '' Jasithei ad Grunhovitim ApolOf 
gema, in ejusque Titivilitia, sive de Tito Livio somnia, 
animadversionesj" NeapoL 1686, 4to. This work is aa 
answer to James Gronovius's ^^ Responsio ad Cavillationes 
R. Fabretti," printed at Leyden, 1685. Fabretti had given 
occasion. to this dispifte, by censuring, in bis book ** De 
Aquee*ductibus," some corrections of Gronovius ; and thus 
had drawn upon himself an adversary, who treated him witk 
very little ceremony. Fabretti replied to him here, under 
the name Jasitheus, and treated him with equal coarseness. 
Gronovius called him Faber Jtusticus, which he retorted by 
styling his antagonist Grunrumus* 4. ^^ Inscriptionum An* 
tiquarum, qusB in sdibus paternis asservantur, explicatio et 
additamentum," Rome, 1699, folio. Fabretti had an ad- 
mirable talent in decyphering the most difficult inscrip* 
tions, and discovered a method of making something out 
of those which seemed entirely disfigured through age, and 
the letters of which were effaced in such a manner as not 
to be discernible. He cleaned the surface of the ston^ 
without touching those places where the letters had been 
engraven. He then laid upon it a piece of thick paper well 
moistened^ . and pressed it with a, spunge, or wocKien pia 
covered with liqen ; by which means the paper entered 
into die cavity of the letters, and, taking up the dust tb^ere, 
discovered the traces of the letters. M. Baudelot^ in his 

It r A B R E T T I. 

book '^De rUtiltt6 det Voyages,** iiifoniiB us of a secrM 
very like this, in order to read upon medals those letters 
which are difficult to be decyphered. 5* << A Letter to the 
9bbi Nicaise,*' containing an inscription remarkable for 
the elegance of its style, inserted in the ** Journal des S$a«- 
vans** of Dec. 1691. He left unfinished ^< Latium retus 
iUustratum.*' Fabretti discovers in his writings a lively 

Srenius, a clear and easy conception, and a great deai of 
earning. ^ 

FABHI (Honore'), an industrious and learned Jesuit, 
was born in the diocese of Bellay in 1606 or 1607. He 
for a long time held the chair of professor of philosophy in 
the college de la Trinity at Lyons; but in consequence of 
bis profound knowledge of theology, he was called to 
Rome, where he was made a penitentiary. He died in 
that city on ^he 9th of March, 1688. He was a man c^ 
most extensive and universal knowledge, and studied iiie«' 
cUcine and anatomy with considerable ardour. He assumed 
the credit of the discovery of the circulatioo of the hloed^ 
and father Reg4iault, and other credulous persons, have 
supported his assumption, on the grdunds that he had taaixk^ 
tained the fact of the circulation in a discussion in 1638 : 
but Harvey bad published his discovery in 1638. The 
medical works of this Jesuit consist of an apology for the 
Peruvian bark, in answer to Plempins, whicb he. Fmhlished 
at Rome io 1655, under the title of ^^Pulvis Peruvianui 
Febrifugus vindicatus ;" and two other essays, one, *^ De 
Plantis^ et Generatione Aaimaliiunv,*' the otber, *^ De Ho^ 
mine,"' published at Paris in 1 66i6, and at Nuremberg in 
1677. His theological works are mostly controversial, and 
now held in little estimation.' 

FABRIANO (Gentile Da), a famous painter, in the 
eayly stage of the art after its restoration, was bom at Ve^ 
rona in. 1332, and was a disciple of Giovanni da Fiesole. 
His most conspicuous work was^ a picture in the great 
council chamber of the state of Venice, es^cuted by order 
of the doge and senate, who regarded die work in so extras 
ordinary a degree of esteem^ that they granted him a pen* 
aion for life, and conferred upon him the prinrilege of weal^- 
ing the habit of a noble Venetian ; tlie highest honour in 
Ibe power of the state to bestow* Many of his piatuiw 

^ Fabroni VitsB Italonim, vol. VI.-*Qen. Diet,— >Mmii*-<^axu ODSO^t; 
' Morefi-^Pict HisU-^-Rees's CydopadU. 

F A B R I A N O. 18 

adorn the pdpe^s palsce o£ St Giovanni Lateraho^ and the 
churches in Floreoce, Urbino, Perugta> Sienna, and Rome. 
One of them in the church of Santa Maria Nuova, placed* 
orer the tomb of cardinal Adimarii representing the Vir- 
gin and cbiid, with St. Joseph and St. Benedict, was highly 
commended by Michael Angelo ; whom Vasari represents^ 
as being accustomed to say that in painting the hand of 
Gentile was correspondent with his name. He died in 
1412, 80 years old. ^ 

FABRICIUS (Andrew), a learned popish divine in the 
sixteenth century, was born at a village in the country of 
Liege, and studied philosophy and divinity under his bro« 
ther Geofiry ; such was his progress that he was soon pre* 
ferred to teach those sciences at Louvain. While here 
Otho, cardtfial of Augsburgh, engaged him in bis service^ 
and sent him to Rome where he remained bis agent for 
about six years under the pontificate of Pius V. On his re- 
turn he was promoted to be counsellor to the dukes of fia*- 
varia, and by their interest was farther advanced to the 
provostship of Ottingen,. where probably he died^ in l^SK 
His principal work was '^ Harmonia confessionis Augusti- 
nianae," Cologn, 1573 and 1587^ folio. He wrote also a 
^* Catechism,'' with notes and illustrations, Antwerp, 1600, 
ivo; and three ^^ Latin tragedies," which are said to be 
ivritten in elegant language: 1. ^^ Jeroboam rebeliens,^' 
Ingoldstadt, 1585. 2i ^^ Religio patiens,'' Cologn, 1566; 
aud " Samson,'' ibid. 1569. The two former, it must be 
observed, are ingeniously contrived to assimilate tlie here-, 
tics, that is those of the reformed religion, with the rebeU 
lious Israelites. * 

FABRICIUS (Caius), sirnamed Luscwus, an illustri- 
ODs Roman, was much and justly celebrated for his infleKi- 
ble ititegrity, and contempt of riches. He was twice con- 
sul, first in the year before Christ 232, when he obtained 
a triumph for his victories over the Samnites, Lucani, and 
Bruttii. Two years after this, Pyrrhus invaded Italy ; and, 
after the defeat of the Romans near Tarentum, Fabricius 
was sent to that monarch to treat of the ransom and ex* 
change of prisoners, on which occasion he manifested a 
noble contempt of every endeavour that could be made, iu 
any shape, to shake his fidelity, and excited the admiration 
• of Pyrrhus. His second consulship was in the year 278, 

» J*ilkingtoii»— Rees'i Cyclopadia. ' Moreri. — Foppeu Bill. Belg. 

1* F A B R ItJ I U S- 

when his mfined generosity yet further secured the esteem 
of the royal enemy, whom he informed of 'the treacherous 
design of his physician to give him poison. According to 
some authors, he again triumphed this year over the allies 
of Pyrrhus. It was remarked^ that when the comitia were 
held for the ensuing consuls, Cornelius Rufinus, a man of 
notorious avarice, and detested by Fabricius for that vice^ 
but an excellent general, obtained the consulship chiefly 
by bis interest. Being asked the reason of this unexpected 
proceeding, be said, *^ In times of danger it is better that 
the public purse should be plundered, than the state be* 
trayed to the enemy." But when he became censor in the 
year 275, he proved his fixed dislike to that man's charac- 
ter, by removing him from the senate, for possessing an 
unlawful amount of silver plate. The war with Pyrrhus 
was then concluded. St. Evremond, with the contempti* 
ble sneer of a man who has no conception of disinterested 
virtue, insinuates that his poverty was ambitious, arid his 
severity envious ; but it is not for a French Epicurean to 
judge the^ motives of a Fabricius. His frugality and po-» 
verty became almost proverbial; and Virgil has charac« 
terized him in very few words : 

— .*-—.«' jparvoque potentem 
^' Fabricium. 

The state paid a glorious tribute to his memory by por- 
tJoning his daughters after his death.' 

FABRICIUS (Franxis), professor of divinity in the uni* 
tersity of Ldpsic, was born at Amsterdam April 10, 1663. 
His father was a divine and pastor of the church of Meurs^. 
but he had the misfortune to lose both parents when he 
Was only five years old. His education then devolved upon 
his maternal grandfather, Francis Felbier, who appeals to 
have done ample justice to him, and particularly introduced 
him to that intimate acquaintance with the French language 
for which he was afterwards distinguished. He began to 
be taught Latin in the public school of Amsterdam in 1673 ; 
but in less than three months his grandfather died, and on 
his death-bed advised him to devote himself to the study 
of divinity, which was the wish and intention both of him* 
self and of his parents. He accordingly pursued his clas* 
sical studies with great assiduity; and in 1679, when in his 
siixteentb year, was much applauded for a discourse be 

f Pttttarcb ia Pyrrbus,«-Oen« Dict.«-*Koman Hist 


prbnounced, according to the custom of the school. HU 
subject was that *^ justice elevates a nation.'' After this 
be remained two more years at Amsterdam, and studied 
philosophy and rhetoric under the ablest professors ; and 
at his leisure hours David Sarphati Pina, a physician and 
rabbi, gave him lessons in the Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Sy- 
i:iac languages, and enabled him to read the works of the 
Jewish doctors. In Sept. 16S1 he removed to Leyden, 
where for two years he studied philosophy, Greek and Ro* 
man antiquities, and ecclesiastical history and geography^ 
under the celebrated masters of that day, De Voider, I'beo* 
dore Ryckius, James Gronovius, and Frederic Spanheim i 
and went on also improving himself in the Oriental lan- 
guages. Sucli was his proficiency in this last pursuit, that 
he already was able to carry on a correspondence with his 
master at Amsterdam, the above-mentioned Pina, in the 
Hebrew language, and he translated the gospels of St» 
Matthew and Mark into that language. 

At the age of twenty he began his theological studies, 
and in. 1686 returned to Amsterdam, where he rem,ained 
for a yestr, during which he had frequent disputes with bis 
old Hebrew master on the subject of the Messiah. In 1 687* 
he was ordained according to the forms of the Dutch, 
church, and preached first at Velzen, where he was much 
admired, and here he married Anne van Teylingen^ the 
daughter of a gentleman high in office in the Dutch 
East Indies. In 1696, the church of Leyden invited him 
to become their pastor, which he accepted ; and in ] 705, 
on the death of JaYiies Trigland, be succeeded to the chair 
of divinity professor, of which he took possession Dec. 13, 
with an oration on the subject of '^ Jesus Christ the sole 
and perpetual foundation of the church.^' Besides his pro- 
fessorship, he had, like his predecessor, the charge of the 
schools attached to the college. So much employment 
rendered it necessary for him to resign part of hii pastoral 
dmrge, but he fulfilled his share of its duties until within 
four years of his death. In 1723 the curators of the tlni- 
versity of Leyden founded a professorship of sacred elo- 
quence, and appointed him to it, where his business was 
to teach the art of preaching. In 1726 the London society 
for the propagation of the gospel elected him a member. 
Ifh 1737 he suffered very much by the consequences of a 
repelled gout, which at length proved fatal on July 27, 
1738. Fabricius Mas four times rector magnificus of the 


UDiversity, in 1708, 1716/1724, and 1736. On taking^ 
leave on this last occasion, be delivered a harangue very 
suitable to hi3 age and character, on the duty of Cbristiant 
In general, and divines in particular when they arrived at 
old age. The synod of South Holland had likewise chosen 
htm as one of their deputies. His works consist of five 
Yolumes of. dissertations, the subjects of which he had 
treated, but not so fully, in his academical orations. — 
1. *^ Christus unicum ac perpetuum fundamentutn ec* 
clesiae," Leyden, 1717, 4to. 2. ** De Sacerdotio Christi 
juxta ordinem Melchizedeci," ibid. 1720, 4to. ». "Chris- 
fologia Noachica et Abrahamica,*' ibid. 1727, 4to. Thii 
consists of twelve dissertations on several passages in the 
Old and New Testament, calculated to prove tihat Christ 
was the object of the faith of Noah and Abraham. At the 
end are some letters to the author. 4. " De Fide Cbristi-* 
Ana Patriarcharum & Prophetarum,^' ibid. 4to* I. •" Ora« 
tor Sacer,'* ibid. 1733^ 4to. This contains the substance of 
bis lectures op preaching, and is a complete treatise on 
the subject, although in some respects peculiarly adapted 
for the church of which he was a member. His sentiments^ 
however, are so liberal, his view of the subject so compre- 
Jiensive, and bis historical illustrations so happy, that we 
are rather surprized this work has not found its way into 
this country, oy translation. Fabricitts published also six 
sermons preached on public occasions. ^ 

FABRICIUS (G£ORGe), a leajrned German^ and cele- 
brated for a talent at Latin poetry, was born at Chemnitz 
in Misnia, a province of Upper Saxony^ 45 16. After a 
liberal education, he went to Italy and Rome, in quality 
of tutor to a nobleman ; where he spent bis time in a man- 
ner suitable to his parts and learning. He did not content 
himself with barely looking on, and blindly admiring ; but 
be examined with great accuracy and minuteness, all the 
remains ef antiqui^, and compared them. with the descrip-r 
tions which the Datin writers have given of them. The 
lesolt of these observations was his work entitled *^ Roma,'* 
published ih 1550, containing a description of that city. 
From Rome he returned to his native country, and was ap- 
pointed master of the great school at Meissen, over whicti 
he presided twenty-»six years, and died in that station, in 
1571. He was the author of numerous Latin poems, and 

> Otatio de Vita, &c. F. Fabricii.— Chaufepie.— Moreri^ 


bad the strongest passion for verse that can be conceived. 
His poems appeared at Bale in 1567^ in two volumes 8vo ; 
and, besides this collection, ' there are also hymns, odes 

} gainst the Turks, the Art of Poetry, Comparisons of the 
.atin Poets, &c. He is said to have received the laurel 
from the emperor Maximilian, a short time before his 

His poems are written with great purity and* elegance. 
He was particularly careful in the choice of his words ;* and 
be carried his scruples in this respect so far, that he would 
not on any account make use of a word in his ^^ Sacred 
Poems*' which favoured the least of Paganism. He con* 
demned some liberties of this sort, which he had taken in 
his youth; and he exceedingly blamed those Christians 
who applied themselves for matter to the divinities of Par- 
nassus, and the fables of the ancients. He wrote also in 
prose, the ^^ Roma,'' already mentioned ; the '^ Annals of 
Messein," in seven books ; ** Origines Saxonies," in two 
volumes, folio ; the same quantity on the affairs of Ger- 
many and Saxony, &c. His ^^ Roma" has been greatly 
admired by some, by Barthius in particular: and there is^ 
this singularity in it, that he has so adapted to his descrip- 
tions the language of the Latin writers who have described 
the same things, as to make some Germans fancy it an 
ancient work. * 

FABRICIUS (James), an eminent physician, was bom 
at Rostock,- Aug. 28, 1577. Following the advice of Hip- 
pocrates, he joined the study of the mathematics with thai 
of medicine, and was a pupil of Tycho Brahe, as he had 
been before of the learned Chytrseus. His medica.1 studies 
were not confined to his own country ; for he travelled 
through England, Germany, and the Low Countries, in 
order to obtain the instructions of the most celebrated pro- 
fessors ; and afterwards repaired to Jena, where he was 
distinguished by the extent of his acquirements, 4nd ob- 
tained the degree of doctor at the age of twenty-six. He 
ioon gained extensive employment in his profession, and' 
at length received several lucrative and honourable ap- 
pointments. He filled the stations of professor of medicine , 
and of the snathematics at Rostock during forty years, was 
first physician to the duke of Mecklenburgh, and after- 
wards retired tp Copenhagen, where he was appointed chief 

1 Moreri. — BaiUet Jugeaem dei SaTgns.— Blount'i Censura.— 'Saxi^CnoBUWt 

You XIV. C 

IS F A B R 1 C I U S. 

physician to the kings of Norway and Denmark^ Christian 
IV. and Frederick III. He died at Copenhagen on August 
14, 1652, in the seventy-fifth year of his age ; and his re- 
mains were carried to Rostock for interment, by his sons^ 
in-law and daughters, and a monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory. His works are entitled, 1. " Peri- 
cuhim Medicum, seu Juvenilium Faeturae priores," Hals^^ 
1600. 2. " Uroscopia, seu de Urinis Tractatus," Ros- 
tochii, 1605. 3. " De Cephalalgia Autumnal),*' ibid. 1617. 

4. " Institutio Medici practicam aggredientis," ibid. 1619. 

5. " Oratio Renunciationi novi Medicinse Doctoris prae- 
missa, de Causis Cruentantis cadaveris praesente Homi- 
cida," ibid. 1620. 6. " Dissertatio de Novo-antiquo Ca- 
pitis Morbo ac t>olore, cum aliis Disquisitionibus Medicis 
de difiic. nonnul. Materiis Practicis," ibid. 1640.' 

' FABRICIUS (James), a Lutheran divine, was born at 
Coslin, a town of Pomerania, in 1593. In his youth, as 
his parents were poor, he contrived to defray the expences 
of his education by instructing a few pupils in what he had 
already learned, and having the charge of some of them 
to Rostock, he soon distinguished himself among the 
learned of that city. Having taken orders, he was chosen 
preacher at Coslin, and chaplain to the duke Bogiislaus XIV. 
who. five years after recommended him to a doctor*s de- 
gree at Gripswald. About this time the king of Sweden, 
Gustavus Adolphus, arriving in Germany, made him his 
confessor, and superintendant of his army ; and after the 
battle of Lutzen, in which that prince lost his life, the duke 
Bogislaus recalled Fabriqius, and made him superintendant 
of Upper Pomerania, in which office he was afterwards con- 
tinued by queen Christina. He was also appointed minis- 
ter of the principal church of Stettin, and professor of di- 
vinity. He died suddenly of an apoplectic stroke, Aug.- 
11, 1654. His principal writings are, I. " Disputationes 
in Genesim, et in Epistolam ad Romanos. 2. ^^ Probatio 
visionum,*' a work which involved him in disrepute with 
some of his brethren, and obliged him to publish in defence 
of it, 3. " Invictae vision um probationes." 4. "JustaGus- 
taviana." He published besides some pieces in German.' 
FABRICIUS (Jeuome), more generally known by the 
name of Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente, wag 

> Moreri. — ^Rees's CyclopsBdia. — Mangel Bibl. Med. — Freberi Tbeatrun. 
« Moreri.— Diet. Hi&t. 

F A B R I C I U S. 1^ 

born at Aquapenclente, in the territory of Orvieto, in Italy> 
in 1 537. His parents, although poor, found the means of pro- 
curing him a good education at Padua, where he acquired 
a knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages, and, after 
having gone through the usuaV course of philosophy, he 
began the study of anatomy and surgery under Gabriel 
Fallopius, one of the most intelligent professors of his time. 
His progress under this excellent tutor was such as to ac- 
quire for him a character not less distinguished than that 
of his master, whom he afterwards succeeded in the pro- 
fessor's chair, in which he taught the same sciences^ for 
tesrly half a century, in the university of Padua. During 
the whole of this long period he maintained an uniform 
character for eloquence and sound knowledge, and conti- 
nued to excite great interest in his lectures. He died uni- 
versally regretted in 1619, at the age of eighty-two years. 

The kindness and disinterested generosity of Fabricius 
gained him the esteem of the principal families of Padua, 
and the republic of Venice built a spacious anatomical 
amphitheatre, on the front of which his name was inscribed ; 
they also decreed him an annual stipend of a thousand 
crowns, and the honour of a statue, and created him a 
knight of St. Mark. But the celebrity which he obtained 
for the university of Padua by his talents, afforded him a 
gratification above that which accrued from all those flat- 
tering favours. 

His . attention was chiefly directed to anatomy and sur- 
gery, both of which his researches materially contributed 
to elucidate. He is said to have been the first to notice 
the valves of the veins, having demonstrated their struc- 
ture in 1 574. The honour of this discovery has also been 
given to Paul Sarpi; but Albinus and Morgagni are of 
opinion that he was anticipated by Fabricius. These ana- 
tomists, however, were ignorant of the use of this valvular 
apparatus ; but Fabricius has given excellent views of its 
structure in his engravings. He was exceedingly methodi- 
cal in his writings, first describing the structure of each 
part of the body,, and then its uses. Valuable as his ana- 
tomical writiugs were, however, his surgical works obtained 
for him a still higher reputation. The improvements which 
he introduced into the practice of his art, in consequence 
of his accurate anatomical knowledge, and the consistent 
form which he gave to it, have, in fact, gained him the ap- 
pellation of the father of modern surgery. His works are 


to F A B R I C I U S. 

numerous : the first, eptitled *^ Pentateuchus C.hirurgicus,** 
published at Francfort in 1592, contains five dissertations 
on tumours, wounds, ulcers, fractures, and luxations. 2. 
** De Visione, Voce, et Auditu,'' Venice, 1600. 3. *« Trac- 
tatus de Oculo, visftsque Organo,** Padua, 1601. 4, " Dii 
Venarum Ostiolis,*' ibid. 1603. 5. " De Locutione, et 
ejus Instru mentis," ibid. 1603. It is said that, in one day, 
all the Germans deserted the school of Fabricius, because, 
in explaining the mechanism of the muscles of speech, he 
had ridiculed their mode of pronunciation. 6. " Opera 
Anatomica, qua^ continent de formato Fcetu, de formationc 
Ovi et PuUi, de Locutione et ejus Instrumentis, de Bruto- 
rum loquela," Padua, 1604-. The essay on the language 
of brute animals, in this work, is curious, and worthy the 
attention of naturalists. 7. " De Musculi Artificio, et Os^- 
•ium Articulationibus,'' Vicentia, 1614. 8. " De Respira- 
tione et ejus Instrumentis, libri duo," Padua, 1615. 9. " De 
Motu locali Animalium," Padua, 1618. 10. "DeGula, 
Ventriciilo, et Intestinis, Tractatus," ibid. 1618. 1 1. " De 
Integumentis Corporis," ibid. 1618. 12. *' Opera Chirur- 
gica in duas Partes divisa," ibid. 1617. ^his work, in which 
all the diseases of the body, which are curable by manual 
operation, are treated, passed through seventeen editions^ 
in different languages. 13. ** Opera' omnia Physiologica 
et Anatomica," Leipsic, 1687. 14. The whole of his worky ' 
were also published at Leyden in 1723, and in 1737, ip 
folio. » 

FABRICIUS (John Albert), one of the ihost eminent 
and laborious scholars of his time in Europe, was descended 
both by the father's and mother's side from a family ori- 
ginally of Holstein. His father, Werner Fabricius, a natirv 
of Itzhoa, in Holstein, was director of the music at StPauPg 
in Leipsic, organist of the church of St. Nicholas in that 
city, and a poet and a man of letters, as appears by a work 
he published in 1657, entitled " Deliciae Harmonicae.** 
His mother was Martha Corthum, the daughter of John 
Corthum, a clergyman of BergedorfF, and the descendant 
of a series of protestant clergymen from the time of th^ 
reformation. He was born at Leipsic Nov. 11, 1668. His 
mother died in 1674, and his father in 1679 ; but the lat« 
ter, while he lived, had begun to instruct him, and on hit 
death-bed recomniended him to the care of Valentine Al« 

f A B R I C I U S. zl 

berty an eminent divine and philosopher, who employed, 
as his first master, Wenceslaiv Buhl, whom Mayer calls 
the common Maecenas of orphans ; and he appears to hav^ 
been taught by him for about five years. He a]so received 
instructions at the same time under, Jo. Goth. Herrichius, 
rector of the Nicolaitan school at Leipsic, an able Greek 
and Latin scholar, whose services Fabricius amply acknow- 
ledges in the preface to Herrichius's " Poemata Graeca et 
Latina,'' which he published in 1718, out of regard to the 
memory of this tutor. In 1684, Valentine Albert sent hina 
to Quedlinburgh to a very celeb rajted school,' of which the 
learned Samuel Schmidt was at that time rector. It was 
here that he met with, in the library, a copy of Barthius's 
" Adversaria," and the first edition of Morboff*s " Poly- 
kistor," which he himself informs us, gave the first direc* 
tion to his mind as to that species of literary history and 
research wbrch he afterwards carried beyond all his prede- 
cessors, and in which, if we regard the extent and accuracy 
of his labours, he has never had an equal. Schmidt had 
accidentally shown him Barthius, and requested lym tq 
look into it ; but it seemed to open to him such a wide 
field of instruction and pleasure, that he requested to take 
it to his room and study it at leisure, and from this he con- 
ceived the first thought, although, perhaps, at that timei 
indistinct, of his celebrated Bibliothecas. After his return 
to Leipsic in 1686, he met with MorhofF, who, he says^ 
gave bis new-formed inclination an additional spur. He 
n9W was matriculated in the college of Leipsic, and was 
entirely under the care of his guardian Valentine Albert, 
one of the professors, with whom he lodged for seven years. 
During this time he attended the lectures of CarpzoviuSj^ 
Olearius, Feller, Rechenberg, Ittigius, Menckenius, &c» 
and other learned professors, and acknowledges his obliga- 
tions in particular to Ittigius, who introduced him to a 
knowledge of the Christian fathers, and of ecclesiastical 
history. It is perhaps unnecessary to add of one who has 
given such striking proofs of the fact, that his application 
to his various studies was incessant 'and successful. His 
reading was various and extensive^ and, like most scholars 
of his class, he read with a pen in his hand. 

Such proficiency Qoulfl not escape the attention of hi^ 
masters, nor go unrewarded, and accordingly we find that 
he was admitted to the degree of bachelor of philosophy, 
^ it is styled in that college, Nov. 27, 16.86, and ou Jan* 


26, 1688, to that of master. In this last year, he produced 
his first publication, a dissertation " de numero septua- 
gen^rio ;*' and in the same year published his " Scriptorum 
recentiorum decas," a sort* of criticism on ten eminent 
writers, George MorhofF, Christ. Cellarius, Henning Witte, 
Christian Thomasius, William Said en, Abraham Berkelius, 
Servatius Gallaeus, James ToUius, George Matthias Konig, 
and Christian William Eyben. This was published at 
Hamburgh, without his name, and having been attacked 
by an anonymous opponent, he replied in a ** Defensio 
decadis adversus hominis malevoli maledicum judicium, 
justis de causis ab auctore suscepta." He was a young 
man when he assumed such a decisive and disrespectful 
tone, of which his good sense soon made him ashamed, and 
he afterwards abstained from this opprobrium of contro-. 
versial writing, and received every criticism or remark on 
his works with pierfect submission and temper. ' It was pe- 
culiar to him that the more he knew, the more he learned 
how to excuse the imperfections of others, and to speak 
diffidently of his own acquisitions. 

In 1689, he published his "Decas Decadum, sive pla- 
giariorum et pseudonymorum Centuria,** in which he as- 
sumed the name of Faber. To this was added a disserta- 
tion on the Greek Lexicons, which he enlarged afterwards, 
and inserted in the fourth volume of his " Bibl. Graeca.'* 
This same year he edited a corrected and enlarged edition 
of Weller*s Greek grammar. In 1691 he published, in 
Greek and Latin, the books of the Apocrypha, with a pre- 
face and new translation of the book of Tobit ; and at the 
same time, a new edition of Lewis Cappel's " Historia apo- 
stolica." For bis degree of doctor in philosophy, he sup- 
ported two theses: one in March 1692, on the sophisms of 
the ancient philosophers, and particularly the stoics; and' 
the other in 1693, on* the Platonism of Philo. 

Besides his studies in the belles lettres and philosophy, 
he had much inclination to that of medicine, and would 
probably have pursued it as a profession ; but Berger, the 
medical professor, uncler whom he studied, being removed 
from Leipsic, he thenceforth devoted himself entirely to 
divinity. In April 1692 he had been admitted a preacher, 
and his four disputations on subjects of theology procured 
him the highest praises from his tutors. In 1693 he went 
to Hamburgh, without any immediate design, except that 
of visiting some relatiotis, particularly bis maternal unclej 


F A B R I C I U S. 29 

but intended afterwards to travel, from which he was di- 
verted by an unexpected event. His guardian Valentine 
Albert now wrote to him that his whole patrimony, amount- 
ing only to 1000 German crowns, had been expended in 
bis education, and {hat he was indebted to him for a con- 
siderable sum advanced. Fabricius returned an answer to 
this letter, expressing his concern at the news, but full of 
gratitude to his guardian for the care he had taken of him 
and his property. He had, however, to seek for the meant 
of subsistence, and might have been reduced to the greatest 
distress, had he not found a liberal patron in John Frederick 
Mayer. This gentleman was minister of the church of St. 
James at Hamburgh, ecclesiastic-counsellor to the king of 
Sweden, and honorary professor of divinity at Kiel. Being 
made acquainted with Fabricius^s situation, and probably 
no stranger to the fame he had acquired at Leipsic, he gave 
him an invitation to his house, and engaged him as his 
librarian, on which office Fabricius entered in June 1694^ 
and during his residence here, which lasted five years, 
divided his time betwixt study and preaching, in the 
church of St. James, and other churches. In the month of 
August 1695, he sustained a disputation at Kiel on the ir- 
rational logic of the popes, in the presence of the dukes of 
Holstein and Brunswick. In 1697 he published the first 
edition of his ^^ Bibliotheca Latina,^' in a small volume, 8vo, 
and appears to have prepared some of his other works for 
the press ; but a fuller list of these, with their dates, will 
be given at the conclusion of this article. 

In 1696 he went into Sweden with M. Mayer, who in« 
troduced him to Charles XL; and after their return, Mayer 
endeavoured to procure for him the professorship of logic 
and metaphysics, vacant by the resignation of Gerard Ma'ier. 
Fabricius accordingly became a candidate, and sustained 
a public disputation, without a respondent, the subject of 
which was *^ Specimen elencticmn historian logicae, &c/* 
After the other candidates Jiad exhibited their talents^ their 
number was reduced to Fabricius and another, Sebastiaa 
Edzard. The votes on the election happened to be equal, 
and the matter being therefore determined by casting lots^ 
Edzard was chosen. Fabricius, however, was not long 
without a situation befitting his talents. In the same year,: 
1699, be was unanimously chosen to be professor of elo- 
quence, in the room of Vincent Placcius, who died in April ; 
and on June 29, Fabricius delivered bis iaauguiial speech 

24 r A B R I C I u a 

^^ on the eloquence of Epictetus/' and he now settled at 
Hamjiurgh for the remainder of his life, having a few 
months before taken his degree of doctor in divinity at 
Kiel. On this occasion he supported a thesis ^^ De recor- 

• datione animsB humanse post fata superstitis." In April 
1700 he married Margaret Scqltz, daughter of the rector 
of the lower school in that city, to which situation Fabri* 
cius was presented in 1708, in order to keep him at Ham- 
burgh, for he had many tempting invitations from other 
universities, particularly in 1701, when his friend and pa^ 
tron Mayer left Hamburgh to settle at Grypswald, and pro- 
cured Fabricius the offer of the divinity-professorship in 
that university, with a salary of 500 crowns. On entering 
on the duties of his new situation, as rector of the schools^ 
he began, as usual, with an oration, on the causes of the 
contempt of public schools; but after the death of M; 
Scuitz, Fabricius resigned this office in 1711, as interfering 
too much with the duties of his professorship. In 1719, 
the landgrave of Hesse Cassel offered him the.professorship 
of divinity at Giessen, and with it the place of superintend 
dant of the churches of the confession of Augsburgh. Fa- 
bricius had some inclination to have accepted this offer ; 
but the magistrates of Hambuk-gh, sensible^ of the value of 
his services, made a very considerable increase of his sa- 
lary, the handsome manner of offering which, more than 
the value of the money, induced him to adhere to his res(^• 
lution of never leaving Hamburgh ; and in this city he died 
April 30, 1736. His last illness appears to have been a 
complication of asthma and fever, attended with great pain 
and difficulty of breathing, which he bore with unexampled 
patience ; and employed his last powers of speech in pious 
reflections and exhortations to his family and servants. 
His whole life had been spent in the practice of piety and 
the accumulation of learning, and his death was regretted 
as an irreparable loss to the university to which he belonged, 
and to the learned world at large. Few men, indeed, have 
laid scholars under greater obligations ; and he has contri- 
buted, perhaps, more than any maa ever did to abridge the 
labours of the student, and facilitate the researches of the 
Qiost minute inquirer. He had dr prodigious memory, and 
A'great facility in writing; and both enabled him to accom-^ 
plish labours, at the thought of which many a modern scho- 
lar would be appalled. Never, perhaps, was there such an 

instance of literary and proi[essioDal industry. In the first^ 

F A B R I C I U S. as 

six years of his professoi*ship he devoted ten hours a day to 
his scholars ; and afterwards seldom less than eight, unless 
when his last illness obliged him to reduce his hours to four 
or five. With such employment in public, it is, with all 
the explanation his biographers have given, difficult to 
comprehend how he could find time and health, not only 
for his numerous printed undertakings, but for that vast 
extent of correspondence which he carried on with the 
learned men of his time, and for the frequent visits of his 
friends, whom he received with kindness. 

Besides many funeral orations, poems, &c. in honour of 
Fabricius, Reimar, his scholar and colleague, and afterwards 
his soQ-in*law, published a ^^ Commentarius. de Vita et 
Scriptis^" which contains many curious particulars of Fa- 
bricius, and a complete list of his writings ; extracts from 
the correspondence of his friends, &c. Of his separate 
publications, although a few have been incidentally men- 
tioned, the following chronological account cannot be un- 
interesting, as a stupendous monument to his industry and 

1. " Scriptorum reGentiorum Decas,'* Hamburgh, 1688, 
4to, without his name. 2. ^^ Defensio Decadis, &c." 4to, 
without place or date. 3, " Decas Decadum, sive plagia- 
riorum et pseudonymorum centuria," Leipsic, 1639, 4to, 
4. ** Grammatica Graeca Welleri," ibid. 1689, 8vo, often 
Imprinted, but Fabricius never put his name to it. 5. 
^' Bibliotheca Latina, sive notitia auctorum veterhm Latin- 
orum, quorumcunque scripta ad nos pervenerunt," Ham« 
burgh, 1697, 8vo, afterwards enlarged in subsequent edi- 
tions, the best of which is that of 1728, 2 vols. 4to. An 
edition of a part of this work. has been more recently pub* 
lished by Ernesti, in 3 vols: 8vo, which is not free from 
errors. 6. *< Vita Procli Philosophi Piatonici scriptord 
Marino Neapolitano, quam altera parte, de virtutibus Procli 
theoreticis ac theurgicis auctiorem et nunc demum inte- 
gram primus edidit, &c.^* Hamburgh, 1700, 4to, dedicated 
to Dr. Bentley. 7. " Codex Apocryphus N. T. collectus, 
eastigatus, &c." ibid. 1703, 8vo. 8. ** Bibliotheca Graeca^ 
sive Notitia St:riptorum Veterum Graecorum, quorumcun- 
que Monumenta integra aut fragmenta edita extant: turn 
plerorumque ex Manuscriptis ac Deperditis.'^ This con- 
sists of 14 vols, in 4to, and gives an exact account of the 
<7reek authors, their different editions, and of all those who 
bavB commented, or written pgtes upon them, and witfar 

26 F A B R I C I U S. 

the " Bibliotheca Latina/' exhibits a very complete history 
of Gfeek and Latin learning. Twelve volumes of a new 
edition of the ** Bibliotheca Graeca" have been published 
by Harles, with great additions, and a new arrangement of 
the original matter. 9. ^' Centuria Fabriciorum scriptis 
clarorum, qui jam diem suum obierunt,^^ Hamburgh, 1700^ 
8vo, and " Fabriciorum eenturia secunda," ibid. 1727, 8vp. 
It was his intention to have added a third and fourth cen- 
tury, including the Fabri, Fabretti, Fabrotti, Le Fevre's, 
&c. but a few names only were found after his death among 
his manuscripts. 10. ^'Memorise Hamburgenses, sive Ham- 
burgi et virorum deecclesia, requepublica et scholastica 
Hamburgeiisi bene meritorum, elogia et vitse,^' Hamburgh, 
1710 — 1730, 7 vols. 11. " Codex pseudepigraphps Ve* 
teris Testamenti,^' as a companion to his prieceding ac- 
count of the apocryphal writers of the New Testament 
times; ibid. 1713, 8vo, reprinted with addiMons in 1722. 
12. << Menologiura, sive libellusde mensibus, centum cir- 
citer populorum menses recensens, atque inter se con- 
ferens, cum triplice indice, gentium, mensium et scrip- 
torum," ibid. 1712, 8vo: 13. " Bibliographia Antiquaria, 
sive introductio in notitiam scriptorum, qui antiquitates 
Hebraicas, Graecas, Romanas et Christianas scriptis illus- 
trarunt. Accedit Mauricii Senonensis de S. Missae ritibus 
carmen, nunc primum editum,'' 1713, 4to, and an en- 
larged edition, in which Mauricius^s poem is omitted, 17 19, 
4to. 14. '*Mathematische Remonstratiou, &c." Hamburgh, 
1714, 8vo, ,a work in German against Sturmius, on the. 
institution of the Lord's Supper. 1 5. ^* S. Hippoly ti Opera, 
non antea collecta, et pars nunc primum a MSS. in lucem 
edita, Gr. et Lat. &c." ibid. 1716 and 1718, 2 vols. fftl. 
16. <^ Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica," ibid. 1718, fol. a very 
valuable collection of notices of ecclesiastical writers and 
their works from various biographers, beginning with 
Jerome, who goes to near the end of the fourth century, 
and concluding with Miraeus, who ends ii> 1650. 17. 
** Sexti Empirici Opera," Gr. and Lat. Leipsic, 1718, foL 
18. ^^Anselmi Bandurii Bibliotheca Nummaria,'' Ham- 
burgh, 1719, 4to. 19. ^* S. Philastri de Haeresibus Liber, 
cum emendationibus et notis, additisque indicibus, ibid. 
1721, 8vo. 20. ^^ Delectus argumentorum et syllabus 
scriptorum, qui veritatem religionis Christianas adversus 
Atheos, Epicureos, Deistas^ seu Naturalistas> Idolatras^ 
JudaDosp et MohaD3medano$ lucubrationibus suis asseru-f 

F A B R I C I U S. 27 

crunt," Hamb. 1725, 4to. Thfe performance, very valuable 
in itself, is yet more so, on account of the Proemium and 
first chapters of Eusebius's " Demonstratio Evangelica,'* 
which are wanting in all the editions of that work, and 
were supposed to be lost ; but which are here recovered 
by Fabricius, and prefixed to the ** Delectus," with a La- 
tin translation by himself. 21. /^ Imp. Csbs. August! tem- 
porum notatio, genus, et scriptorum fragmenta," ibid, 
1727, 4to. 22. " Centifolium Lutheranum, sive notitia 
literaria scriptorum omn is generis de B. D. Luthero, ej us- 
que vita, scriptis et reform atione ecclesias, &c. digesta,'* 
ibid. 1728 and 1730, 2 parts or volumes, 8vo. 23. A 
German translation of Derham's " Astro-theology ,'* and 
" Physico-theology," 1728, 1730, 8vo, by Weiner, to 
which Fabricius contributed notes, references, an analysis, 
preface,* &c. 24. ** Votum Davidicum (cor novum crea 
in me Deus) a centam quinquaginta amplius metaphrasibus 
expressum, carmine Hebraico, Graeco, Latino, German!- 
CO, -fcc." ibid. 1725, 4to. 25. " Conspectus Thesauri Li- 
terariae ItalisB, premissam habens, praeter alia, notitiam 
diario'rum Italias literariorum, &c." ibid, 1730, 8vo. Every 
Italian scholar acknowledges the utility of this volume. 
26. •* HydrotheologisB Sciagraphia," in German, ibid, 1730, 
4to. 27. ^' Salutaris Lux Evangelii, toti orbi per divinam 
gratiam exoriens : sive notitia kistorico-chronologica, li- 
teraria, et geographica, pi*opagatorum per orbem totum 
Christianorum Sacrorum,^* Hamb. 1731, 4to. This work 
is very curious and interesting to the historian as well as 
divine. It contains some epistles of the emperor Julian, 
never before published. 28. *^ Bibliotheca Medias et in- 
fimae Latinitatis," printed in 5 vols. 8vo, 1734, reprinted 
at Padua, in 6 vols. 4to, 1754, a work equal, if not su- 
perior, to any of Fabricius's great undertakings, and one 
of those, which, like his ^ Bibliotheca Graeca," seems to 
set modern industry at defiance. 29. ^^ Opusculorum His- 
torico-critico-litterariorum sylloge quae sparsim viderant 
lucem, nunc fecensita denuo et partial aucta," Hamburgh, 
1738, 4to. 

Besides these, Reimar gives a list of fifteen works to 
which he contributed additions and dissertations ; thirteen 
original dissertations, or academical theses, published from 
1688 to 1695; sixteen programmata; thirteen lives; six 
(wations, and thirtyoeight prefaces, all from the pen of tbi^ 

tS F A B R I C I U S. 

indefatigable writer : he left also a considerable numbet 
of unfinished manuscripts. ^ 

FABRICIUS (John Lewis), an eminent protestant di- 
vine of the seventeenth century, was born at Schafhousen, 

' July 29, 1639. He began his studies under the inspection 
of his father, who was rector of the college; but in 1647 
went to Cologne, where his brother Sebaldus lived, and 
thel'e for about a year studied Greek and Latin. In 1648 
be returned to Schaf housen, but left it for Heidelberg in 
the following year, where his brother had been appointed 
professor of history and Greek. In 1650 he went to 
Utrecht, and for about two years was employed in teach- 
ing. At the end of that time he visited Paris as tutor of 
the son of M. de la Lane, governor of Reez, and remained 
ill this station for three years. Having returned to Heidel- 
berg in 1656, he took his degree of master of arts, and the 
following year was admitted into holy orders, and appointed 
professor extraordinary of Greek, but was, not long after, 
requested by the elector to go again to Paris as tutor to 
the baron Rothenschild, and in 1659 he accompanied hig 
pupil to the Hague^ and afterwards into England. On 
their return to France they parted, and Fabricius went to 
Leyden, where he took his degree of doctor in divinity. 
Soon after he was appointed professor of divinity at Heidel- 
berg, superintendant of the studies of the electoral prince^ 
inspector of the college of wisdom, and philosophy pro- 
fessor. In 1664 he was appointed ecclesiastical counsellor 

.to the elector, who, in I666j sent him to Schafhousen to 
explain to that canton the reasons- for the war of Lorraine, 
which ofEce Dr. Boeckelman had discharged in the other 
cantons. In 1674, when the French army advanced to- 
wards Heidelberg, Fabricius retired to Fredericksburgh, 
and to Cologne, but returned the same year. In 1680, 
although a Calvinist, he was commissioned with a Roman 
catholic to open the temple of concord at Manheim. In 
1688, the French, who had taken possession of Heidelberg, 
showefi so much respect for his character as to give him a 
passport, which carried hini safely to Schafhousen ; but 
^he continuance of the war occasioned him again to shift 
his place of residence, and when at Francfort, he was em- 
ployed by the king of England (William IIIJ and the 
States General to join the English envoy in Swisserland, 

* lUimar nbi tupra.— 'Chaafepie.— Msreri.-^NiceroD, vol. XL. — Saxii Onomast; 

« * 

F A B R I C I U S. 29 


ftnd watch the interests of the States General. In the 
execution of this commission he acquitted himself with 
great ability, and was particularly saccessful in adjusting 
the differences between the Vaudois and the duke of 
Savoy, and afterwards in accomplishing an alliance between 
the duke and the States General. We find him afterwards 
at Heidelberg, and Francfort, at which last he died in 
1697. From these various employments it appears that he 
was a man of great abilities and political weight, and he 
derived likewise considerable reputation from his writings 
as a divine. Such was his abhorence of Socinianism that 
be opposed the settlement of the Socinian Poles when 
driven out of their own country in the Palatinate; in which, 
however, at that time he was not singular, as, ITccording 
to Mosheim, none of the European nations could be per* 
suaded to grant a public settlement to a sect whose mem- 
bers denied the divinity of Christ. The same historian 
informs us that he *' was so mild and indulgent^* as to 
maintain, that the difference between the Lutherans and 
Roman catholics was of so little consequence, that a Lu- 
theran might safely embrace popery; an opinion, which, 
mild and indulgent as Mosheim thinks it, appears to us 
more in favour of popery than of Lutheranism. His works, 
on controversial topics, were collected and published in a 
quarto volume, by Heidegger, with a life of the author, 
printed at Zurich in 1698.* 

FABRICIUS (ViKcfiNT), a man eminent for wit and 
learning, and for the civil employments with which he was 
honoured, was born at' Hamburgh in 1613. He was a 
good poet, an able physician, a great orator, and a learned 
civilian. He gained the esteem of all the learned in Hol- 
land while he studied at Leyden ; and they liked his Latin 
poems so well, that they advised him to print them. He 
was for some time counsellor to the bishop of Lubec, and 
afterwards syndic of the city of Dantzic. This city also 
honoured him with the dignity of burgomaster, and sent 
him thirteen times deputy in Poland. He died at Warsaw, 
fluring the diet of the kingdom, in 1667. The first edition 
of his poems, in 1632, was printed upon the encourage- 
ment of Daniel Heinsius, at whose house he lodged. He 
published a second in 1638, with corrections and additions: 
to which he added a satire in prose, entitled ^* Pransus 

1 Marcri.-^-Moiheim.— Saxii Onoiaaftt. 

io F A B R I C I U S. 

Paratus,'* which he dedicated to Salmasius ; and in which 
'he keenly ridiculed the poets who spend their time in 
making anagrams, or licehtions verses,^ as also those who 
affect to despise poets. The most complete edition of his 
poems is that of Leipsic, 1685, published under the direc- 
tion of his son. It contains also Orations of our author, 
made to the kings of Poland ; an Oration spoken at Ley- 
' den in 1632, concerning the siege and deliverance of that 
city ; and tlie Medical Theses, which were the subject of 
his public disputations at Leyden in 1634, &c. ^ 

FABRICIUS (William), an eminent surgeon ^nd phy- 
sician, was known also by his surname of Hildanus, from 
Hilden, a village of Switzerland, where he was born, July 
25, 1560. Like his predecessor of the same name, Fa- 
bricius of Aquapendente, he became one of the most 
eminent surgeons of his age, and contributed not a little 
to the improvement of the art. He repaired to Lausanne 
in 1586, where he completed himself in the art of surgery, 
under the instruction of Griffon^ an intelligent teacher in 
that city. Here he pursued his researches with indefati- 
gable industry, and undertook the cure r>f many difficult 
cases, in which he was singularly successful. He com- 
bined a knowledge of medicine with that of his own art, 
and began to practise both at Payerne in 1605, where he 
remained ten years, and in 1615 settled himself at Berne, 
in consequence of an invitation froni the senate, who 
granted him a pension. Here he enjoyed the universal 
esteem of the inhabitants. But in the latter period of his 
life he was prevented by severe and frequent attacks of 
the gout from rendering his services to his fellow-citizens 
with his accustomed assiduity. At length, however, this 
malady left him, and he was seized with an asthma, of 
which he died on the 14th of February, 1.634, at the age 
of seventy-four. His works were written in the German 
language, but most of them have been translated into the 
Latin. He published five " Centuries of Observations,'* 
which were collected after his death, and printed at Lyons 
in 1641, and at Strasburgh in 1713 and 1716. These 
*' Observations'' present a considerable numl)er of curious 
facts, as well as descriptions of a great number of instru- 
ments of his invention. His collected treatises were pub- 
lished in Latin, at Francfort in 1646, and again in 16^23 

1 Gen. Dict.^Moreri.— Saxii Onomast, 

F A B R I C I U S. %i 

in folio, under ttie title of ^^ Opera Omnia.*' And a Ger- 
man edition appeared at Stutgard in 1652.^ 

FABRICIUS (Baron), known to the public by his let- 
ters relating to Charles XII. of Sweden, during his resi- 
dence in the Ottoman empire, was spining from a good 
family in Germany. His father was president of Zell for 
George I. as elector of Hanover, and he had a brother who 
held a considerable office in that princess service. The 
baron, of whom we are speaking, as soon as he had finished 
his studies, went into Holstein, and was early taken into 
the service of that coort, where his talents were much 

f ^ 

admired. He was sent from thence, by the duke admini- 
strator, in a public character, to his Swedish majesty, 
while he continue at Bender. He was then in the flower 
of his youth, had a gpod person, pleasing address, great 
accomplishments, and ng vanity. He soon stood very high 
in the good graces of that prince ; accompanied him in his 
exercises, was frequently at his table, and spent hours 
alone with him in his closet. He it was that gave him a. 
turn for reading ; aud it was out of his hand that monarch 
snatched the book, when he tore from it the 8th satire of 
Boileau, in which Alexander the Great is represented 
as a madman. He had but one enemy in the courts viz. 
general DaldorfF, who was made prisoner by the Tartars, 
when they stormed the king^s camp at Bender. Fabricius 
took pains to find him out, released him, and supplied him 
with money ; which so entirely vanquished the general, 
that he afterwards became a warm friend. This amiable 
rnaii was likewise in favour with king Stanislaus, and with 
our own monarch. George I. whom he accompanied in his 
last journey to Hanover, and who may be said to have died 
in his arms. A translation of his genuine letters in English^ 
containing the best accounts relating to the Northern Hero 
during his residence in Turkey, was pubHshed in one vo- 
lume 8vo, Lond. 1761. ' 

FABRICY (Gabkiel), a French Dominican, was born 
in 1726 at St. Maximin in Provence, and, in 1757, was 
appointed secretary to the library of la Casanati m Rome ; 
and in 1771 French theologist to that estahlishment. He 
was also admitted a member of the Arcadi. He died Jan. 
13, 1800. His principal works are, 1. " Recherches sur 
I'epoque de Tequitation, et de T usage des chars equestres, 

1 Mani^et and Haller. — Kees*s Cyclopsedia. ^ Letters as above. 

32 F A B R I C Y. 

chez les anciens," Rome, 1764, 1765, 2 vols. 8vo. 2» 
** Memoire pour servir a I'histoire litteraire de la vie des 
deux P. P. Ansaldi, des P. P. Mamachi, Paluzzi, Richiiii, 
et Rubeis," inserted in Richards^s " Diet. Univ. des Sciences 
Ecclesiastiques," vol. V. and Vi. 3. " Des titres prioihifc 
de la revelation, ou, considerations critiques sur la puret6 
et I'integrit^ du texte original des livres saints de rAncien 
Testament," Rome and Paris, 1773, 2 vols. 8vo, recpm- 
mending a new translation of the Bible. 4. " Diatribae 
qua bibiiographise antiquarise et sacree critices capita aliquot 
illustrantur," Rome, 1782, Bvo. He wrote also some papers 
in the literary journals. ^ 

FABRONI (Angelo), an eminent Italian scholar and 
biographer, was born Sept. 25, 1732, at Marradi in Tus- 
cany, of a family once so opulent as to be able to assist the 
falling fortunes of the Medici. He was the youngest of 
the eleven children of Alexander and Hyacinth Fabroni. 
He was educated first at home under able masters, and 
afterwards went to Rome, in 1750, to the college founded 
by Bandinelli for the youth of Tuscany, who were also re- 
quired to attend the public schools of the Jesuits. Here 
he studied rhetoric, logic, geometry, physics, and meta- 
physics. After he had been here three years, Peter Fran- 
cis Foggini, who had acted as a second father to him (for 
his own died in L750), introduced him to Bottari, as his 
assistant in the duties of a canonicate which he held in the 
church of St. Mary ; and as Bottari was a great favourer 
of the Jansenists, Fabroni thought to please him by trans- 
lating from the French of Quesnel, and publishing *' La 
preparazione alia morte ;" and ** Principi e regale della 
vita Cristiana." About the same time he published " Le 
Massimo della Marchesa di Sable,*' also translated from the 
French, with notes. This, he informs us, was a work of 
little consequence, yet served to show that he was at this 
time tolerably versed in the reading of ancient authors. 

From his earliest youth he cultivated a pure and ready 
Latin style, and as a specimen, he now, encouraged by 
Foggini, published the life of Clement XH. in that lan- 
guage. This however, he allows, was a severe task, and 
although he re-wrote it twice or thrice, and had the advice 
of his friend, he did not think it worthy of the illustrious 
subjects Cardinal Coffiini, however, had a higher opinion 

1 pid. Hit t. 

F A B R O N I. 33 

of its merit, and not only defrayed the expence of printing, 
bat made the author a handsome present. Such liberality 
produced- a suitable impression on Fabroni^s mind, who ^ 
became in gratitude attached to this patron, and when a 
female of the Corsini family married about this time, he, 
with learned gallantry, invited the most celebrated Italian 
poets to celebrate the joyous occasion. About this time 
having presented an oration, which he had delivered in 
the pope^s chapel, on the ascension, to Benedict XIV. hit 
holiness received him very graciously, and exhorted him to 
continue the studies he had begun so well. Among these 
we find that he had for some time made considerable pro<^ 
gress io canon law, and had even defended some causes, 
but afterwards resigned all this for the more agreeable study 
of the belles lettres and classics. At the funeral of James 
III. of England, as be was styled^ Fabroni was ordered by 
his college to compose an oration in praise of that prince, 
which be accordingly delivered in the presence of abe car- 
dinal duke of York, who expressed his sense of its. merit 
not only by tears and kind words, but by a liberal present. 

After this Fabroni appears tO;have employed himself ia 
preparing his valuable lives of the eminent Italian literati 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the first vo- 
lume of which be published at Rome in 1766, 8vo, and, 
as he informs us, soon had to encounter an host of Aristar- 
cbus^s. In 1767, a vacancy occurring of the ofiice of 
prior of the church of St. Lorenzo at Florence, he was ap- 
pointed to that preferment by the duke Peter Leopold, 
and here he remained for two years, during which he went 
on with his great work. At the end of this period, he ob- 
tained leave to return to Rome, and as he had considera- 
ble expectations from pope GanganellL (Clement XIV.} 
would- have probably attached himself to him, had he not 
thought that it would appear ungrateful to his patron the 
duke Peter Leopold, if he served any other master ; but 
gratitude does not seem to have been his only motive, and 
he hints tliat implicit reliance was not always to be placed 
in Ganganelli's^ promises. ' 

« At Pisa, in 1771, he began a literary journal which ex- 
tended to 102 parts or volumes; in this he had the occa- 
sional assistance of other writers, but often entire volumes 
were from his pen. At length the grand duke, who always 
had a high regard for FabVoni, furnished him liberally with 
the means of visiting the principal cities of Europe. Due* 

Vol. XIV. D 

34 F A B R O N I. 

ing this tour he informs us that he w^s introduced to, and 
lived familiarly with the most eminent characters in France, 
with D'Alerabert, Condorcet, La Lande, La Harpe, Mi- 
rabeau, Condilliac, Rousseau, Diderot, &c. and laments 
that he found them the great leaders of impiety. He then 
came to England, where he resided about four months, and 
became acquainted with Waring, Maskelyne, Priestley, 
and Dr. Franklin, who once invited him to go to America, 
which, he informs us, be foolishly refused. With what he 
found in England he appears to be little pleased, and could 
not be brought to think the universities of Oxfofd and 
Cambridge equal, for the instruction of youth, to those of 
Italy. In short he professes to relish neither English diet, 
manners, or climate ; but perhaps our readers may dispute 
his taste, when at the same time he gives the preference 
to the manners, &c. of France. In 1773 he returned to 
Tuscany, and was desired by the grand duke to draw up a 
st:heme of instruction for bis sons, with which he insinuates 
that the duke was less pleased at last than at first, and adds 
that this change of opinion might arise from the malevolent 
whispers of literary rivals. He how went on to prosecute 
various literary undertakings, particularly his ^^ VitaD Italo- 
rum," and /the life of pope Leo, &c. The greater part 
were completed before 1800, when the memoirs of his life 
written by hin^self end, and when bis health began to be 
much affected by attacks of the gout. In 1801 he desisted 
from his accustomed literary employments, and retired to 
a Carthusian monastery near Pisa, where he passed his time 
in meditation. Ampng other subjoets, he reflected with 
regret on any expressions used in his works which might 
have given offence, and seemed to set more value on two 
small works he wrote of the pious kind at this time, than 
on all his past labours. When the incursions of the French 
army had put an end to the studies of the youth at Pisa,, 
Fabroni removed to St. Cerbo, a solitary spot near Lucca, 
and resided for a short time with some Franciscans, but 
rj^turned to Pis9, where an asthmatic disorder put an end 
to his life Sept. 22, 1803. He left the bulk of his pro- 
perty, amouiiting to about 1 500 scudi, to the poor, or to 
public charitable institutions ; and all the classics in his 
library, consisting of the best editions, to his nephew, Ra-* 
phiael Fabroni. 

Of his principal work, the '^.Vitae Italorum doctrina 
elxcellentium, quae sacculis XVII. et XVIII. floruerunt,'" 

F A B R d N L ?5 

l^ighteen volumes were published in his life-time, and two 
more were afterwards added : the last contains some me- 
moirs of his life written by himself, with illustrative notes, 
a short continuation, and a collection of letters addressed 
to him by various illustrious and learned characters. His 
lives are written with great accij^^cy and precision, and 
many of them are much fuller and more minute than was 
Attempted by any preceding biographer; but his Latin 
style, which he fancied to be pure, is deformed by many 
words aud phrases of modern Latinity, and he has rendered 
many circumstances obscure by Latinizing the names of 
eminent persons of all nations. 

His other works, not already mentioned, are, 1. ^' Dia- 
lochi di Focione del Mably, trad* del Franceses' 2. ^^ Let- 
tere del Magolotti," Florence, 1769. 3. " Lettered' Uo- 
mini dotti a Leopoldo Medici.'' 4. ** Istoria dell' arte del 
dbegno." 5. ^^ Dissertazioue 'suUa fabola di Niobe.'' 
5. <' Prefazioiii aL L e IL tomo degli Uomini lUustri Pi- 
9ani." 6. " Vita Laurentii Medicei," 4to. 7. " Historia 
Lycaei Pisani," 3 vols. 4to. He was at one time rector of 
tbe university of Pisa^ but his employment ceased with the 
incursions pf the French army. - 8, " Viaggi d'Anacarsi." 
9. \^ Viu Leonis X." 4to. 10. " Vita Cosmi Medicei," 4to. 
11. " Epistolfls Francisci Petrarch®,'* 4to. 12. " Vita R 
Petrarchae,'* 4to.j. 13. ♦« Vito Pallantis Stroctii,'^ 4to. 
14. ^' Elogi d'illustri Italian!, cioe di Michelangelo Giaqo- 
melli, Eust. Zanotti, Tomaso Perelli, Paolo Frisi, Inno- 
cenzo Frugeni, ^ JPigtro Metasta^." 15. ^< Elogi di 
Dante Alighieri,.dLAngelo PoUziano, di Ludovieo Ariosto^ 
e di Toirquato Tasso," Parma, 1800. 16* <* Oratio ad S^ 
Rl £. Cardinales cum subrogandi -Pontifioi^ eausa conclave 
Venetiis ingressuri essent," Pisa, 1800. 17. ^^Oratioin 
funere Franc. Leopoldi Aostriaci," Pisa, 1800. 18. " De- 
V6ti Affetti in.preparazione alle Feste del S. natale,'^ &c, 
iKd. J 801. 19, '* l^^Qveua in ono^^.di Maria S. S. Au-^ 
siliatrice, coU'^ag^iuntaV di. dodici Medi|a^ioni,!' Pisa^ 

FABROT (Charles Annibal), aj v«fyv learned lawyer 
ahd sctrolar, was born in 1580, at Aix in Provence, whither 
his father, a nativ^..of Nismes in Langt^edoc, bad retired 
during the civil wars. After making very distinguished' 
progress in Greek<and Latin, the belles lettres, and jurif- 

» Fabroiii Vitas, tol. 30^. ' 

36 F A B R O T. 

prudence, he was admitted doctor of. laws in 1606, and 
then became an advocate in the parliament of Aix« Among 
the many friends of distinction to whom his talents recom* 
mended him, were M. de Peiresc, a counselled of that par* 
liament, and William de Vair, first president. By the 
interest of this last-mentioned gentleman, he was promoted 
to the law-professorship at Aix, which office he filled until 
1617, when Du Vair being made keeper of the seals, in* 
vited him to Paris. On Du Vair's death in 1621, Fabrot 
resumed his office in the university of Aix, where he was 
appointed second professor in 1632, and first professor in 
1638. At this time he was absent, having the preceding 
year gone to Paris to print his notes on the institutes of 
Theophilus, an ancient jurist. This work be dedicated to 
the chancellor Segui^r, who re()uested him to remain in 
Paris, and undertake the translation of the Basilics, or 
Constitutions of the Eastern emperors, and gave him a 
pension of 2000 livres. This work, and his editions of 
some of the historians of Constantinople, which he pub- 
lished afterwards, procured him. from the king the office of 
counsellor of the parliament of Provence, but the intervention 
of the civil wars rendered this appointment null. During 
his stay at Paris, however, several of the French univer- 
sities were ambitious to add him to the number of their 
teachers, particularly Valence and Bourges, offers which 
his engagements prevented his accepting. His death is 
said to have been hastened by the rigour of his application 
in preparing his new edition of Cujas ; but his life had al- 
ready been lengthened beyond*the usual period, as he was 
in his seventy^pinth year when he died, Jan. 16, 1659. 
His works are: 1. ^^ Antiquit^s de la ville de Marseille,** 
Lyons, 1615 and 1632^ 8 vo. This is a translation from the 
Latin MS. of Raymond de Soliers. 2. ^^ Ad tit. Codicis 
Theodosiani de Paganis, Sacrificiis, et Templis notae,*' 
Paris, li518, 4to. 3. ^' Exercitationes dus de tempore 
humani partus et de numero puerperii,** Aix, 1628^ 8vo ; 
Geneva, 1629, 4to, with a treatise by Carranza, on natural 
and legitimate birth. 4. <^ Car. Ann. Fabroti Exercita- 
tiones XII. Accedunt leges XIV. quae in libris digescarum 
deerant, Gr. et Lat. nunc pi^imum ex* Basilicis editse,^* 
Paris, 1639, 4to.. 5. <^ Theophili Antecessoris Institu* 
tiones,'* Gn et Lat. Paris, 1638 and 1657, 4to. 6. *<Iti* 
stitutiones Justiniani, cum notis Jacobi Cujacii," ibid. 
164S, 12mo» 7. <<£pistolaB de Mutuo, cum responsipoc 

F A B R O T. 37 

Cfaudii Salmasii ad ^gidium Menagium,** Leyden, 1645^ 
Svo. 8. ** Replicatio adversus C. Salmasii refutationem," 
&c, Paris, 1647, 4to. 9. " Basilicorum libri sexaginta/* 
Gr. et Lat. ibid. 1647, 7 vols, folio. The whole of the 
translation of this elaborate collection of the laws and con« 
stitutions of the Eastern emperors, was performed by Fabrot, 
exoept books 38, 39, and 60, which had been translated 
by Cujas, whose version he adopted. 10. " Nicetae Aco- 
minati Choniatae Historia," ibid. 1647, fol. II. " Georgii 
Cedreni Compendium historiarum," Gr. et Lat. ibid. 1647, 
2 vols. fol. 12. " Theophylacti Simocattse Hist, libri octo,'* 
ibid. 1647, fol. 1.X " Anastasii Bibliothecarii Hist. Eccle- 
siastica," ibid. 1649, fol. 14. " Laonici Chalcondylae Hist, 
de origine ac rebus gestis Turcarum, libri decern,*' ibid. 
1650. fol. 15. " Prselectio in tit. Decret. Gregorii IX. de 
vita et honestate Clericorum," ibid. 1651, 4to. 16. "Con- 
stantini Manassis Breviarium Historicum,^* Gr. et Lat. ibid. 
1655, fol. 17. "Cujacii Opera omnia,*' ibid. 1658, la 
vols. fol. 1 8. " J. P. de Maurize Juris Canonici Selecta," 
ibid. 1659, 4to. 19. " Notae in T. Balsamonis coUectionem 
constitutionum Ecclesiasticarum.'* This is inserted in the 
second volume of Justel and VoeVs Bibliotheca of Canoii 
law. Ruhnkenius published a supplementary volume %o 
his edition of Cujas at Leyden in 1765. ^ 

FABYAN, or FABIAN (Robert), an English historian^ 
was an alderman of London, and presents us with the rare 
instance of a citizen and merchant, in the fifteenth century, 
devoting himself to the pleasures of learning : but we 
know little of his personal history. There was nothing re* 
markable in his descent, and he made lib great figure in 
public life. From his will it appears that his father^s name 
was John Fabyan ; and there is reason to believe that, 
although he was apprenticed to a trade, his family were 
people of substance in Essex. Bishop Tanner say^ he was 
bom in London. At what period he became a member of 
the Drapers* company cannot now be ascertained. Their 
registers would probably have furnished a clue to guess at 
the exact time of hii^ birth, but the hall of that ancient 
company was twice destroyed by fire, and they have na 
mnniments which reach beyond 1602. From records, how- 
ever, in the city archives, it appears that he was alderman 
of the ward of Farringdon Without ; in 1493 be served the 

) N!«CTOD, vol* XXIX.— Moreri.— Saxli Onomasticon. 

38 F A B Y A N. 

office of ftberiiF; and in the regisi^rs wbieh go by the aamtf 
of the " Repertory/' a fewscattered memoranda are preseWe^ 
of the part which be occasionally took, at a period some- 
what later, in public transactions. 

On tbq 20th of September, 1496, in the mayoralty of 
sir Henry Colet, we find him V assigned and chosen/' with 
Mr. Recorder and certain commoners, to ride to the king 
'^ for redress of the new impositions raised and levied upon 
English cloths in the archduke's land." This probably al- 
ludes to the circumstance of Philip, to whom the emperor 
Maximilian had resigrned the Low Countries the year be- 
fore, exacting the duty of a florin upon every piece of 
English cloth imported into his dominions ; but which he 
desisted from in the articles of agreement signed by his 
ambassadors in London, July 7, 1497, In the following 
jear,' when the Cornish, rebels marched towards London, 
aKierman Fabyan was appointed with John Brooke, an4 
John WfLrner, late sheriff, to keep the gates of Ludgate 
and Newgate, the postern of the house of Friars-preachersy 
and the Bar of the New Temple. A few months after, in the 
thirteenth of Henry VIL we find him an assessor upon the 
different wards of ^oudon, of the fifteenth which bad been 
granted, to the king for the Scottish war. In 1502, on the 
pretext of poverty,, he resigned the alderman's gown, not 
willing to take the mayoralty.; and probably retired to the 
inansioQ in Essex, mentioned in his will,.atTbeydon Ger- 
nod. That h^ was opulent at this period cannot be doubted, 
but he seems to have considered that the espeuces of the 
chief magistracy were too great, even at that time, to be 
sustained by a man who b^^d a family of sixteen children, 
for such is the numb^ specified iii his will, and whose 
figures in brass he ordered to be placed upon his monu« 
ment. Stowe, in bis "Survey of London," gives the Eng- 
lish part of the epjtapb on Fahyan's tomb, from the cbmrqh 
of St. JViichael, Cornhill, and says he died in 1511.; adding 
that his monument was gone. Bale, who places. Fabyan*« 
death oh February 28, 1512, is probably nearest the truth, 
fts his will, though dated July Uth, 1511, was not proveci 
till July 12th, 1513 ; which, apcording to the ecelesiastical 
eomputatiqn, would be somewhat less than five months after 
the supposed time of his ^eath. His will, which afforus % 
lE;t)ilous comment on the manners of the tio^e of Henry V|IL 
ibay be seen in Mr. Ellis's late excellent edition of bia 

F A B Y A N. 3d 

Cbfonicley to. the preface to which edition this article is 
solely indebted. 

From several passages in Fabyan's history,' it is evident 
that he was conversant in French, and no layman of the 
age he lived in is said to have been better skilled in the 
Latin language. With these accomplishments, with great 
opportunities, and with a taste for poetry,' he endeavoured 
to reconcile the discordant testimonies of historians, and 
therefore named his work *• The Concordance of Histories ;'* 
adding the fruits of personal observation in the latter and 
more interesting portion of his Chronicle. His pt)etry, 
indeed, is not of a superior cast Mr. Warton considered 
•* The Complaint of king Edward 11.'' to be the best of hi^ 
metres ; but observes, that it is a translation from a Latin 
poem attributed to that monarch, but probably written by 
William of Wyrcestre. " Our author's transitions,*' he 
adds, '^ from prose to verse, in the course of a prolix narra- 
tive, seem to be made with much ease, and when he be- 
gins to versify, the historian disappears only by the addi- 
tion of rhyme and stanza." 

Fabyan, like the old chroniclers in general, for fear o^ 
neglecting some important facts, went beyond the age of 
historical certainty in his details. He divides bis Chronicles 
into seven portions, giving a copy of verses as an epilogue 
to each, under the title of the Seven Joys of the Blessed 
Virgin. The first six portions bring his history from the 
landing of Brute to the Norman conquest. The seventh 
extends from the conquest to the conclusion. That he was 
a little tihgefd with soperstttion must be allofred ; but he 
was no great fieivourer of the monastic institution, and his 
observations on some of the miraclcis related in bis history 
are too pointed to be mistaken. 

There have been five editions of Fabyan ; the first printed 
by Py nson, in 1516, the great rarity of which is attributed 
by Bale to cardinal Wolsey, who ordered some copies 
^^exemplaria nonnuUa" to be burnt, because the Author 
bad m^de too clear a discovery of the revenues of the 
clergy. This obnoitious part, Mr. Ellis thinks, was the ab'^ 
litract 6f the hilt projected by the house of commons in the 
eleventh year of Henry IV. for depriving ecclesiastics of 
their temporal possessions. Balers assertion, however^ is 
unsupported by any other writer. The second edition was 
printed by Rastell in 1533 ; the third by John Reynes in 
1542; the fourth by Kingston in 1559, all in folio; and 

40 F A B Y A N. 

the fifth makes part of the series of Chronicles lately re^ 
printed by a society of the most eminent booksellers of 
London, and was edited by Henry Ellis, esq. F. R. S. and 
F. S. A. with such collations and improvements as give it a 
very superior value. It is reprinted from Pynson's edition 
of 1516, the first part collated with the editions of 1533, 
1542, and 1559, and the second with a manuscript of the 
author^s own time, as well as the subsequent editions; in* 
eluding the differebt continuations. ^ 

FACCIO, or FATIO (Nicolas of Duilier), a man of 
considerable learning, but unfortunately connected with 
the French prophets, was a native of Switzerland, whither 
his family^ originally Italians, were obliged to take refiige> 
for religion^s sake, in the beginning of the reformation. 
He was born Feb. 16, 1664. His father intending him for 
the study of divinity, he was regularly instructed in Greek 
and Latin, philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy ; learn* 
ed a little of the Hebrew tongue, and began to attend the 
lectures of the divinity professors of Geneva : but his mo- 
ther being averse to this, he was left to pursue his own 
course, and appears to have produced the first fruits of his 
studies in some letters on subjects of ^astronomy sent to Ca&« 
sini, the French king's astronomer. In 1682 he went to 
iParis, where Cassini received him very kindly. In the 
following year he returned to Geneva, where he became 
pa^rticularly acquainted with a count Fenil, who formed the 
design of seizing, if not assassinating the prince of Orange^ 
afterwards William IIL This design Faccio having learned 
from him communicated it tb bishop Burnet about 1 686, 
who of course imparted it to tjie prince. Bishop Burnet^ 
in the first letter of his Travels, dated September 1485, 
speaks of him as an incomparable mathematician and phi- 
losopher, who, though only twenty-one years old, was 
already become one of the greatest men of his age, and 
seemed born to carry learning some sizes beyond what it 
bad hitherto attained. Whilst Dr. Calamy studied at the^ 
imiversity of Utrecht^ Faccio resided in that city as tutor 
to twp young gentlemen, Mr. EUys and Mr. Thornton, and 
conversed freely with the English. At this time be was 
generally esteemed to be a Spinozist ; .and bis discourse^ 
says Dr. Calamy, very much looked that way. Afterwards^ 
it is probable, that he was professor of mathematics at 

* Preface ag abore* v 

F A C C I O. M 

Geneva. In 1687 he came into Englandi and was honoured 
with the friendship of the most eminent mathematicians of 
that age. Sir Isaac Newton, in particular, was intimately 
acquainted with him. Dr. Johnstone of Kidderminster bad 
in his possession a manuscript, written by Faccio, containing 
commentaries and illustrations of different parts of sir 
Isaac's Principia. About 1704 hd taught mathanatics ia 
Spitalfields, and. obtained about .that time a patent for a 
species of jeweUwatches. When he unfortunately attached 
himself to the new prophets, he became their chief secre- 
tary, ^nd commuted their warnings to writing, many of 
which were published. The connexion of such a man with 
these enthusiasts, and their being supported, likewise, by 
another person of reputed abilities, Maximilian Misson, a^ 
French refugee, occasioned a suspicion, though without 
reason, that there was some deep contrivance and design 
in the affair. On the second of December, 1707, Faccio 
stood in the pillory at Charing-cross, with the following 
words affixed to his hat : *^ Nicolas Fatio, convicted for 
abetting and favouring £lias Marion, in his wicked and 
counterfeit prophecies, and causing them to be printed and 
published, to tefrify the queen's people.'* Nearly at the 
same time, alike sentence was executed upon Elias Marion^ 
one of the pretended prophets, and John d'Ande, another 
of their abettors. This mode of treatment did not convince 
Faccio of his error ; and, indeed, the delusion of a man of 
such abilities, and simplicity of manners, was rather an 
object of compassion than of public infamy and punish« 
ment. Of^ressed with the derision and contempt thrown 
upon himself and his party, he retired at last into the 
country, and spent the remainder of a long life in silence 
Und obscurity. He died at Worcester in 1753, about eighty* 
nine years old. When he became the dupe of fanaticism^ 
he seems to have given up his philosophical studies and 
connections. "Faccio, besides being deeply versed in all 
branches of, mathematical literature, was a great proficient 
in the learned and oriental languages. He had x&bA mnch, 
idso, in books of alchymy. To the last, he continued a 
$rm believer in the reality of the inspiration of the French 
prophets. Dr. Wall^of Worcester, who was well acquainted 
with him, communicated many of the above particulars to. 
Br. Johnstone, in whose hands were several of Faccio's fa- 
natical manuscripts and journals; and one of his letters 
giving an account of count Fenil's conspiracy^ and some 

4« F A C C I O. 

particulars of the author's family was communicated to the 
late Mr. Seward, and published in the second volume of 
his Anecdotes. In the Republic of Letters, vol. I. we find 
a Latin poem by Faccio, in honour of siir Isaac Newton ; and 
in vol. XVin. a communication on the rules of the apcient 
Hebrew poesy, on which subject be appears to have cor- 
responded with Whiston. There are also many of his ori- 
ginal papers and letters in the British Museum ; and among 
them a Latin poem, entitled " N. Facii Duellerii Auriacus 
Tbrono-Servatus," in which he claims to himself the merit 
of having saved king William from the above-mentioned 
conspiracy. * 

FACCIOLATI (James), a learned Italian orator and 
grammarian, was born Jan. 4, 1682, at Tofeglia, and stu- 
died principally at Padua, where be took his degree of 
doctor in divinity in 1704, and taught for some time, and 
afterwards was professor of philosophy for three years. He 
was then appointed regent of the schools. As the Greek 
and Latin languages were now his particular department^ 
he biestowed much pains in providing his scholars with 
suitable assistance, and with that view, reviewed and pub- 
lished new and improved editions of the Lexicons of Cale- 
pinus, Nizolius, and Schrevelius. Some years after be 
was promoted to be^logic professor, and in that as welt asr 
the former situation, endeavoured to introduce a more cor- 
rect and useful mode of teaching, and published a work on 
the subject for the use of his students. In 1739, when the 
business of teaching metaphysics was united to that of 
logic, Facciolati was desirous of resigning, that he might 
return to his original employment ; but the magistrates oF 
Padua would by no means allow that their university should! 
be deprived of his name, and therefore, allowing him to 
retain bis title and salary, only wished him to take' in hand- 
the history of the university of Padua, which PapadopoK- 
had written, and continue it down to the preseiit time.^ 
This appears, from a deficiency of proper records, a very" 
arduous task, yet by.dint of perseverance he accomplished' 
it in a manner, which although not perfectly satisfactory, 
as far as regards the " Fasti Gymnastici,** yet was entirely 
so in the ^' Syntagmata.*' He wrote also some works in 

theology and morale, and had the ambition to be thought a 

. ■♦ 

1 Biog. Brit, vol, UI. art, Calamy. — ^Seward's Anecdotes.— TaUer, with notes* 
1806, vol. IV. , , 

F A C C I O L A T L 4» 

^oet, but bis biographer Fabroni thinks that in this be was 
not successful. His principal excellence was as a classical 
schola'r and critic, especially iti the Latin, and his high 
faune procured him an invitation from the king of Portugal 
%Q sup^gyrintend a college for the young nobility at Lisbon, 
but be excused himself oa account of his advanced age. 
Fabroni mentions a set of china sent to him by this sove* 
reign, which he says was a Tery acceptable present, and 
corresponded to the elegant furniture of Facciolati*s house. 
U0 had a garden in which be admitted no plants or fruit- 
trees but what were of the most choice and rare kiitd, and 
four or five apples from Facciolati's garden was thought no 
mean present. In every thing he was liberal to his friends, 
and most benevolent to the poor. He died in advanced 
age of the iliac passion, Aug. 27, 1769. 

His works were, 1. " Orationes LatinsB,*' separately 
published, but collected and printed at Padua in 1744, 
Bvo, and reprinted with additions in 1767. 2. ^^ Logicse 
discipline rudimenta," Venice, 1728, 8vo. 3. "Acroases 
dialectics,*' first published separately, and afterwards in- 
corporated in a work, entitled *^ J. Facciolati logica tria 
complectens, Rudimenta, Institutiones, Acroases undecim," 
Venice, 1750. 4/ '< De Vita Cardinalis Coruelii episcopi 
Patavini.*' This life of one of his early patrons appeared 
in the ^^ Acta Erudit.'' Lips. 1722. 5. ^'Ortografia modema 
Italiana,*' Padua, 1721. 6. '< Exercitationes in duas prfores 
Ciceroni^ orationes," Padua, 1731. 7. '^ Animadversiones 
Critics in I. Litteram Latini Lexici cui titulus Magnum 
Dictionarium Latino Galiicum,*' Padua, 173), 8vo. 8. 
^' Animadversiones criticsB in X. Litterarum ejusdem 
Lexici." This is in Calogera's collection of scientific 
works, vol. XIX. Venice, 1739. 9. '' Scholia in libros Ci- 
ceronis de ^fficiis, de senectute, &c.'' Venice, 8vo. 1 0« 
Monita Isocratea, Gr. et Lat.'' Padua, 1741, 8vo. 1 1. ^ De 
Gymnasio Patavino jmitagmata duodecim ex ejusdem Gym- 
Hasii fastis excerpta/' ibid. 1750, 8vo. 12. ^* Fasti Gym- 
nasii Patavini, ab anno 1260 ad annum 1756," ibid. 1757, 
4to. 13. ^< Sfera e geografia per le scuole d^ fanciuUi.'* 
14. ^ Ciceronis Vita^iteraria," ibid. 15. Vita et acta 
Jcsn Christ! secundum utramque generationem, divinam 
ac humanam,". ibid. 1761. 16. ^* Vita et acta B. Mariie,** 
ibid. 1764. 17. '* Viatica TheologicaX. quibus adversqs 
religionis dissidia cathollcus viator munitur," Padua, 1763.* 
18. «<£pistol9 Latins CLXXI Jacobi Facciolati/' ibid. 

4i F A C I N I. 

1765. Besides these he was the aatbcnr of sonie articles in 
the literary journals. ^ 

PACINI (Peter), a painter of history, was bom at Bo- 
logna in 1560. He began to paint when already grown up 
to manhood, at the advice of An, Caracci, who^ on seeing 
a whimsical design of his in charcoal, concluded he would 
be an acquisition to his school. Of this advice be had rea» 
son to repent, not only because Facini roused his jealousy 
by the rapidity of his progress, but because he saw him 
leave his school, become his rival in the instruction of 
youth, and even lay snares for his life. Facini had two 
characteristics of excellence, a vivacity in the attitudes 
and heads of his figrures, that resembled the style of Tin- 
toretto, and a truth of carnation which made Annibal hiin- 
self declare that his colours seemed to be mixed with hu- 
man flesh. Beyond this he has little to surprise ; his de- 
sign is weak, his bodies vast and undefined, his heads and 
hands ill set on, nor had he time to correct these iaults, as 
he died young, in 1602. At St. Francesco, in Bologna, is 
an altar-piece of his, the marriage of St. Catherine, at- 
tended by the four tutelary saints of the city, and a numbeir 
of infant angels, which shews the best of his powers. His 
children carolling, or at play, in the gallery Matvezzi, and 
elsewhere at Bologna, are equally admired ; they are iii 
the manner of Albani, but with grander proportions. * 

FACIO (Bartholomew), a very learned man of the 
fifteenth century, was a native of Spe^zia, a sea-port in the 
Genoese territory. The most curious inquirers into the 
history of literature have not yet been able to ascertain the 
precise period of his birth. From many passages, however, 
which occur in his works, it appears, that he was indebted 
for instruction in the Latin and Greek languages to Guarino 
Veronese, whom he frequently mentions in terms of affec- 
tionate esteem. Facio was one of the numerous assemMage 
of scholars that rendered illustrious the court of Alphonsus, 
king of Naples, by whom he was treated with distinguished 
honour. He had been sent by the Genoese to Alphonsus 
on a political errand, in which be failed; but the interviews 
he had gave the king so favourable an opinion of him, that 
he invited him into his service, and made him hissecretarjr, 
an office which he filled for many years. Daring his 

* FaWtmi Vit» Italorum, — Saxii Onomattiooii, a curiouf irticle> with Mine 
original corretpoadeaee. 
« PilkiDgtoa. 

> FA C LO. 45 

resideace at J^aples, the jealousy of rivalship betrayed him 
into a violent quarrel with Laurentius Valla, against whom 
he Composed four invectives, and as he happened to die 
$oon after Valla, the circumstance occasioned the following 

'' Ne vel in Elyaiis sine vindice Valla susurret, 
Facius baud multos post obiit ipse dies.*' 

Some say Facio composed these lines himself on his death- 
bed, which is doubtful, as indeed is the period of his death. 
Mehus, his last biographer, fixes his death in 1457 ; but 
Valla, we know, died eight years before, which is rather a 
too liberal translation of ^^ baud multos dies/' Niceron 
contends for 1467, which is nine years after the death of 

His works, according to the catalogue given by Mehus, 
are, 1. De Bello Veneto Clodiano ad Joannem Jacobum 
Spinulam, liber," Leyden, 1568* 2. <<De humans vitse 
felicitate," Hanov. 1611, and with it, ^^ De excellentia et 
prsstantia hominis," a work erroneously ascribed to Pius II. 
with whom Facio was intimately acquainted. 3. ^' De rebus 
gestis ab Alphonso primo Neapolitarum rege Commenta- 
riorum libri decern," Leyden, 1560, 4to, and reprinted in 
1562 and 1566. The first seven hooks were also published 
at Mantua in 156S, and it has been inserted in various col- 
lections of Italian history. 4. ^* Arriani de rebus gestis 
Alexandri libri octo, Latine redditi," Basil, 1539, folio. 
This translation was made by Facio at the request of hia 
patron Alpbonsus. 5. '* De viris illustribus liber," pub* 
lished for the first time by the abb6 Mehus, at Florence, 
1745, 4to, with a life of the author^ and some of his cor- 
respondence. Saxius has published in his Onomasticon a 
small tract of Facio's, '* de differentiis," or the difference 
between words apparently of the same meaning. Tira* 
boschi thinks Facio's style much more elegant than that of 
any of his contemporaries, and in his^ lives of illustrious 
men, published by Mehus, he displays much impartial and 
just criticism. ^ 

FACUNDUS, bishop of Hermianum in Asia, is noticed 
by ecclesiastic writers as having been present at the coun- 
cil of Constantinople, held by pope Vigilius in the year 
547, where he was a strenuous defender of the writings 

1 Shepherd's Life of Pofgio, p. 435.— Gisgacn^ HisU Lilt 4*Italif .^^ic0^ 
roB> vol. XXLrrMoreti.— SasUi Onovast. 

46 F A C U N B U & 

called << The Three Chapters^'' which the council of Chal« 
cedoii had pronounced orthodox. The works so naifed 
were, 1. The writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia. 2. The 
books which Theodoret of Cyrus wrote, against the twelve 
anathemas published by Cyril against the Nestorians. 3« 
The letter which Ibas of Edessa had written to Maris, a 
Persian, concerning^ the councit of Epbesus, and tiie con- 
demnation of Nestorius. The question of condemning 
these writings, had been raised by Theodore bishop of 
CsBsarea, for the sakd of weakening the authority of the 
council of Chalcedon, and crushing the Nestorians. The 
emperor Justinian listened to this prelate, published an 
edict against The Three Chapters in the year 544, and in 
the council of Constantinople above-mentioned, forced the)^ 
pope Vigilius to accede t6 the same sentence. Vigilius, 
agitated between the contending parties, changed his 
opinion and conduct four times ; but Fadundus remained 
firm, and was banished for bis perseverance. He; wrote 
twelve books on the suhgect, addressed to Justinian, which 
are still extant, and one against Mutmnus, but, in fact, 
against Vfgilius ; both published with notes, by P. Sir* 
mond, in 1629. There is also an '^ Epistola Catholicae 
fidei pro defensione trium capitulorum," added to the 
edition of 1675. His style is animated, but he is ft'Cr^ 
quentiy deficient in moderation.^ 

FAERNO (Gabriel), an elegant Latin poet and philo* 
logist, was born at Cremona in the early part of the six« 
teenth century, and by his accomplishments in polite 
literature, gained the esteem and friendiship of«* 
dinal de Medicis, afterwards pope Pius IV. knd of his ne* 
phew the cardinal Borromeo. Having acquired a critical [ 
knowledge of the Latin lattguage, be was enabled to dis-* 
play much judgment in the correction of the Ropnan clas« 
sics, and in the collation of ancient manuscripts on which 
he was frequently employed, and indeed had an office of 
that kind in the Vatican library. Gbiiini says that be was 
equally learned in the Greek language, but Muret asserts 
that he was quite unacquainted with the Gr^ek. That he 
was a v^ry elegant Latin poet> however, is amply proved 
by his " Fables," and perhaps his being accused of steal- 
ing fromi Phaedrus may be regarded as a compliment to his 
style. Thuanus appears to have first suggested this liccuir 

1 Mor^ri.—* Dopin. — Mo0heiai*-*Saxit OnomasL 

F A E R N. O. 47 

ution. He says that the learned world waa greatly obliged 
tojiiiin^ yet nd4 been more so, if, instead of suppressing, 
he bad beeu content with imitating the Fables of Phasdrus, 
and assert^ that Faerno dealt unfairly with the public con- 
cerning Phasdrus, who was then unknown ; having a ma- 
nuscript of that author, which he concealed fmm the world 
for fear of lessening the value of the Latin fables he had 
made in imitation of ^sop. Perrault, however, whopub- 
lished a translation of Faerno's Fables into French verse at 
Paris in 1699, has defended his author from Thuanus's 
imputation. His words in the preface . are as follow : 
^^ Faerno has been called a second Phaedrus^ by reason of 
the excellent style of his Fables, though he never saw 
Phaedrus, wh0:did not come to our knowledge till above 
thirty years after his death ; for Pithoeus, having found 
that manuscript in the dust of an old library, published it 
in the beginnit^ of this century. Thuanus, who makes 
very honourable mention of our author in his history, pre- 
tends, that Pboedrus was not unknown to him; and even 
blames him for hav&fog suppressed -that author, to conceal 
what he had stolen from bin)- But there is no ground for. 
what he says ; and it is only the effect of the strong per- 
suasion of aU those . who are so great admirers of antiquity 
as to think that a modern author can do nothing that is. 
excellent, unless h^ has an ancient author for bis modeL 
Out of the hundred fables which Faerno published in Latin 
verse, there are but five that had been treated by Phsedrus ; 
and out of tbo$(^ fiv^ there are but one, or two that have^ 
been manage^ nearly in the same manner: which hap- 
pened only bectose it. is impossible that two men, who 
treat on the same subject, .should not agree sometimes in 
the same thoughts, or in the same expressions.^'" . > 

JB'aerno died in the prime of life, at Rome, Nov. 17> 1 56L 
How much Qiight have been expected from his talents and 
habits of studyi had be liyed longer, may appear from 
what he left: 1. ." Terentii Comoedise^" Florence, 1S65, 2 
vols. 8yo, a valuable and rare edition. There: is no ail- 
ci^nt adttor to whom Terence is more indebted than to 
Faernip ; who, by a judicious collation of ancient manu- 
scripts and editions, especially the one belonging to Bem- 
bus, .(examined by Politian, and unknown to all preceding 
editors)^ has restored the true reading of /his d.uthor in 
many important passages. Faerno's edition became the 
basis of almost ei^ery subsequent one, and Dr. Bentley 


48 F A E R N O. 

had 3ach an opinion of his nfotes that he reprinted them 
entire in his edition. 2. ^^ Ciceronis Orationes Philippicar/* 
Rome, 1563, 8vo, very highly praised by Graevius. ^. 
<^ Ceiitum Fabulse ex antiquis Autoribus delects, et car- 
fisinibus expUcatse/' Rome, 1564, 4to, with prints, froni 
which it is said that the subjects for the fountains at Ver<^ 
sailles were taken^ There is Another edition of London, 
1743, 4to, very beautiful, but not so much valued as the 
former. It is said that this work was occasioned by a wish 
expressed by the pope that he would make a collection of 
thebestof Esop's^bles, and those of other, ancient authors, 
and put them into Latin verse for the instruction of the 
young. 4. ** Censura emendationum Livianarum Sigonii.'* 
Among the collections of Latin poetry written by Italian 
scholars are some attributed to Faemo, as ^^ In Lutheranos, 
iiectam Germanicam ;** '* Ad Homobonum HofFredum ;** 
a Physician of Cremona ; <^ In Maledicum,'* &c. ^ 

FAG AN (Christopher Barthelemi), a French comic 
writer of some eminence within the last century, was born 
at Paris in 1702. He was son of a clerk in ^ public office 
at Paris, in which he also obtained an appointment that 
gave him little trouble, and left him leisure for literary 
occupations. He wrote for several of the French theatres, 
and bis works were collected into four volumes, l2mo,1760. 
The general character of bis comedies is a delicate and 
natural liveliness. The most approved of them w^e, '^ The 
Rendezvous,'* and " The Ward." In his own character, 
as well as in talents, he was not unlike la Fontaine, indo* 
lent, averse to business, negligent of his appearance, ab« 
sent, timid, and by no means likely to be taken by a 
stranger for a man <^ genius. He died April 28, 1755, at 
the age of fifty-three^* 

FAGE (RaimonD de la), a self-taught genius, wasbori^ 
in 1648 at Lisle en Albtgeois in Languedoc. He drew 
with the pen, or Indian ink, and arrived at such eminence 
in that branch as to be complimented upon it by Carlo 
Marat. He went to visit that painter, who rec^ved him. 
with politeness, and offered him his pencil; when he de- 
clined using it, saying, that he had never practbed paint'^ 
ing. ^< I am glad to hear it,*' said the artist, << for if 1 
may judge from your drawings of the progress you would 

1 Niceron, rol XXin.-«Mor«ri.— rirebosch»^-4lMii OiiMBMt.«»Pft4il^ 
Classics. s Diet HibU^-M^rtrk 

. t A G Ei . 4d 

tife made in painting, I must certainly ht9e 'given place 
tQ ^ou.*' Fage lived irregularly, generaUy drawing at a 
public-house, and 'sometimes paying his bills by a sketch 
produced upon the occasion^ He died in 1690* \udran, 
Simoneau, and others, engraved a collection of one huti*- 
dred and twenty-three prints from his designs, and Stnitt 
mentions some^ prints engraved by himself ^ 

FAGIUS (Paul), or sometimes PHAGIUS, whose Ger- 
man name was Buchlein, a protestant minister, and one of 
the early reformers, was born at Hheinzabernin Germany, 
1504, and laid the foundation of his learning- in that town 
under the care of his father, who was a school- master. He 
was sent to Heidelberg at eleven, and at eighteen to Stras- 
burgh ; where not being properly supported, he had re- 
course to teaching others, . in order to defray the ex pence 
of bis own books and necessaries* The study of the He- 
brew becoming fi^hionable in Germany, he applied him* 
self to it ; and by the help of Elias Levita, the learned 
Jew, became a great proficient in it In 1527 he took 
upon him the care of a school at Isne, where he married 
and had a family. Aftervcards, quitting the occupation of 
a schoolmaster, he entered into the ministry, and became 
a* sedulous preacher among those of the reformed religion. 
Bufflerj one of the senators of Isne, being informed of bis 
perfect knowledge in th.e Hebrew tongue, and of his natural 
bias to > the arts, erected a printing-house at his own 
charge, that Fagius might publish whatever he should 
deem useful to i^ligion in that way; but the event did not 
answer the expence. 

In 1541 the plague began to spread at Isne; when Fajorius 
udderstanding that the wealthiest of the inhabitants were 
about to leave the place, without having any regard to the 
|K)orer sort, rebuked them openly, and admonished them 
of their duty ; telling them that they should either continue 
in the: town, or liberally bestow their alms before they 
went^ for the relief of those they left behi nd^'; and de- 
claring ~at the same tim^, that during the time of that ca- 
lamity h^ would himself in person visit those that were 
sick, would administer spiritual comfort to them, pray for 
them, and be present with.tben^ day and night ; all which 
he did, and yet escaped' the distemper. At the same sea- 
so|j.tbe plague raged in Straabiirg, andamong mauy others, 

» Moreri.— Diet Hist. 

Vw.. XIV. E 



so PAGiua 

prsfed fatal to the refoimer, Wolfang Capito ; upon wbtc'ii 
Fagias was called by the senate to succeed him. Here he 
codtinued to preach till the beginping of the German wars, 
when the elector Palatine^ intending a reformation in hili 
churches, c^led Fagius from Strasburg to Heidelberg, and 
made htm the public professor there: but the emperor pro^^ 
Tailing against the elector, an obstruction was thrown in 
the way of the reformation. During his residence here^ 
however, he published many books for the promotion of 
Hebrew learning, which were greatly approved by Bucet 
and others, and form the most important of the works be 
has left. 

His father dying in 1548, and the persecution in Ger* 
many rendering that country unsafis to allfrtiodid not pro- 
fess the Romish doctrine, he and Bucer came over to Eng^ 
land in consequence of receiving letters from arcbbtshofi^ 
Cranmer, in which they had asstirances of a kind reeeptioft 
aJMl a handsome stipend, if they would continue here^ 
They arrived in April J54£l>, but Strype says in \54H; ^ero 
entertained some'days in the palace at Lambeth, and ap*^ 
pointed to reside at Cambridge, where they were to un- 
dertake a new translation and illustiration of the scriptures, 
Fagins taking the Old Testament, and JSucer.tbe Neiv, for 
their several parts. A pension of 100/. a year was settled 
ori Fagius, and the same on Bucer, besides the salary they 
w«re to receive from the unwersity. But this was all put 
«n end to, by the sudden illness and death of both these 
professors. Fagius fell ill at London of a quartan fever^ 
but would be removed to Cambridge, on hopes of receiving 
benefit from the change of air. He died there Nov. 1 2, 1 5 50 ^ 
and Bucer did not live above a year after. Melchior Adam 
and Verheiden suggested that Fagius was poisoned^ but 
for this we find no other authority. By a disgraceb^l** 
bigotry, both their bodies were dug up and burnt in the 
reign of queen Mary. 

Fagius's works were numerous, both in German and 
Xatiu. Among them we find, 1. <^ Sententise vere elegantes 
pise, sive capitula Patrum," Heb. et Lat. Isne, 1541, 4ta 
2. ^< Exppsitio Dictionum Hebraicarum iiteralis in quatuor 
capita Geneseos,^' Isue, 1542, 4to. 3. ^* Liber Fidei,-' 
Heb. et Lat. ibid. 1 542, 4to. 4. << Liber Tobi^," Heb. et 
Lat. ibid. 1542, 4to. 5. << Isagoge in Lingruato Hebrieam, 
C.Qnst 1543, 4to. 6. «< Seutentisr Mordes Ben Syr«, 

FAG N A 1^ I. dl 

idd» noies» 1542, 4to. 7; ^ Breves annolatio6es in Tar* 
giiiii,'M546, fol &c. :&cJ 

FAGNANl (PROSPBit)t a celebrated canonist of thi; 
seventeenth century, vras regarded at Rome as sn oratory 
and every cause which he took in band as successfal. He 
was for about fifteen year^ secretary to- several popes/ all 
of whom entertained a high respect for his talents, and 
frequently consnlted hioi* He became blind at the age oC 
forty^four, which misfortune does not appear to have in- 
terfered with bis professtonal labours, for it was after this 
that he composed his celebrated <^ Commentary on the 
Decretals/* in 3 vols, folio, which extended his fame 
thfoughottt all Europe^ It was dedicated to pope Alex- 
and^ VII. by whose order he liad ei^ged in the undex:'^* 
taking, and.wa^ printed at Rome in 1661, and five timet 
refHTioted.. The best edition i|i that of Venice, 1097, in 
wbich the entire text of the Decretals is given. Fagnani 
cootioued deprived of his sight, but in full possession of 
his, mental faculties notil bis death in 1679, as it issnp^ 
posed, • in tJm eightieth year of his age. His memory ap-' 
pears- to have been uneommon, i^d the stores of learning 
be-had laid up before be was deprived of bis sight he could 
bfiog^lcNFth with promptitude and accuracy, ieven to a quo- 
tation^Qro the poets whom he studied in bis youth. ' 

FAGON (Guy Crbscent), an eminent French physi- 
cian in tthe reign of Louis XIV. was born at Paris, May 
11, 1638. He was the. son of Henry Fagon, commissioner 
i|): ontinary of war, and of Louisa de la Brosse^ niece of 
Guy^ de la Brosse, phymckin in ordinary to Louis XIII. 
and:grandson of a physician in ordinary to Henry IV. Me 
studied first in the Sorfaonoe, under M. Gillot, an eminent 
doctor^ witfa-wbocn he resided as student, and who per- 
fuaded htm to chiise the medical profession. M. Fagon 
pever.forgc^ M. Giltot in his highest prosperity ; but, if he 
met him in the street, alighted from his cOach, and con*> 
ducted- Inra ta the boose x^te he was going; This young 
phji^iariiiad scarcely begun to dispute, when he ventured 
to maintain^ in a thesis, tbd circulation of the blood, which that time hetd as a pmradox among the old doctors ; 
and also aaather on the use of tobacco, published long 
aftemeards; f^An freqiiens : Nicotiante nsus vitam abbre- 

' Alelchior Ad^m in TitU Ofrm. Theol.— MorerL—* Strype*s I^ife of Cranmer, 
p. 195, 197, 199, and Appiii4i«, No. 44, 117, irbere lit » frequently calM 
Plufitt9« ^ Moreci. 

£ 2 

f I . F A G a N- : 

vie V Paris, 1699, 4to. . He took hia dpctor^s degree 1664^ 
M. Vallot wishing to repair and replenish the royal garden;^ 
M* fiagon offered bi» services; and goings at his owa 
expence, to Auvergnei Langaedoc, Provence, the Alps^ 
and the Pyrenees, returned with aa ample collection of 
curious and useful plants. He had the principal share ia 
the catalogue erf the pli^nts in that garden, published 1665^ 
entitled " Hortus Rejgius,'* to which he prefixed a little 
Latin poem of his oWn. M. Fagoa was made professor of 
botany and chemistry at the royal garden, and began to 
have the plants engraved ; but there are oaly forty-five 
)>lates finished, which are very scarce* . The king appointed 
him first physician to the dauphiness in 1080, and to thcL 
queen some months after. In 1693 be was made first phy-» 
siciaa to the king, and superintendaut of the royal garden 
in. 1693, ta which he retired after the king's death, aad^ 
for the improvement of which, he persuaded Louis XIV^ 
to send M. de Tournfort into Greece, Asia, and Egypt, 
which produced the scientific voyage so well known to the 
learned world. Fagon died March 11, 1718, aged oeaf 
eighty. The academy of sciences . bad chosen him ait 
honorary member in 1699. He left " Les Qualit6s du 
Quinquina,'' Paris,. 1703, l2mo. He married Mary Noze-" 
reau, by whom he had two )ions : Anthony, the eldest, 
bishop of Lombez, then of Vannes, died February 16, 1 742 ; 
th^ second, Lewis, counsellor of state in ordinary, and tor 
the royal council, and*inieiidant of the finances, died at 
Paris May 8, 1744, unmarried. The Fagonia, in botaDy^ 
was so called by Tournfort in honour of him. ^ 
, *^AHRENHEIT {Gabriel Daniel), the celebrated im- 
prover of the thermometer^ was born at Dantzic, May 
14, 1686. He was originally intended for commerce, but 
having a decided turn for philosophical studies, employed 
himself in the construction of barometei» and thermometers, 
which carried to great perfection. About 1720 he 
intrpduced an essential improtefnent in the thermometer, 
by substituting mercury for spirit of wiae. He also^ made 
a new scale for the instrument, fixing the extremities of it 
at the point of. severe cold observed by himself in Iceland 
in 1709, which be conceived to be the greatest degree of 
cold, and at the point where mercury boils, dividing the- 
intermediate space into 600 d^rees. His point of extreme 

* DicL Hist, fle I/Avocat.'^Moreri. 

F A H R E N ITE I T^ ** 

^old, ^hlch is the slsime that is produced by surrounQing th^ 
kulbofthe thermometer with a mixture of snow, sal am* 
moniac, and sea salt, he marked 0, and carried his degrees 
upwanis ; though few thermometers have been practically 
formed which carry their degrees much above 212, the 
point lat which water boils. Forty degrees below the of 
Fahrenheit, have since been observed at Petersburg, and 
elsewhere; and as this is the point at whicl> mercury 
freezes, it would lAake a better limit to the scale^ which 
ti^ould thus be confined between the utmost extremities of 
heat and cold tb^t can be examined by means of that fluid. 
Our English philosophers have in general adopted th^ 
scale of Fahrenheit ; those of France have preferred Reau* 
pmr's. * Fahrenheit published a dissertation on thermo- 
meters in 1724. He travelled to Holland, and in various 
parts of the continent, in pursuit of kr^owi|sdge, and dfed 
Sept. 16, 1736.* 


FAILLE (Gbhmain de la), a French topographical 
writer, was born at Castelnaudari in Upper Li),nguedoc, 
Oct. 30, 16K6. After going through a course of studies at 
'Toulouse, he was in 1638 appoint^ed king^s advocate to 
the presidial of his native city, which office he resigned in 
1-655 on being chosen syndic to the city of Toulouse, and 
came to reside in ^he latter, where he was enabled to cui* 
tivate bis taste for the belles lettres ; and during the dis« 
charge of the duties of his office, which he executed with 
zeal and disinterestedness, the opportunity he had of in* 
$pecting the archives suggested to him th^ design of writing 
the annals of Toulouse. On making known his Infientions, 
the parliament granted \\\m permission to examine its re- 
gisters, and the city undertook to defray the expense of 
printing his work. Having been advanced to the rank of 
capitotil, or alderman of the city, which office he served 
for the third time in 1673, he communicated to \ih brethren' 
a plan of ornamenting their capitolium, or town-ball, with 
busts of. the most distinguished personages who had BUed 
the oflBces of magistracy, and they having allowed him to 
make choice of the proper objects, a gallery was completed 
in 1677 wjth the busts of thirty persons whom he had se« 
lected as qri^riting that honour. This, and other services 
wbjch he rendered to the citizens of Toulouse, induced 

> Diet. Hist 

54 , T A I L L E. 

them to ccTnfer a handsome pension on him, and likewise 
• to bestow the reversion of the place of syndic on his nei^ 
pheW) who dying before La Faille, they gave it to hi^ 
grand-nephew. In 1694 the academy of the *^ Jeux Flo* 
raux^* elected him their secretary, a situation which he 
filled for sixteen years with much reputation ; for, besides 
the; fame he bad acquired as an historian and magistrate, 
he possessed considerable literary taste and talents, and 
even in his ninetieth year produced some poetical pieces 
in which there was more spirit and vivacity than could 
have been' expected at that very advanced period. He 
died at Toulouse Nov. 12, 1711, in his ninety*sixth yean 
His ** Annales de la ville de Toulouse** were published 
there in 2 vols. fol. 1687 and 1701, The style, although 
spmewhat incorrect, is lively and concise. The antials are 
'brought down only to 1610, the author being afraid, if he 
proceeded nearer to his own times, that he might be 
tempted to violate the impartiality which be had hitherto 
endeavoured to preserve. He published also ^^ Trait£ de 
la noblesse des Capitouls,*' 1707, 4to, a very curious work, 
which is said to have given offence to some of the upstart 
families. To the works of Goudelin of Toulouse, a poet, 
published in 1678, 12mo, he prefixed a life, and criticism 
on his poetns. Some of bis own poetical pieces are in the 
** Journal de Verdun," for May 1709.* 


FAIRFAX (Edward), an ingenious poet, who flourished 
in the reigns of queen Elij^abeth and king James the First^ 
was the second son of sir Thomas Fairfax, of Denton', York- 
shire, by Dorothy his wife, daughter of George Gale, of 
Ascham-Grange, esq. treasurer to the Mint at York*. In 
what y^ar he was born is not related. The family firom 
which he sprang w^s of a very military turn. His father 
had passed his youtii in the wars of Europe, and was with 
Charles duke of Bourbon, at the sacking of Rome, in 1527. 

* The author of the «* Lives of the poet, sent to Dr. Atterbury in 1704-5, 

P^ets,'' published under the uame of does not speak of him as if he had any 

Theophilu9 Gibber, says that Mr. Ed* idea that be was of illegitimate birih. 

ward Fairfax was the natural son of The cireudidtances, too, of bis bein^ 

sir Thomas ; and this opinion has been always styled Edward Fairfan, esq. of 

pretty generally received. But Doug- Kewhall in Fuyistone^ jo th« forest of 

las, who U a writer of good authority^ Knaresborough, and of bis giving upou 

has pofiiively expres^ted hioiseif ss we his own estate, in the bosojoi of his fa- 

vead in the text ; and Mr. Brian Paix- mily, seent best to a£cord with the. 

fax, secretary to the archbishop of supposition of his having been a lawfu) 

^aaterbary/ in h>f account of tffir bcanoh of tbajt fa.mtlv. 

^ Niceron, roL IV.«-'Moreri.'— Diet. Hist 


JEfk engaging in this expedition is said to have given such 
offence to sir Wtlliam Fairfax^ that he was disinherited ; 
but this is not reconcileable to the fact of his succeeding 
to the family estate ^at Denton, which he transmitted to bis 
desoendatlts. It was in 1577, or, according to Douglas, in 
1579, when iar advanced in years; that he was knighted by 
queen Elizabeth* The poet^s eldest brother, THomas, who 
in proeessof time became the first lord Fairfax of Cameron, 
received tl^ hooour of knighthood before Rouen in Nof- 
maudy,. in 1591, for his bravery in the army sent to the 
assistance of Henry the Fourth of France ; and he after- 
wards signalized himself on many occasions in Germany 
against the; house of Austria* A younger brother of Ed- 
ward Fairfax, air Charles,, was a captain under sii: Francis 
'Vere,'at the. battle of Newport, fought in 1600; and in 
the famous three years^ siege of Ostend, commanded all 
the English in that town for some time before it surren- 
dered. Here he received a wound in his face, from tlie 
.piece of a skuU of a marshal of France, killed near him by 
a.€ap)n(»i--ball, and was hinu^elf killed in 1604. 

While his brothers were thus, honourably employed 
abroad, Edward Fairfax devoted himself to a studious 
^urae of life. That he had the advantages of a very libe* 
ral education cannot be doubtedi from his intellectual ac* 
quirements, and the distinction which ^e soon obtained in 
tbe literary world. Indeed, bis attainments were such, 
that he became qualified to have filled any employment, 
either in church or state. But an invincible modesty, and 
the love of retirement, induced him to prefer tbe shady 
grovea ,and natural cascades of Denton, and the forest of 
Knaresborough, to tbe employments and. advantages of a 
public station. Accordingly, having married, he fised 
himself at Fuyistone, as a private gentleman. His time 
was not, however, inactively or ingloriously spent. This 
was apparent in his poetical exertions, and in several cQmr 
positions in prose, the manuscripts of which were left by 
him in tbe library of lord Fairfax, at Denton. The u^ve 
and education of his children, for which he was' so well 
qualified, probably engaged some part of his attention. 
We are informed, likewise, that be was very serviceable, 
in the same way^ to his brother lord Fairfax y besides which, 
he assisted him in the government of his family and the 
management .of iiis affairs. The consequence of this wais, 
that ail his lordship's children were bred scholars, and well 


pxioeipied in religion and virtue ; that his house vraa iiauiied 
for 4tS' hospitality, and. at the 9ain^ time, his estate im* 
proved. What Mr. Eaward FairfaiE^s 'principles were, ap^ 
pears from the character which he gives of btai«elf, in hia 
book oh daMnonoIogy: *^ For inyself/' says he, *^ I am in 
religion neither a fantastit; puritan, nor a superstitious pa«: 
pist; but SQ ^tjcted in conscienee, that 1 bi^ve tbe sure 
ground pf God's word to warrant all I believe, ainl die 
cbinmencUbie oidipancei^of our English eburch to approve- 
afl I [practise : -ki which course I live a faithful Christian, 
and an obedient; subject, and so teach my £atmily.'' li|- 
these princ^iples be persevered to the end of his days, wbicb 
took plfce about 1 632.. He died at bis own bouse, called 
Newbal]| in the parish of Fupstooe, between Denton aind 
Knaresborojugb, and was buried in the same p^trish; where, 
a marble stone, with an inscription, was placed over bts^ 

Suqb are the few particulars that are related concemiog 
Ibe private life of Fairfax. But it is a« a poet thai be ift^ 
prin^ ^pd^^^y entitled to attention ; and in this respeet he if 
beld in just reputation, and deserves to have bis name 
transmitted with honour ti> posterity. His principal work. 
was his translation of Tasso's heroic poem of ^' Godfi^y «#. 
Bologne'^ out of Italian int6 Eng)isb verse ; and what addsr 
to the merit of tbe work i% tbat it was bis first essay iflr 
poetry, and executed when he was very young. On ittf 
appearance, it was dedicated to queen EU^^be^b* The* 
book was highly commended by the best judges and wit!| 
of the age in which it was written> and their judgment ba^. 
been sanctioned by the approbation of succeeding eritips^; 
King James valued it above all other Engli^ poetry ; and. 
king Charles used to divert himself witb reading ilintbetime 
of his. confinement. All who mention Fairfax,- do him the^ 
justice to allow that he was air accomplished geniua. Dry-*: 
den introduces Spenser and Fairfax; almost on^ the level, oS: 
the leading authors of their times, and Waller coofefl»ed 
that he Owed the music of his numbers to Fairfax's Godfrey 
of Bologne. " The truth is," says the author of Cibber*a 
Lives, '^ this gentleman is, perhaps^ the only writer down: 
to sir William Davenant, who needs na apology to be made, 
for him on account of the age in which he lived. His die** 
tion is so pure, elegant, and full of graces, and the turn of 
bis lines so perfectly melodious, that one cannot read it 
without rapture ;; and we ekn scarcely imagivie the originai 


ItaiiaA has gfi^eatly tile ftdvanUge in either : nor is it v^ 
probable, tbat while Fairfax can be read, any author wiU 
attjempt.a new translation of Tasso with suocess.'- With-- 
oat dis paling the general truth of this eulogium (wfaicb,^ 
however, might somewhat have been,soften«i)^ it cannot 
fail to. be observed, how much the biographer has been 
itttstaken in bis concluding conjecture. A new trantlatioii 
of Tasso^ias not only been attempted^ but executed, Irjr 
Mr. Hoote, with rcftiiarkable success and with distii^ishea 
^xceltence i and indeed in such a manner, that in the opi* 
raon of Dr. Johnson, Fairfax's work wi)l {lerhapa not 80cmi[ 
he reprinteid. Of Fairfax, it has been justly said that he 
l&d the powers ef genius and fancy, and broke tfaroogb 
jtbat servile custom of translation which prevailed in his 
time. His liberal elegance rendered his versions more 
agreeable than the dryness ef Jonson, and tiie dull fidelity 
Qf Sandys and May ; and he would have translated Tassoi^ 
with suceess^bad he not nnhappily chosen a species of ver- 
fifioation which was ill adapted to the English langni^. 
Mr. Hooie, in assigning the reasons for bis giving a new 
version of Tasso's *^ Jerusalem Delivered,'* remarks that 
£aiff£sx's. stanzas cannot be read with pleasure by the gene* 
rality of those who have a taste for English poetry : of which 
i|o other proof is necessary than that it appears scarcely ta 
have been i^ead at all. It is not only unpleasant, but irk- 
some^ in sisch a degree as to surmount curiosity, and more 
than counterbalance all the beauty of expression and senti-^ 
xjsent, which is to be found in that work. He does not, 
faoweveff, flatter himself that be has excelled Fairfax, ex- 
cept hi iseasure and viersification ; and, even of these^ the 
principal recomfnendation is, tbat they are more modern, and 
better adapted to the ear of all readers of English poetry, 
inrcept of the very few vho have acquired a taste for the 
phfiises Md cadencies of those times, when otir verse, if 

Sit our lani^Ua^e, was in its rudiments." The author of his 
ie in the Btog. Brrtmniea, however, is of opinion that it 
was not necessary to the justification oi Mr. Hoole's nevr 
"versioti, that he should pass so severe a. censure on Fair- 
£ix*f measure. To say that ^ it is not only unpleasant, but 
irksome, in such a degree as to surmount curiosity, and 
more than coumterbahtnce all tbe beauty of expression 
which is to be found in the work," appears to be very un-* 
ju^ The peniptctrity and harmony of Fairfax's versifica- 
tion aie indeed, extraoi^dinary^ considering^ the time iw 

£8 F A I AT A X. 

which- he wrote ; and in thts respect he ranks nearly with 
. Spenser. Nothing but a fine fancy and an elegant mind 
eould have enabled him, in that period^ to have made such 
advances towards perfection. Hume seems to be nearly 
of the same opinion. ^^ Fairfax/' says that historian^ <^ has 
trandated Tasso with 'an elegance and ease, and at the 
same time with an exactness, which for that age are sur« 
prising. Each line in the original is faithfolly rendei^ by 
a corneqpoudent line in the translation. Harrington's trans- . 
latioii of Arlostb is not likewise without its merit. > It is to 
be regretted," that these poets should have imitated the 
, Italians ii» their stanza, which has a prolixity and vmifor* 
,mity in it that displeases in long performances. They bad 
otherwise, as well ms Spenser, contributed much to the po«* 
Kshing and 'refining of English versification/' 

* Mr. Fairfax's poetical exertions did not end with his 
'translation of ^li^lsso. He wrote the history of Edward the 
black prince, and a number of eclogues; No part of the 
history of Edward the black prince has, we believe, ever 
been Jaid before the public; which is the rather to be re- 
gretted as it might hence have more distinctly been dis- 
cerned what were our poet's powers of original invention. 
, The eclogues were composed in the first year of the reign 
of king James, and, after their ' being finished, lay neg^ 
lected ten years in the autbor^s study, until Lodowic, dote 
of Richmond and Lenox, desired a sight of them, which 
occasioned Mr. Fairfiix to transcribe them for his grace's use. 
That copy was seen and approved by many learned men'; 
and Dr. Field, afterwards bishop of Hereford, wrote verses 
upon it But the book itself, and Dr. Field's encomium, 
perished in the fire, when the banqueiing-«house at White* 
ball was burnt,' and with it part of the duke of Richmond's 
lodgings. Mr. William Fairfax, however, our author^s son, 
recovered the eclogues out of "bis father's* loose papers. 
These eclogues were twelve in number, and were com- 
posed on important subjects, relating to the manners, cba- 
nacters, and incidents of the times. They were pointed 
with many fine strokes of satire ; dignified with wholesomn 
lesions of morality and policy to those of the highest nuiks ; 
and s6me modest hints were given even to majesty itsell; 
^ With respect to poetry, they were entitled to high com* 
mendation ; and the learning they contained .was so various 
and extensive, that, according to the evidence of his son, 
who wrpte large annotations on each> no man's reading he* 

r A I R F A X. 59 

tHe the 4katbor's own was sufficient to explain bis refe^ 
Mnees effectually. The fourth eclogue was printed, by 
Mrs. Cooper, in ^ The Muses (library/' published in 
1737. It is somewhat extraordinary that the whole of them 
should never have appeared in print. If they are still in 
being, it might not, perhaps, be an unacceptable service 
to give them to the public* 

None of Fairfax's writings in prose have ever been pub- 
iished. They most of them related to the controversy of 
religion with the church of Rome, and are represented as 
having afforded signal proofs of his learning and judgment; 
The person with whom the cootrovensy was carried on was 
one John Dorrell) a. Romish priest of no ordinary fame, 
at that time a prijwner in the castle of York. Between 
him and Mr. Fairfax a variety of letters passed, relative to 
the most distinguished tenets of popery. A copy of our 
author's treatise on Dteooonology was in the possession of 
Isaac Reed) esq. entitled, ^* A Discourse of Witchcraft, as 
it was acted in the familj^ of Mr. £dward Fairfax, of Fuyis-' 
tone, ia the county of York, in the year 1621." Fairfax lefik 
several children, sops and daughters. William, his eldest 
son, before mentioned, was a scholar, and of the same 
temper with his father, but more cynical He translated 
Diogenes Laertius out of Greek into English. This gen« 
tleman was grammatical tutor to Mr. Stanley, the cele*^ 
brated author of the History of Philosophy^ It is asserted 
by Mrs. Cooper, that the greatest part of that work, as 
well as the notes on Euripides^ truly belonged to Mr. WiU 
liam Fairfax* though his modesty and friendship declined 
the reputation of them. To auch vague assertions little 
regard, we apprehend,^ is to be paid ; and it was not Euri<* 
pidea, but ^chylys, that was published by Mr. Stanley.^ 

FAIRFAX (Thomas, Lord), a very active man in the- 
parliament's service during the civil wars, and at lengtiv 
general of their armies, was the eldest son of Ferdinands 
lord Fairfax*; by Mary his wife, daughter of Edmund Shef* 
field earl of Mulgrave. He was boril at Denton within the 
parish of Otiey, in Yorkshire, in 4a.nuary, '161L. -After a 
proper school education, he studied tiometime in St. John V 
college, in Cambridge,- to which, in bis lauer days, he 
became a benefactor. He ap^ars to -have been a lover of 
learning, though he did not excel in any branch, except. 

I Biojf. Brit.— Atterbury's Corros^>ondettce.— Coopcr'c' Mvscs Ubraryv. 


it was in the history and antiquities of Britain, as will ap*^ 
pear in the sequel. ' Being of a martial disposition even in 
his youpger years, but finding no employment at home, 
be went and served in Holland as a volunteer under the 
command of Horatio lord Vere, in order to learn the art of 
war. After some stay there (but how long we pannot learn) 
he came back to England ; and, retiring to his father's 
house, married Anne, fourth daughter of lord Vere. Here 
he contracted a strong aversion for the court ; either by 
the instigation of his wife, who was a zealous presbyterian, 
or else by the persuasions and example of his father, who, 
as Clarendon says, grew << actively and factiously disaf- 
fected to the king." When the king jflrst endeavoured to 
raise a guard at York for his own pennon, be was entrusted 
by his party to prefer a petition to the king, beseeching 
him to hearken to his parliament, and not to take that 
bourse of raising farces, and when his majesty seethed to 
ihun receiving it, Fairfax followed him with it, on Hey- 
wortb-iiioor, in the presence of r^ear 100,000 people, and 
presented it upon the pommel of nis saddle. Shottly after, 
upon the actual breaking out of the citil wars, in 1642, his 
father having received a commission from the parliament 
to be general of the forces in the North, he had a commis- 
sidri under him to be general of the horse. His first ex- 
ploit was* at Bradford in Yorkshire, which he obliged ^ 
body of royalists to quit, and to retire to Leeds. A few 
dftys ^fter, he and captain Hotham, with some horse and 
dragoons marching thither, the i-oyalists fled in baste to 
York. And the former having advanced to Tadcaster, re^ 
solyed to keep the pass at Wetherby, for securing the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, whence their chief supplies^ 
came. Sir Thomas Glemham attempted to dislodge them 
thence; but, after a short and sharp encounter, retired. 
On this, William Cavendish earl of Newcastle, and Henry 
Clifford earl of Cumberland, united their forces at York, 
amounting to 9000 men, and resolved to fall upon Tad- 
caster : which being judged untenable, the lord Fairfax, 
and his son sir Thomas, drew out to an advantageous piece 
of ground near the town : but, after a six hours fight, were 
beaten, and withdrew in the night to Selby. Three days 
afler, sir Thomas marched in the night by several towns 
in which the royalists lay, and came to Bradford, where 
be entrenched himself. But having too many soldiers to 
Ue idle, and too few to be upon consta^at duty, he resolved 


to' attack bis enemies in their garrisons.' , Accordingly; 
coining before Leeds, he carried that town (Jan. 23, 1642-3) 
after a hot dispute, and found a good stpre of ammuni- 
tion, of which he stood in great want. He next defeated 
a party of 700 horse and foot .at Gisborough, under the 
command of colonel Slingsby; and then Wakefield and 
Doucaster yielded themselves to the parliament. But, for 
these overt acts, William ^arl of Newcastle, the kingV 
general, proclaimed sir Thomas and his father traiu^rs, and 
the pirKament did the like for the earl. In ti>e mean time> 
the lord Fairfax, being denied succour froni Hull and the 
East Riding, was forced to forsake Selby, and retire to 
Leeds : of which the ear) of Newcastle having intelligence, 
Uy with his army on Cli(Ford-moor, to intercept him in 
his way to Leeds. On this sir Thomas was ordered, by 
his father, to bring what men he could to join with him at 
Sherburne, on purpose to secure his retreat To amuse 
the earl, sir Thomas made a diversion at I'adcaster, which 
the garrison immediately quitted, but lord Goring march* 
ing to its relief, with twenty troops of horse and dragoons^ 
defeated sir Thomas upon Bramham-moor : who also re- 
ceived a second defeat upon Seacroft-moor, where some * 
of his men were slain, and many taken prisoners, and him- 
self made his retreat with much difficulty to Leeds, about 
an hour after his father was safely come thither. Leeds 
and Bradford being all the garrisons the parliament had in 
tb$ North, sir Thomas thought it necessary to possess some 
other place : therefore with about 1 100 horse and foot, he 
drove, on the 21st of May, the royalists out of Wakefield, 
which they had seized again ; and took 1400 prisoners, 80" 
officers, and gveat store of ammunition. But, shortly 
after, the earl of Newcastle coming to besiege Bradford^ 
and sir Thomas and his father having the boldness, with 
about 3000 men, to go and attack bis whole army, which* 
consisted of 10,000, on Adderton-moor ; they, were en- 
tirely routed by the earl, jon the SOth of June, with a conr 
siderable loss. Upon that, Halifax" and Beverly being 
abandoned by .the parliamentarians, and the lord Fairfax' 
having- neither a pl^e of strength to defend himself in, not' 
a garrison in Yorkshire to retire to, withdrew the same 
night to Leeds^ to secure Ijbat town. By his order, sir 
Thomas stayed in Bradford with 800 foot, and 60 horse; 
but b^ifig surrounded^ he was obliged to force his way* 
through iv in. which desperate attempt, his, lady, and:maj9^' 


otbers^ were taken prisoneris. At. his comtog to Leeds, to 
found things in great dbtraction; the council of war bav-^ 
iDg resoly^ to quit the town, and retreat to Hull, which 
wa& si%ty miles otf ; with many of the king^s garrison in the 
yfSLy^ bui he got safely to.Selby^ where diere was a ferry,' 
a^ul bard by one of the parliament's garrisoas at Cawood* 
Immediately after his copntng to Selby, being attacked by 
a party of horse which pursued htm, be received a shot in 
the wrist of bis left arm, which made the bridle fall out of 
bis handy and occasioned such an effusion of bloody that; 
be was ready to fall from bis horse. But, tidying the reins; 
in the other baud in which be bad his sword, he withdrew 
himself out of the crowd ; and after a very troublesome and 
dangerous passage, be came to Hull. Upon these re^ 
peated disasters^ the Scots were hastily solicited to send 
2^0,000 meq to the assistance of the parliamentarians, wiio 
were thvis likely to be over|K)wered* Lord Fairfax^ after 
bis coming to Hull, made it bis first business to raise new" 
forces, and, in a short time^ had about 1500 foot, and 700 
horse. The town being little, sir Thomas was sent to fie^ 
rerly, with the horse and 600 foot: for, the marquis oC 
!N$wcastie looking upon them as inconsiderable, and leav- 
ing only a few garrisons, was marclied with his whole army^ 
into Lincolnshire;, having orders to go into Essex, and 
block up London on that side But be was hastily recalled 
northward, upon lord Fairfax's sending out a large party-* 
to make an attempt upon Stanford- bridge near York. The 
marquis, at his return into Yorkshire, first dislodged, froni' 
Beverly y sir Thomas, who retreated into Hull, to which, 
the marquis laid siege, but could not cany the place. ^ 
During the siege, the horse being useless, and many dyin|; 
every day, sir Thomas was sent with them over into Lin<^ 
Goloshire, to join the earl of Manchester's forces, then, 
commanded by major-general Cromwell. At Horncastle^ 
or Wjnsby^ they routed a party of iOOO me% commanded 
by sir John Henderson: and, at the same time, the be- ' 
sieged in Hull making a sally upon the besiegers, obliged 
them to retire. These two defeats together, the one falU 
ing heavy upon the horse, the other upon tbe foot, kept 
the royalists all that winter from attempting any thing ; 
and tbe parliamentarians, after the taking of Liocolu, set* . 
tied themselves in winter quarters. But sir Thomas bad 
not long tbe benefit of them ; for, in the coldest season of 
the year, be was commanded by the parliament to go and 

Fairfax: «i 

ikhe the mege of Nantwich in dwBbire, which loid Bytong 
with an army from Ireland, bad roduced to great extre- 
mity. He set forward from Lincolnshire, December 29» 
and, being joined by sir William Brereton, entirely routed, 
on the 21st of January, lord Byron, who was drawn out to 
meet them. After that, they took in several garrisons ia 
Gfaeshire, particularly Crew^house, &c* Sir Thomas, ha?^ 
ing stayed in those parts till the middle of March, was or«- 
dered biack by his father into Yorkshire, that by the con« 
joaction of their forces he might be abler to take the field. 
They met about Ferry-bridge ; and colonel Bellasis, go*' 
ytmcT of York, having advanced to Selby to hinder tl^ir 
janctiott,. they found means, notwithstanding, to join, and 
entirely defeated him, on the llthof April, 1644. Thi9 
good success rendered sir Thomas master of the 6eld in 
Yoricsbire, and nothing then hindered him from marching 
into Northumberland, as he had been ordered by the par- 
liament, to join the Scots, which were kept from advancing 
southward by the superior forces of tbe marquis of New- 
castle, quartered at Durham. But that stroke having 
thrown York into the utmost distraction, tbe inhabitants 
speedily sent to the marquis to haste back thither; by which 
means a way was left open for the Scots, wbo, with cold^ 
and frequent alarms, were reduced to great extremity. 
They joined the lord Fairfax at Wetherby, on the 20th of J 

Aprii, and, marching on to York, laid siege to that city *, '^ 

wherein the marquis of Newcastle had shut himself up, 
being closely pursued, on the way thither, by sir Thomas^ 
and migor-general Desley. And, when prince Rupert was 
advancing out of Lancashire to the relief of that place, 
they marched with 6000 horse and dragoons, and 5000 
foot, to stop hia progress : but he, eluding their vigilance, 
and bringii>g round bis army, which consisted of abovef 
20,000 men, got into York. Whereupon the parliament 
tacians^raised the siege, and retired to Hessey-moor. Tbe 
EngHsh were for fighting, and the Scots for retreating; 
whieb last o|union prevailing, they both marched away to 
Tadqj^ter, there being great differences and jealousies be* 
tweeilP tb^ two nations. But the rash and haughty prince, 
instead of harassing and wearing them out by pnident de-- 
lays^ resolved, iirithout consulting tbe marquis of New'^ • 
■ . * "^ - ' ■ 

*. Iq our account of Dodsworth (toI. XIL p. 181), will be found %:^me cir^ 
9umstaneeii favourable to sir Thomas Fairfax's character in the conduct of ilosi 
Siege* •.*♦..•«• - \ • ' 


caitle, pr 4ny 0f bis officers, to engage theai^ on Mftrst6«K 
laoor, eight miles from York, on the 2d of July : wbere 
that bloody battle was fought which entirely rained the 
king^ft ailairs in the north. In this battle^ sirThoosaB fair** 
fax commanded the right wing of. the horse. The prince^ 
after his defeat, retiring towards Lancashire, and the aiar«» 
quis, in discontent, sailing away to Hamburgh, the three 
parliament-generals came and $at down again before York, 
Ivhich surrendered the 15Ui of July: aud the North was 
now wholly reduced by the parliament's forces, except 
some garrisons^% In SeptecDber following,, sir Thomas waa 
sent to take Helmesley-casile, where he receired a daa^** 
gerous shot in one of bis shoulders, and was brought back 
to York, all being doubtful of his recovery for some time^ 
Some time after, he was more nearly killed by a canncm^ 
shot before Pomfret-castle. 

Hitherto he had aisquitted himself with undaunted bra-^ 
very, and with great and deserved applause from his party. 
Had he stopped here, or at such times at least as the king's 
concessions were in reason and equity a just groupd for 
peace (which was more than once), he might have been 
honourably ranked among the rest of those patriots, who 
took up arms onjly for the redress of grievances* But his 
boundless ambition, and his great desire to rule, made him 
w:eakly engage, with the utmost zeal, in the worst and 
most exceptionable parts of the rebellion. When the par- 
liamentarians thought fit to new-model their army, and to 
lay aside the earl of Essex, they unanimously voted sir 
Thomas Fairfax to be. their general in his room, be beiu^ 
ready to undertake or execute any thing that he waa ot^ 
dered. To him Oliver Cromwell was joined with the title 
of lieutenant-general, but with intention of being his go-' 
vernor, exercising the superiority of deep art over a com-* 
pmratively weak mind. Sir Thomas, being thus voted com-^ 
maodeL> in-chief of the. parliament's army on the 21st. of 
January, 1644-5, received orders from the parliament 
speedily to come up from the north to London, where he 
an'ived privately, Feb. 18, and, the next day, was brought 
by four of the members into the house of commons, where 
be was highly complimented by the speaker, and received 
his commission of general. The loth of ibe same months 
an ordinance was made, for raising and maintaining of forces 
under his command : it having been voted, a few days be- 
fore, that he should nominate all the commanders in his 

imy^ to ii^ tiken out of any of tlie othar armte^^ with the 
{q[)>prob2itio& of both houses. March 25^ the parliament 
ordered bitn 150O/. The Sd of April, he went from Lon-^ 
doii ta Windsor, where he appointed the general r^ndez^ 
voos : and continued there till the last day of that month, 
new-framing and modelling the army : or rather Cromwell 
doing it in bis name. April 16, he was appointed, by 
both houses, govenior of Hull. In the mean time, Taun- 
ton, in Somersetshire, one of the parliament's garrisons^ 
being closely besieged by the royalists, sir Thomas Fairfax 
received orders to hasten to its relief, with 8000 hors^ and 
foot. He began his march May 1, and by the 7th had 
reached Blandfbrd in Dorsetshire : but, the king taking 
the ficdd from Oxford, with strong reinforcements brought 
by die princes Rupert and Maurice, isir Thomas was or- 
dered by the parliament to send 3000 foot and 1 500 horse 
to relieve Taunton^ and himself to return, with the rest of 
his forces, to join Oliver Cromwell and major-general 
Browne, and attend the king's motions. The 14th of May 
be was come back as far as Newbury ; where having rested 
three nights, he went and faced Dehnington-castle, and 
•took a few prisoners^ Thence be proceeded to lay siege 
to Oxfol^dy as he was directed by the committee of both 
kingdoms, and sat ddwn before it the 22d. But, before 
he bad made any progress in this siege, he received orders 
to draw near the king, who bad taken Leicester by storm, 
May ^1^ and was threatening the eastern associated coun- 
ties. Sir Thomas therefore rising from before Oxford, 
June 5, i^rived the same day at Marsh-Gibbon, in Buck- 
inghamshire ; on the 11th he was at Wootton, and the 
next^ay at Gilsborough, in Northamptonshire : where he 
kept his head-quarters till the I4th, when he engaged the 
kiog*a forces, at the fatal and decisive battle of Naseby^ 
and obtained a complete victory. The king, after that^ 
retiring into Wales, sir Thomas went and laid siege bn 
the l€th to Leicester, which surrendered on the 18th. He 
proceeded, on the 22d, to Warwick; and thence (with a 
disposition either to gd over the Severn towards the king, 
or to oiove westward as he sbould be ordered) he marched 
on through 'Gk>i}cestersbire towards Maiiborough, where 
he arrived the 2Btlu 'Here he received orders from the 
parliament/ to bastish to the relief 6f Taunton^ which was 
besiej^«d-again by tfa6 royatists ; letters being sent at the 
lame time into diie aaaoeikted couiities for recruits, and the 

#& JTA.! R FA K« 

arrears of pay for his army ; but on his arrival at Blandfor^^ 
he was informed^ that lord Goring bad drawn off. bis horse 
froni before Taunton^ and left his foot in the passage to 
block up that place^ marching himself with the horse to- 
wards Langport. Sir Thomas Fairfax, therefore, advanc* 
Ing against him, defeated btm there on the 10th. of July ; 
and the Jiext day, went and summoned Bridgewateic, which 
was taken by storm on the 22d. He became also master 
tof Bath the 30kh of the same month; and then laid close 
siege to Sherborne-castle, which was likewise taken, by 
storm August 15. And, having besieged the city of 
Bristol from the 22d of August to the 10th of Septen^ber, 
it was surrendered to him by prince Rupert, After this 
laborious expedition, the general rested some days at Batb, 
having sent out parties to reduge the castles of the Devises 
and Berkley, and other garrisons between the west and 
London ; and on the 23d moved from Batb to th^ Devisei»^ 
and thence to Warminster on the 27th, where he sta}^ 
till October 8, when he went to Lyme in Dorsetshire. 
From this place he came to Tiverton, of which he became 
ma);ter on the 19th; and then, as he could not underis^ke^- 
a formal siege in the winter season, he blocked up the 
strong city of Exeter, which did not surrender till the 13Ch 
of April following : in the mean time, he took Dartmouth 
by storm, January 18, 1645-6; and several forts and gar- 
risons at different times. Feb. 16, be defeated the lord 
Hopton near Torrington. This nobleman retreating with 
his broken forces into Cornwall, sir Thomas followed him : 
in pursuit of whom be came tg Launceston Feb. 25, and 
to Bodmin March 2. On the 4th, Mount Edgecombe was 
surrendered to him ; and Fowey about the same time. At 
last the parliament army approaching Truro, where lord 
Hopton had his head-quarters, and he being so hemmecl in 
as to remain without a possibility of escaping, sir Tbomts, 
on the 5th of March, sent and offered him honourable 
terms of capitulation, which after some delays, lord HoptXHi 
accepted, and a treaty was signed by commissioners on 
both sides, March 14 ; in pursuance of which, the royalists, 
l^oiisisting of above 5000 bqrse, wf re disbanded^ and took 
an oath never to bear arms against the parliament. 3ut, 
before the treaty was. signed, lord Hopton,. aqd, Arthur 
lovd Capel, retired to Scilly,. whence they passed into^ 
Jersey, April 17, with Charles prince of Wales, sir JEUU 
*vard Hyde^ and other persons of distioaioo.. . Thus ib« 


iin^B ai^ihy in the west being entirely dispersed by the 
vigilance and wonderful success of general Fairfax, be re- 
turned, March 31, to the siege of Exeter, which surren- 
dered to him upon articles, the }3th of April, as already 
<>bserved : and with the taking of this city ended bis west^i* 
em expedition. He then marcbed, with wonderful speedy 
towards Oxford, the roost Considerable garrison remaining 
iu the king's hands, and arriving on the 1st of May^ with 
his army, began to lay siege to it. The king, who was 
there, afraid of being enclosed, privately, and in disguise^ 
departed thence on the 27th of April; and Oxford sur-* 
rendered upon articles, June ^4, as did Wallingford, Ju^ 
$2. . After the reduction of these places, sir Thomas went 
atad besieged Raglan d«castle, in Monmouthshire, the pro- 
perty of Henry Somerset, marquis of Worcester, which 
yielded Aug. 1 9. His next employment was to disband 
major-general Massey's brigade, which he did at the De« 
Tises. About that time he was seised with a violent fit of 
the ston#, un^er which he laboured many days. As sooa 
as he was recovered, he took a journey to London ; where 
*he arrived November 12, being met some miles off by 

Sreat crowds of people, and the city militia. The next 
ay, both houses of parliament agreed to congratulate his 
coming' to lown^ and to give him thanks for bis faithful 
services and wise conduct: which they did the day folio w-» 
iog. Waiting upon him at. bis house in Queen-street^. 
Ilardly had he had time to rest, when he was called upoa 
to coayoy the two hundred thousand pounds that had beea 
granted to the Scotisb army; the price of their delivering 
u^ their sovejCeigo king Charles, For that purpose he set 
out from London, December 18, with a sufficient force^ 
caiTyihg at the same tioie 50,000/. for his own army. The 
king being delivered by the Scots to the parliament's com- 
missiotkers at Newcastle, Jan. 30, 1646-7> sir Thomas went 
'and met biiA, Feb. 15, beyoi^d Nottingham, in his way to 
Holmby ; and his majesty stopping his horse, sir Thomas 
'alighted, and kissed bis band; and afterwards mounted, 

.'•* They gftve him toaie^hing more I64C, an ordinance was made for set- 

Sttbftantial than words and compli- tling 5000/. a year upon him and his 

kneats, by makinc him iiery cont ider- heirs; And 4000/. a year was granted 

able presents and grants at different to him out of the duke of Buckingham's 

limes. As, namely, m 1 645, they tn^t estate : which probably waa part of the 

hhai a jewel of great value» set with 5000/. iettlfld upon htm by the parlia- 

diamonds,^ whiclit was lied in a blue ^lenU Instead of Jthe other thousand, 

Mkh%nd, and t>ui aVout bis neck. In 10^000/. was gWeu bioi-lky parliament. 


e» fAiRFAx: 

knA discoursecl with him as they rode along. The 5'di ot 
March following, after long debate in parliament, he wa» 
Toted general of the forces that were to be continued. Hd 
came to Cambridge the 12th of the same month, where he 
was highly caressed and complimented, and created mastef 
of arts. 

' Hitherto, the crafty and ambitious Cromwell had per^ 

ittitted him to enjoy in all respects the supreme command^ 

at least to outward appearance. And, under his conduct, 

the army's rapid success, after their new model, had much 

surpassed the expectation of the most sanguine of their 

inasters, the parliament The question now was, to dts-^ 

band the mcyority of them after their work was done, and 

to employ a part of the rest in the reduction of Ireland* 

But either of the two appeared to all of them intolerable. 

For^ many having, from the dregs of the people, risen to 

the highest commands, and by plunderings and violence 

amassing daily great treasures, they could not bear the 

thoughts of losing such great advantages. To maintaiti 

themselves therefore in the possession of them, Cromwell, 

and his sonrin-law Ireton, as good a contriver as himself, 

but a much better writer and speaker, devised how to rai^ 

a mutiny in the army against the parliament. To this end 

they spread a whisper among the soldiei^y, ** that the par- 

hameni, now they had the king, intended to disband 

them; to cheat them of their arrears ; and to send them 

ifnto Ireland, to be destroyed by the Irish.** The arkny, 

Enraged at this, were taught by Ireton to erect a council 

among themselves, of two soldiers out of every troop arid' 

every company, to aonsult for the good of the army, ahd 

to assist at the council of war, and advise for the peace and 

safety of the kingdom. These, who were caHed adjutatdrs, 

dr agitators, were wholly under CromwelPs influence and 

direction, iJie most active of them being[ his avowed civa^ 

tures. Sir Thomas saw with uneasiness his power ofi the 

tfrmy usurped by these agitators, the forerunners of dOfi** 

ftision* and anarchy, whose design (as he observes) was to- 

raise their own fortunes upon the public ruin; and th^t 

made him resolve to lay dowu his commission. But be- 

Was over-persaaded by the heads of the Indq)endent fac* 

tian to hold it till he had accoioiplished their desperate 

projects, of rendering themselves masters not only of the 

parliament, but of the whole^^ingdom ; for, he joined in' 

the several petitions and procQeoings of the army that 

FAjaF A.X{ a» 

lend^ tb destroy the pwrliament^s power. About ibe be- 
gioniog of June» he Mvanced towards London, to awB tb# 
pariiameot^ though both bouses desired bis army might not 
come within fifteen miles of the same ; June 15, he waa n 
party in the charge against eleven of the members of tbo 
bouse of commons ; in August, he espoused the speakeca 
of both houses, and the sixty ^six members that had fled to 
tb« army, and betrayed the privileges of parliament : and^ 
mtering London, August 6, restored them in a kind of 
triumph ; for which he received the thanks of both 
houses, and was appointed constable of the Tower. On 
die other hand it is said that he was no way concerned iuf 
the violent removal of the king from Ilolmby> by cornet 
Joyce, on the 3d of June; and wmted with great resped 
upon bis m^esiy at sir John Cutts^s bouse near Cambridge^ 
Being ordered, on. the i5th of the same month, by the 
parliament, to deliver the person of the king to soch per* 
sons as both houses should appoint ; that he might be brought 
to BricbfDOiid, where propositions were to be presented to 
him for a safe and well-grounded peace ; instead of com* 
plying (though he seemed to do so) he carried his majesty 
from pbuce to place, according to the several motions of 
the army, outwardly expressing, upon most occasions, a 
due respect for him, but, not having the will or resQlutioa 
lo oppose what he had not power enough to prevent^ he 
resigned himself entirely to Cromwell. It was this ua^ 
doubtedly that made him concur, Jan. 9, 1647*8, in that 
in£unou& declaration of the army, of ^^ No further ad^ 
dresses or application to the king ; and resolved to stand by 
the parliament, in what should be further necessary £ot 
settiiugand securing the parliament and kingdom, without 
the king and against him.'* His father dying at Yitric, < 
llacefa i3t he ibecame possessed of his title and estate; 
imd was appointed keeper of Pontefract^castHs, custos 
routlorum of Yorkshire, &c» in his room. But his £sther*s 
death made no alteratiou in his conduct, he remaining 
•the saoae aerviie or deluded tool to Cromwell's ambitiou* 
He not only sent extraordinary supplies, and tpok all 
paiM imaginable for reducing colonel Poyer in Wales, but 
also quelled, with the utmost zeal and industry, an insur- 
rection of apprentices and others in London, April 9, who 
iatd declared for God and king Charles. The ist of the 
f>ame month he r^oved his head^quarters to St. £dn)und's« 
bury ; and,, upon the. royalists seizing Berwick and Ciir^ie^ 

to t A m F A^Xi 

and the apprehension of the Scots entering England, Imi 
uras desired, May 9, by the parliament, to advance in per^ 
6on into the North, to reduce those places, and to prevent; 
any danger from the threatened invasion^ Accordingly 
he began to march that way the 20th. But be was sooii; 
tiecalled to quell an insurrection in Kent, beaded by George 
Coring, earl of Norwich, and sir William Waller. Ad«* 
vancing therefore against them from London in the latter 
eiid of May, he defeated a considerable party of them at 
Slaidstone, June 2, with his usual valour. But the earl 
and about 500"of the royalists, getting over the Thames al 
Greenwich into Essex, June 3, they were joined by several 
parties brought by sir Charles Lucas, and Arthur lord 
€apel, which made up their numbers about 400 ; and went 
and shut themselves up in Colchester on the 12th of June. 
Lord Fairfkx, informed of their motions, passed over with 
his forces at Gravesend with so much expedition, that ha 
Hrrived before Colchester June 1 3, Immediately he sum« 
tnons the royalists to surrender; which they relui4iig, he 
attacks them the same afternoon with the utmost fury,, 
but, being repulsed, he resolved, June 14, to block up 
the place in order to starve the royalists into a compliaoce* 
These endured a severe and tedtotfs siege of eleven weeksy 
Dbtsutren^ring' till August 28, and feeding for about five 
veeks chiefly on horse-flesh; all their endeavours for oIm 
tainihg peace on honourable terms being ineffectual. Thi^ 
Hffair is the most exceptionable fkn^ in lord Fairfax-a 
conduct, If it admits of degrees, foiK-M granted worse 
'^ms to that poor town than to any otfajdr in the whole 
^ourse of the war ; he endeavoured to destroy it as much 
as possible; he laid^an exorbitant line, or ransom^ of 
12^000/.' upon the inhi^itants, to excuse them from being 
plundered; and he vented his revenge and fory. upon sit 
Charles Lucas and sir J&eorge Lisle, who. had belutvedi^ 
the mrost inoffensive manner during the siege, sparing^that 
})uffpon the earl of Norwich, whose behaviour .had beeii 
q%iite different : so that his name and memory there ought 
to be for ever detestable. After these mighty e^ploit^ 
against a poor and unfortified, town, he made a kind of 
triumphant progress to Ipswich, Yarmouth, Norwich,- Sti 
£dmdnd^s-bury, Harwich, Mersey^ aud ..Maldoo.. About 
^he beginning of December he came to London^ to awe 
that city and the parliament, and to forward the proceedt 
ings against the kin^ ; quartering himself ii^ the ro^ 




y A IKF A X. If 

jNdace of - WUteliall : and it was by especial order frooi 
biquaiidtbe'coanciiof the a.rroy9 that several members of 
the bouse of commons were secluded and imprisoned, the 
6th and 7th of that month ; he being, as Wood expresses 
itf lolled in a kind of stupidity. Yet, although his name 
stood foremost in the list of the kjiog's judges, he refused 
to act, probably by his lady's persuasion *. Feb. 1 4, 1 648-9, 
be was voted to be one of the new council of state, but 
on the 19 th he refused to subscribe the test, appointed 
by parliament, for approving all that was done concerning 
the king and .kingship. March 31 he was voted general 
of all the. forces in England and Ireland ; and in May be 
marched against the levellers, who were grown very nu« 
m^ous, apd began to be troublesome and formidable in 
Oxfordshire, and utterly routed them at Burford. Thenoe, 
on the 22d' of the same month, he repaired to Oxford with 
Oliver CromweU, and other officers, where he was highly 
feasted, and created LL.D. Next, upon apprehension of 
the Uke risings in other places, he went anid viewed the 
fables and fortifications in the Isle of Wight, and at South* 
ainpton, and Pprtsmooth ; and near Guildford had a ren* 
dezToos. of the army, which be exhorted to obedience* 
June 4, he was entertained, with other officers, &c. by the 
city .of London, and presented with a large and weighty 
bason and ewer of beat;en gold. In June 1650,. upon the 
ScoM declaring for king Charles II. the juncto of the 
council of state having taken a r^olution to be beforehand, 
and not to stay to be invaded from Scotland, but to carry 
first the war into that kingdom; general Fair£u, being 

* From Whitlock and Clarendon we '* No, northehandreclth partof lbem^7 

Itarn that this lady, at the mock trial upon which, one of the officers bid the 

«f Unf Cbarlas, «aei>iiiMd atond a* aDkUar»siv» fire into that boa wbance the 

fainst the proceedings of thiB high presamptuoui wards wera uttered. But 

court, and the irreverent usage of the it was quicklv discerned that it was Uie 

lauff hy his Mib^ctKr intomoch that - g^saeral's win, who had uttered both 

theaoHrt was interrupted :• for» her iiu^ sharp ^yiofa;wba was pnsentljr 

husband, the lord Fairfax, being called persuaded or forced to leave the pJace« 

first as one of the jadges, and do an- to prevent any n^w disorder.— Having 

tvcf beiqg tpade, the crier called him. been bred in HoHand^ che had Httt» 

the second time» when ther^ was a reverence for the church of Cps^aad* 

TOice heard that said, ** he had more and so had unhappily concur^ in her 

wit than to be there," which pat the hasbaad** entering into rebelliaQ,n«ver 

court iato some disorder ; and some- imagining, says Clarendon, what mW ' 

^ody asking who it was, therie was no sery it would bring upon the kingdom ; 

answer, bat a litiife nHtrmiiring. ' But, and now abhorred th^ woik in hand, as 

preeenUy, when the impeachment was nrach as any body could do, and did alt 

r^adt an<l that expression used, of she could to hiwler her hosbaad from 

'* All the good people of England," the apti^g any patt in it. 

£anefoice^iaaloudataiiitiaos«ered» . • ^ 


^oainluAf seemed to aj^prove of the design ; but*)afterwafdfr/ 
by the persuasions of bis lady, and of . the presbyteriait 
ministerfi) he declared himself unsatisfied that there was a 
just ground for the parliament of £ngland to send their 
army to invade Scotland ; and resolved to lay down 1m9 
commission rather than engage in that affair ; and on the 
26th tha|: high trust was immediately committed to Oliver 
Cromwell, who was glad to see him removed^ as being no 
longer necessary, but rather an obstacle to his farther am-^ 
bitious designs. Being thus released from all public era-' 
ploymepty he went and lived quietly at his own house inr 
Nun- Appleton in Yorkshire ; always earnestly wishing and 
praying (as we are assured) for the restitution of the royal 
family, and fully resolved to lay hold on the first oppor^ 
tunity to contribute his part towards it, which made him' 
always looked upon with a jealous eye by the usurpers of 
that time. As soon as he was invited by general Monk to 
assist him against Lambert^s army, he cheerfully embraced 
the occasion, and appeared, on the 3d of December l€5dv 
at the head of a body of gentlemen of Yorkshire ; and,' 
upon the reputation and. authority of his name,- the Irislr 
brigade of 1200 horse foHMiok Lambert's army, and joined' 
bim. The consequrace was, the immediate breaking of^ 
all LamberCs forces, which gave general Monk an easy 
march into England. The 1st of January 1659-60, btr 
lordship made himself master of York; and, on the 2d of^ 
the same, month, was cbosai by the romp parliament one' 
of the council of state, as he was again on the 23d of Fe** 
bruary ensuing* March 29 be was elected one of the- 
knights for the county of York, in the healing parliament ; 
and was at the head of the committee appointed May 3^; 
by the house of commons, to go and attend king Charles' 
11^ at the Hague, to desire him to inake a speedy return' 
to his parliament, and to the exercise of his kingly ofiice.> 
May 16 he waited upon his majesty with the rest, and 
endeavoured to atone in some measure for all past offences,,* 
by readily concurring and assisting in bis restoration. After 
the dissolution of the short healing parliament, he retired, 
again to his seat in the country, where he lived in a private 
manner till his death, which happened November 12, 1671, 
in the sixtieth yes^r of his age*. Several letters, remonsr 

* In a paper extracted from an on- for 1773, ar« soma circumstaDees re« 
frinal manuscript by Pr, Bryan Fairfax, lating to the latter part of lord Fair- 
knd inserted in tb^ Annual Rejjiister f««*9 Ufe, He W8is afllicled wi^l;^ tlier 

Fairfax; it 

intttsen^ and other papers, sabscrtbed with his name, ai*^ 
preserved in Rusfaworth and other collections, being pub^' 
lisbed during the tini^e he was general ; but he disowned 
most of them. After his decease, some '^ short memorials, 
written by himself/' were published in 1699, 8vo, by* 
Brian Fairfax, esq. but do his lordship no great honour, 
either as to principle, style, or accuracy. Lord Fairfax, 
as to his person, was tall, but not above the just proportion/ 
and of a gloomy and melancholy disposition. He stam-^ 
hiered a little, and was a bad orator on the most plausible 
occasions* As to the qualities of his mind, he was of a 
good natural disposition; a great lover of learning*, having 
contributed tg the edition of the Polyglott, and other large 
works ; and a particular admirer of the History and Anti« 
quilies of Great Britain, as appears by the encouragement 
be gave to Mr. Dodsworth. In religion be professed Pres-' 
byterianismn, but where he first learned that, unless in- 
the army, does not appear. He was of a meek and humble 
carriage, and but of few words in discourse and couijcil ; 
yet, when his judgment and reason were satisfied, he was 
unalterable ; and often ordered things expressly contrary . 
to the judgment of all his council. His valour was un- 
<|Uestiotiable. He was daring, and regardless of self-in-* 
tereftt, and, we are told, in the field he appeared so highly 
transported, that scarcely any durst speak si word to him, 
and he would seem like a man distracted and furious. Had 
not the more successful ambition and progress of Cromwell 
eclipsed I^rf "Fairfax's exploits, he would have been con- 
sideredasthe greatest of the parliamentary commanders ; 
and one of the greatest heroes of the rebellion, had not 
the extreme narrowness of his genius, in every thing but 
war, obstructed his shining as a statesman. We h^/ve al-*^ 
ready noticed that he had some taste for literature, and 
that both at York and at Oxford he endeavoured to pre-* 

gout aod. stooe^ t))e pains of which he were ever represented in the figure of: 

endured with a courage and patience mortal man. Most of his time i»at 

equal to what he had shewn in his war. spent in reHgious duties* and a grea^ 

like e|cp|«its. These disorders were Uie part of the remainder In reading 

result of the wounds be had suffered, vaiuable hAoks, for which he was welL 

and the fatigues he had gone through, qualified by his skill in modem Ian* 

dating the war. The gout took frona guages. Hi« death was occasioned by 

^m the use of his legs, and confined a fever, which carried him oft in a ftm - 

him to a chair, ia which he sat like an days. The last morning of his life he . 

old Roman, * his manly countenance called for a bible, snying,*' his eyes- 

striking awe and reverence into all that grew dim/' and read the forty*teeoiid 

heheld him; while it was mixed with fsalm.-. 
§s much modesty and sweetness as 


serve the libraries from being pillaged. He also presented 
twenty-nine ancient MSS. to the Bodleian librarj, one of 
which is a beautiful MS. of Govver^s ^' Confessio Amantia.** 
When at Oxford we do not find that he countenanced any 
of the outrages committed there, but on the contrary, 
exerted his utmost diligence in preserving the Bodieiao: 
from pillage ; and, in fact, as Mr. Warton observes, that 
valuable repository suffered less than when the city was in 
the possession of the royalists. Lord Orford has intro^ 
duced lord Fairfax among his '' Royal and Noble Authors,'' 
^^ not only as an historian, but a poet. In Mr. Tbcnres^ 
by's museum were preserved in manuscript the foUowing* 
pieces: « The Psalms of David;" *^The S^ngof Selo- 
mon;*' " The Canticles ;" and " Songs of Moses, Exod.: 
15. and Deut. 52.'* and other parts of scripture versiBed. 
*f Poem on Solitude/' Besides which, in the sam^ coU 
lection were preserved ^^ Notes of Sermons by his lonl-^ 
ship, by bis lauly, and by their daughter Mary," the wife 
of the second duke of Buckingham ; and *^ A Treatise on 
tjbe iShortness of Life." But, of sill lord Fairfax's works,' 
by far the most remarkable were some verses which be 
wote on the horse on which Charles the Seoond rodcf to* 
his coronation, and which had* been bred and presented Uy 
the king by his lordship. How must that merry monarch,.- 
not apt to keep his countenance on more serious occasions, 
liave smiled at this awkward homage from the old victoridusl 
bero of republicanism and the covenant !" Besides tbese^'- 
sieveral of his MSS. are preserved in the library at Denton,^ 
of which Mr. Park has given a list in his new edition of ibe^ 
** Royal and Noble Authors." * j 

FAIRFAX (7'homas, sixth Lord), was born about* 
1691. He was the eldest son of Thomas, fifth lord Fair^ 
fax, of Cameron, in the kingdom of Scotland, by Catheliue^f 
Qnly daughter and heiress of Thomas lord Culpepper; ia; 
whose right he afterwards possessed Leeds Castle, with' 
several manors and estates in th^ county of Kent, and in^ 
the Isle of Wight; and that immense tract of country, 
comprised within the boundaries of the rivers Potowmae 
and Rappahannoc in Virginia, called the Northern Neck^' 
containing by estimation five millions seven hundred thou* * 
aand acres. . He had the misfortune to lose his father while 
young ; and atjiis decease, he and bis two brothers^ Henry % 

' Bios- Brit, 


pni Bobert^ and four sistersy one of whom, Frances, was 
afterwards married to Denny Martin, esq. of Loose, in 
Kent, came under the guardianship of tbeir mother and 
grandmother, the dowager ladies Fairfax and Culpepper, 
th^ latter of ^ivhom was a princess of the bouse of Hesse 

Lord Fairfiix, at the usual age, was sent to the univer* 
sity of Oxford to complete his education, aod was highly 
esteemed there for his learmng and accomplishmento. His 
judgment upon literary subjects was then, and at other 
times, frequently appealed to ; and his biographer informs 
^^ be was one of the writers of the Spectator, but the an<» 
notators on that work have not been able to ascertain any o£ 
his papers. After some years' residence in the university, 
he took a commission in the regiment of horse called the 
Blues, and remained in it, as is supposed, till the death of 
the survivor of the two ladies above mentioned ; who had 
usually resided Mt Leeds Castle. Some time before their 
decease, a circumstance happened, that eventually occa-* 
iioQed him much uneasiness. He had been persuaded, 
vpoQ his brother Henry's arriving at the age of twenty-one^ 
or raAher compelled by the ladies Culpepper and Fairfax^ 
under a menace, in ca^e of refusal, of never inheriting the 
Northern Neck, to cut off the intail, and to sell Dentoa 
Hall, . and the Yorkshire estates, belonging to this branch 
of the Fairfax family, which bad been in tbeir possessioa 
for five or six centuries, in order to redeem those of the 
late lord Culpepper, tbi^t had descended to his heiress^ 
exceedingly encumbered, and deeply mo^rtgaged. This 
circumstance happened while lord Fairfax was at Oxford^ 
ai|d is said to have occasioned bim the greater vexation, 
as it appeared after weirds, that the estates had been dis-: 
po^d of, through the treachery of a steward, for consider* 
9bly less than their value ; letss even than what the timber 
that was.cut dewo to discharge the purchase money, be« 
fore the stipulated day of payment came, was sold for. Her 
conceived, therefore, a violent disgust against the ladies, 
who, as be used to say, had treated him with such un- 
paralleled cruelty ; and ever afterwards expressed the 
keiNiest sense of the injury that had been done, as he 
thought, to the Fairfax family. After entering into pos-» 
session^ he began to inquire into the value ai)d situation of: 
bis estates ; and he soon discovered that the proprietary 
lands in Virginia had been extremely mismanaged and 

^ i 


under-let. An agent, who at the same time was a tenanlf 
bad been employed by the dowager lady Fairfax, to saper^ 
intend her concerns in that quarter of the world ; and he 
h said to have abused her confidence, and to have enriched 
himself and family, as is too frequently the case, at the 
expence of his employer. Lord Fairfax therefore wrote t6 
William Fairfax, esq. bis father's brother's second son, who 
held, at that time, a pleu^e of considerable trust and emolu-*"^ 
ment under the government in New England ; requesting 
him to remove to Virginia, and to tak^ upon himself the 
Agency of the Northern Neck. With this request Mr^ 
Fairfax readily complied ; and as soon as he bonvefiiently 
could, he removed with his family to Virginia, and settled 
in Westmoreland county. He there opened an agency- 
office for the granting of the proprietary lands ; and as the 
quit-rent demanded was only after the rate of two shillings 
for every hundred acres, the vacant lands were rapidly let/ 
And a considerable and permanent income was soon deri^^e^ 
from them. ' 

Lord Fairfax, informed of these circnmsttinces, deter^ 
Hiined to go himself to Virginia, to tisit his estates, awt 
the friend and relation to whom he was so greatly obliged.^ 
Accordingly, about 1739, he embarked for that continent; 
and on his arrival in Virginia, he went fend spent twelver 
months with his friend Mr. Fairfax, at his hduse in Westi 
moreland county ; during which time he became so capti« 
rated with the climate, the beauties and produce of thS 
country, that he formed a resolution of returning to Ettg*^ 
land, in order to prosecute a suit, which he had with the 
crown, on account of a considerable tract of land 'claimed 
in behalf of the latter by governor Gooch (which suit wa» 
afterwards determined in his favour) ; and, after making' 
|some necessary arrangements, and settling his family af- 
fairs, to return to Virginia, and spend the remainder of 
his life upon his vast and itoble domain there. It is not 
quite certain bow long he remained in England to adjust 
all these concerns, but he appears to have finally settled 
in the Northern Neck in 1746, or 1747, 

On his return at this time, he went to Belvoir^ tfae^seafc 
of his friend and relation Mr. William Fairfax, and remained 
several years in his family, undertaking and directing the 
management of his farms and plantations, and amusinigf- 
himself with hunting and the pleasures of the field. At. 
I^n^th^ th^ laads about Bel voir not au^w^^rin^ h»^ expeeta^r 


^oa» and the fox^s becomipg less oumerotts, he determined 
to remove to a fine tract of land on the western side of thq 
Plae RiUge, or Apalachian mountiaina, in Frederic county, 
lirbout eighty miles from Belvpir ; where he buiit a small 
neat-house, which he called Green way- court ; and laid out 
one of the most beautiful farms, consisting of arable and 
grazing lands, and pf meadows two or three miles in lengdi^ 
that had ever been seen in that quarter of the world. He 
there lived the remainder of his life, in the style of a gen-« 
tleman farmer, or rather of au En^ish country gentleman* 
He kept many servants, white and. black ; several hunters ^ 
a pleatiful, l^ut plain table, entirely in the English fashion; 
and his mansion was the mansion of hospitality. His dress 
corresponded with his mode of life, and notwithstanding 
he had every year new suits of clothes, of the most fashion** 
abl^ and eicpensive kind, sent out to him from England, 
which he never put ^n, was plain in the extreme. His man-» 
uers were bumble, modest, and unaffected ; not tinctured 
in the smallest degree with arrogance, pride, or self-con-^ 
%eit. . He was^free from the selfish passioiis, and liberal 
almost to excess. The produce of his farms, after the de* 
duction of what was necessary for the consumption of hia 
own family, was distributed and given away to the poor 
planters and settlers in bis neighbourhood. To these be 
frequently advanced money, to enable th)em to go on .with; 
their improvements ; to clear away the woods, and culti* 
Tate the ground ;^and where the lands proved unfavourable, 
tod not likely to answer the labour and expectation of the 
planter or husbandman, he usually indemnified him for the 
eicpence he had been at in the attempt, and gratuitously^ 
granted him fres^i lands of a more, favourable and promising 
nature. He was a friend and father to all who held and 
lived under him; and as the great object of bis ambition- 
was ,the peopling and cultivating of that beautiful country ^ 
Qif which he was the proprietor, be sacrificed every other* 
pursuit, and made every other consideration subordinate, 
to this, great point 

- Lord Fairfax had been brought up in revolution princi* 
pies, andhad^rly imbibed high notions of liberty, and of 
the excellence of .the British constitution. He devoted a 
O0nsid<U:able part of his time to the public service. Hb 
vitas lord lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the.t»)unty of* 
Erederic ; presided at the county court^ held at Winches-^^ 
ttr^ irhere.dwi^g the sessions he always kept open ta^le^^ 


and acted as surveyor at)d oterseer o( the highways ah^ 
public roads. His chief if not sole amusement was bvmU 
ing ; and in pursuit 6f this exercise he frequently cattied 
bis hounds to distant parts of the country ; and entertained 
every gentleman of good character and decent appearance, 
who attended him in the field, at the inn or ordinary, where 
he took up his residence for the hunting season. So unex* 
eeptionable and disinterested was his behaviour, both pub- 
lic and private, and so generally was he beloved and re** 
spectedy that during the late contest between Great Britain 
and America, he never met with the least insult or molesta- 
tion from either party, but was suffered to go on in hi» 
improvement and cultivation of the Northern Neck ; a pur^ 
suit equally calculated for the comfort and happiness of 
individuals, and for the general good of mankind. 
. In 1751 9 Thomas Martin, esq. second son of his sister 
Frances^ came over to Virginia to live with his lordship ; 
and a circumstance happeoed, a few years after his arri- 
Tal, too characteristic of lord Fairfax not to be recorded. 
After general Braddock^s defeat in 1755, the Indians in* 
the interest of the French committed the most dreadful 
jxiassacres upon all our back settlements. Their incursions 
were every where stained with blood ; and slaughter and' 
devastation marked the inroads of these cruel and merciless 
savages. Every planter of name or reputation became an 
jobject of their insidious designs ; -and as lord Fairfax had 
been pointed out to them as a captain or chief of great 
renown^ the possession of his scalp became an object of 
their sanguinary ambition, and what they would have re** 
garded as a trophy of inestimable value. With this view 
they made daily inroads into the vicinage of Green way-, 
courts and it is said that not less than 3000 lives were sa* 
orificed to their cruel barbarity between the Apalachian 
and Alieghenny mountains. The most serious apprehen« 
sions were entertained for the safety of lord Fairf«3t and 
the £amily at Greenway-court. In this crisis of danger his 
lordship, importuned by his friends and the principal gen«» 
try of the colony to retire to the inner settlements for se- 
curity, is said to have addressed his nephew, who now 
bore the commission of colonel of militia, nearly in the fol<^ 
lowing manner: — ^^ Colonel Martin, the danger we are 
exposed to, which is undoubtedly great, may possibly eX'- 
cite in your mind apprehension and anxiety. If so, I am^ 
leady to take any step that you may judge expedient for 



, our common safety, I myself am an old man^ and it if of 
little importance whether I fall by the tomahawk of an In<- 
dian, or by disease and old age : but you are young, attd^ - 
it is to be hoped, may have many years before you.. I will 
therefore submit it tp your decision, whether we shall re^ 
main where we are, taking every precaution to secure our** 
selves against the ravages of the enemy, or abandon our 
habitation, and retire, withip the mountains, that we may 
be sheltered from the danger to which we are at present 
exposed. If we determine to remain, it is possible, QOt«- 
wjthstauding our utmost care and vigilance, that we may 
both fall victims : if we retire, the whole district will imme** 
diately break up; and all the trouble and solicitude which 
I have undergone to settle this fine country will be fniSf- 
trated, and the occasion perhaps irrecoverably lost.'' Co« 
Jqnel Martin, after a short deliberation, determined toire'* 
main, and as affairs in that quarter soon took a more favour- ^ 

able turn, the danger gradually diminished, and at length, 
f utirely disappeared. 

Lord Fairfax, though possessed of innumerable good 
qualities, had some few singularities in his character. Early 
in life he bad been disappointed in a love-match, and this 
is thought to have made a deep impression on lord Fairfax's, 
mind ; and to have had no inconsiderable share in deter^ 
inining him to retire from the world,, and to settle in the 
wifaly' and at that time almost uninhabited, forests of North 
America. It is thought also to have excited in him a ge- 
neral dislike of the sex, in whose company, unless he wai^ 
particularly acquainted with the parties, it is said, he was 
reserved, and under evident constraint and embarrassment. 
!lBut his biographer thinks this has been misrepresented. 
He possibly might not entertain a very favourable opinion 
of the sex ; owing partly to the above-mentioned circum** 
stance, in which the lady behaved very treacherously, per* 
initting, the carriages, equipage, &c. to be prepared, and 
flien accepting another offer ; apd partly to the treatmentr 
^e had experienced from the ladies of Leeds Castle ; but 
this does.npt seem to have influenced his general behaviour 
to them. He bad lived many years retired from the worlds 
in a remote wilderness, s^uf^stered from, all polished ^ son 
ciety, and perhaps might not feel himself perfectly at ease, 
when he came into large parties of ladies, where ceremony. 
^)d form were to be observed ; but he bad not forgot those- 
^pomplished manners which he had acquired in his early* 


60 Fairfax. 

youth ; at Leeds Castle, at the university^ and in the arniyl 
His motive for settling in America was of the most noble 
and heroic kind. It was, as he always himself declared, to 
settle and cultivate that beautiful and immense tract of 
country, of which he was the proprietor ; and in this he 
succeeded beyond his most sanguine expectations, for the 
Northern Neck was bcftter peopled, better cultivated, and 
more improved, than any other part of the dominion of 

- Lord Fairfax lived to extreme old age at Qreenway- 
court, universally beloved, and died as universally lamented, 
in January or February 1782, in the ninety-second year of 
his age. He was buried at Winchester,' where he had so 
often and so honourably presided as judge of the court. 
He bequeathed Greenway-court to his nephew colonel 
Martin ; and his barony descended to his only surviving 
brother Robert Fairfax, to whom he had before consigned 
Leeds Castle, and his other English estates. This Robert, 
seventh lord Fairfax, died at Leeds Castle in 1791, and 
bequeathed that noble mansion, and its appendages, to his 
nephew the reverend Denny Martin, who has since takeq 
the name of Fairfax. The barony or title, by regular de- 
scent, is now vested in the reverend Bryan Fairfax, the 
present and eighth lord Fairfax, third son of William Fair* 
fax, esq. above mentioned. His claim on the barony was 
confirmed, in 1800, by the house of peers.' 

FAITHORNE (William), a very celebrated engraver^ 
was born in London in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. He was the pupil of Peake, the printer and 
printseller, who was afterwards knighted, and worked with 
him three or four years. At the breaking out of the civil 
war, Peake espoused the cause of Charles L; and Faithornet 
who accompanied his master, was taken prisoner by the 
rebels at Basing-bouse, whence he was sent to London, 
and confined in Aldersgate^ In this uncomfortable situa- 
tion he exercised his graver i and a small head of the first 
Yilliers, duke of Buckingham, in the style of Mallan, was 
one of his first performances. The solicitations of his 
friends in his favour at last prevailed ; and he was released 
from prison, with permission to retire on the continent; 

1 For this interesting account of the enterprtiinf and patriotic Tbomas loed 
Fairfax, we are indebted to Dr. Burnaby's '' Travels throagh.tbe Mi4dle Set- 
tlements in North Americai" 1798. 3d edit, 4tO| where are other uartilcuiars o| 
^ Fairto family, •^ V 


Tlie story of bis banishment for refusing to take the oath 
to Oliver Cromwell, would have done bim no discrediti 
bad it been properly authenticated, but that does not ap- 
pear to be the case. Soon after his arrival in France, be 
f6und protection and encouragement from the abb4 de 
MaroUes, and formed an acquaintance with the celebrated 
Nanteoil, from whose instructions he derived very consi- 
derable advantages. About 165P, he returned to Eng- 
land, and soon after married the sister of a person who is 
called ^' the famous*^ captain Ground. By her he bad two 
sons, Henry, who was a bookseller, and William, an en- 
graver in mezzotinte* 

He now opened ar shop opposite the Pa1sgrave*head 
tavern without Temple-bar, where he sold not only his 
own engravings, bpt those of other English artists, and im- 
ported a considerable number of prints from Holland, 
France, and Italy. He also worked for the bookseller^, 
particularly Mr.- Roy^ton, the king's bookseller, Mr. Mar- 
tin, his brother-in-law, in St. Paurs church-yard, and Mr» 
William Peake, a stationer and printseller on Snow-hill, tho. 
younger brother of his old master. About 1680, he retired 
from bis shop, and resided in Printing-house-yard : but be 
still continued to work for the booksellers, and painted por- 
traits from the life in crayons, which art he learned of 
Nanteuil, during his abode in France. He also painted in 
miniature ; and his performances in both these styles w^re 
much esteemed. These portraits are what we now find 
with the inscription " W. Faithorne pinxit.^^ He appears 
to have been .well paid for his engravings, of which lord 
Orford has given a very full list. Mr. Ashmole gave bim 
seven pounds for the engraving of his portri^it, which, if 
i not a large one, or very highly finished, could not at that 
time have been a mean price. Unfortunately, however, 
for him, his j»on William dissipated a considerable part of 
his property, and it is supposed that the vexation he suf- 
fered from this young man's miscond^t, tended to shorten 
his days. He died in May 1^91, a^ was buried by the 
side of his wife in the church of St. Anne, Blackfriars. In 
1662 he published " The Art of Engrailing and Etching." 
Portraits constitute the greater part of Faithorne's en« 
graving. He worked almost entirely with the graver in a 
free clear style. In the early part of his life, he seems to 
have, followed the Dutch and Flemish manner of en- 
graving ; but at his return from France he had consider* 
Vol. XIV. G 

82 F A I T H O R N E: , 

ably improved It. Some of his best portraits are admirable 
prints, and finished in a free delicate style, with mddn 
force of colour; but be did not draw the human figure 
correctly, or with good taste, and his historical plates by 
no means convey a proper idea of his abilities.-— His' son 
scraped portraits in mezzotinto, and probably might have 
acquired a comfortable subsistence, but he neglected his 
business before he had attained any great degree of excel- 
lence, and died about the age of thirty.* 
y* FALCANDUS is ranked among the Sicilian historians 
of the twelfth century, but his personal history is involved 
in obscurity. Muratori mikes him a Sicilian, but Mongi-' 
tori says he was only educated in Sicily, and that he was 
more of a Norman than a Sicilian, although he lived many 
years in the latter kingdom. The editors of the " L'Art 
de verifier les Dates" are of opinion that the true name of 
Falcandus is Fulcandus, or Foucault, According to them^ 
Hugues Foucault, a Frenchman by birth,- and at length 
abbot of St. Denys, had followed into Sicily his patron 
Stephen de la Perche, Uncle to the mother of William 11. 
archbishop of Palermo, and great chancellor of the king- 
dom. Yet Falcandus has all the feelings of a Sicilian ; and 
the title of alumnus^ which he bestows on himself, appears 
to indicate that he was born, or at least, according to Mon- 
gitori, was educated in that island. Falcandus has been 
styled the Tacitus of Sicily, and Gibbon seems unwilling* 
to strip him of his title :• " his narrative," says that histo- 
rian, *^ is rapid and perspicuous, his style bold and ele^- 
gant, his observation keen ; he had studied mankind, and 
feels like a man." There are four editions of his historj^ 
one separate, Paris, 1550; a second in the Wechels* col- 
lection of Sicilian histories, 1579, folio; a third in Caru- 
sio's Sicilian library ; and a fourth in the seventh volume 
of Muratori's collection. Falcandus appears to have been 
living about 1 190. His history embraces the period from 
1130 to 1169, a time of great calamity to Sicily, and of 
which he was an eye-witness. * 

FALCO, a historian of Benevento, of the twelfth cen-» 
tury, was notary and secretary to pope Innocent IL and 
was also a judge or magistrate of Benevento. He wrote a 
curious chronicle of events strikingly told, but in a bad 

* Walpole*8 Anecdotes* — Strutt^s Dictionary. 

9 Morer'u— Gibbon's Hist,— Fabric. BLbl. Med. et lof. Lat. 

F A L C O. 83 

atyle^ which happened from 1102 to 1140. Miraeus says 
that Falco's readers are as much impressed as if they had' 
been present at what he relates. This chronicle was first 
printed by Aot. Caraccioli» a priest of the order of regular 
clerks, .along with three other chroniclers, under the title, 
'^ Antiqui cbronologi quatuor," Naples, 1626, 4to. It has 
since been reprinted in Muratori's and other collections. ' 

FALCONER (Thomas), an English gentleman of ex* 
traordinary talents add attainments, was the son of William 
Falconer, esq. one of the magistrates of Chester, by bis 
wife Flizabetb, the daughter of Ralph Wilbrabam, esq. of 
Townsend in Cheshire, and was born in 1736. That his 
education bad not been neglected appears evidently from 
the uncommon progress he made in classical learning and 
antiquities, to which he appears to have been early atr 
tached, and in the study of which he persevered during a 
long and painful course of years. He had a permanent 
indisposition, which lasted thirty-two years, and which he 
bore with pious resignation. Such was his thirst of know** 
ledge during this period, that he used to read in a kneeling 
posture, the only one in which he had a temporary respite 
from internal uneasiness, from which he was never entirely 
free. He was a man of taste and science, of extraordinary 
memory, and powers of application, and singularly com? 
prehensive in his reading, and judicious and communica^- 
tive. He was particularly acquainted with voyages and 
travels, and retained a fondness for both to the last. His 
latter days, when indisposition permitted him, were chiefly 
dedicated to the preparation of an edition of Strabo, in 
which he had made a considerable progress at the time of 
his deaths Sept. 4, 1792. He was buried in St. MichaePs 
f:hurcb, within the city of Chester, where he died, but 
there is a marble tablet to his memory in St. John^s church, 
in which parish he resided until within a few years of his 
death. On this tablet is a just and elegant inscription to 
his memory from the pen of his brother Dr. William FaU 
coner of Bath. 

. As Mr, Falconer had little ambition to appear often iu 
the character of an author, his works bear small proportion 
to the extent of his knowledge. The only publications 
from .his pen were, ^^ Devotions for the Sacrament of the 
Lord*s Supper, with an Appendix containing a method of 

> Moreri.-— Fabric. Bibl. Med. et lof. L«t, 

O 2 


digesting the book of Psaltns, so as to be applicable to the 
common occurrences of life. By a Layman,*' 1786, which 
has often been reprinted; "Observations on Pliny's Ac- 
count of the Temple of Diana at Epbesus," inserted in the 
. Archsologia, vol. XI. of which a very close examination 
and analysis may be seen in the British C^iic, vol. VIL'; 
and ** Chronological Tables from the reign of Solomon to 
the death of Alexander the Great/' Clarendon press, 1796, 
4to. This was found among his MSS. in a prepared state; 
and presented to the university of Oxford by the author's 
brother. The prefatory discourse, which is replete witll 
elaborate research and profound erudition, while it explains, « 
in a very satisfactory way, the arrangement of the tables, 
and settles many dark and discordant points of ancient 
history, may also be considered as a dissertation on the fine 
arts during the aera which it comprises ; and the chrono- 
logical tables will be highly acceptable to those who adhere 
to archbishop Usher's mode of computation. His very 
learned and elaborate edition of Strabo, after being many 
years in the Clarendon press, was finally published in 1807, 
^ vols, folio, by his nephew die rev. Thomas Falconer, M. A. 
of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, the translator of H^no^s 
Periplus, and the author of several works worthy of tb^ 
feme of his father and uncle. Of the merits of this edi» 
tion of Strabo, it would be unnecessary to enlarge in this 
place, as they have bo recently been the subject of much 
critical controversy, which the work will outlive with last- 
ing reputation. * 

FALCONER (WilliAxM), an ingenious poet, was born 
about 1730, and was the son of a poor but industrious bar- 
ber at Edinburgh, all of whose children, with the excep- 
tion of our author, were either deaf or dumb. William 
received such common education as might qualify him for 
some inferior emplojrment, and appears to have contracted 
a taste for reading, and a desire for higher attainments 
than his situation permitted. In the character of Arion^ 
unquestionably intended for his own, he hints at a farther 
progress in study than his biographers have been able to 

trace : • 

'^ On him fair Science dawn*d in happiw hour^ 
Awakening into bkMHo young Faacy's flower : 
But soon Adversity, with freezing blast 
The blossom withered, and the dawn o*ercastj 

1 Cbbrton's Life of Dr. Townson prefixed to bii Works, p. If .—Brit. Crit 
T#li. VII. and IX 






Forlorn of hearty and by severe deoree 
Condeinn*d reluctant to the faithless sea.** 

Tt must indeed have been with reluctance that a boy who 
had begun to taste the sweets ol( literature, consented to 
serve an apprenticeship on board a merchant vessel at Leith, 
which we are told be did when very young. He was after- 
wards in the capacity of a servant to Campbell^ the author 
of Lexiphanes, when purser of a ship. Campbell is said 
to have discovered in Falconer talents worthy of cultivation } 
and wheu the latter distinguished himself as a. poet, used 
to repeat with some pride, that be had once been his 

Falconer, probably by means of this friend, was made 
second mate of a vessel employed in ttie Levant trade, 
which was shipwrecked during her passage from Alexan* 
dria to Venice, and only three of the crew saved* The 
date of this event cannot now be ascertained ; but what he 
saw and felt on the melancholy occasion made the deepest 
impression on his memory, and certainly suggested the 
plaa and characters of his celebrated poem. Whether be- 
fore this time he had made any poetical attempts we are 
not informed. The favours of a genuine muse are usually 
early, and it is at least probable that the classical allusions 
so frequent in *' The Shipwreck," were furnished by much 
previous reading. 

In 1751 be appeared among the poets who lamented the 
death of Fr^d^rick prince of Wajes, in a poem published 
at Edinburgh, which probably gratified the humble ex- 
pectations of a frieodly circle;, without procuring him much 
encouragement. He is said, however, to have followed up 
bis first effort, by some small pieces sent to that accus* 
toraed repository of early talent, the Gentleman*s Maga* 
zinp. Mr. Clarke has pointed out ^^ The Chaplain^s peti- 
tion to the Lieutenants in the ward-room^" the ^^ Descrip- 
tion of a ninety-gun Ship," and some lines *^ On the un* 
common scarcity of Poetry." Mr. Clarke has likewise pre- 
sented his readers with a whimsical little poem, descrip- 
tive of th^ abode ^nd sentintents of a. midshipman, which 
was one of Falconer^s early productions ; -and offers some 
reasons for being of opinion that be was. the author of the 
popular song /f Cease, rude* Boreas." 

Our author is supposed to have continued in thq mer- 
chant service until he gained the patronage of his royal 
I^igba^ss £dw^d. duke of,.yof}(|; by d^djcatiog to. him 


"The Shipwreck,'' in the spring of 1762 ; and it is much 
to the honour of his highnesses taste that he joined in the 
praise bestowed on this poem, and became desirous to place 
the author in a situation where he could befriend him. 
With this view, the duke advised him to quit the mer- 
chant service for the royal navy ; and before the summer 
had elapsed. Falconer was rated a midshipman on board 
sir Edward Hawke's ship, the Royal George, which at the 
peace of 1763, was paid off; but previously to that event,* 
Falconer published an " Ode on the Duke of York's se- 
cond departure from England" as Rear- Admiral." His high- 
ness had embarked on board the Centurion with commo- 
dore Harrison, for the Mediterranean ; and Falconer com- 
posed this ode '* during an occasional absence from his 
messmates, when he retired into a small space formed be- 
tween the cabje tiers and the ship's side." It is a rambling, 
incoherent composition, in which we discover ^ittle of the 
author of the Shipwreck. 

As Falconer wanted much of that complementary time of 
service, which might enable him to arrive at the commis- 
sion of Lieutenant, his friend's advised him to e?^change the 
military for the civil department of the royal navy ; and 
accordingly, in the course of 1763, he was appointed purser 
of the Glory frigate of 32 guns. Soon after he married a 
young lady of the name of Hicks, the daughter of the sur- 
geon of Sheerness Yard. With this lady, who had consi- 
derable taste, he appears to have lived happily, although 
his circumstances were reduced for want of employment. 
That this was the case appears from a whimsical incident 
related by his biographer. " When. the Glory was laid up 
in ordinary at Chatham, commissioner Hanway, brother to 
the benevolent Jonas Hanway, became delighted with the 
genius of its purser. The captain's cabin was ordered to 
be fitted iip with a stove, and with every addition of com- 
fort that could be procured ; in order that Falconer might 
thus be enabled to enjoy his favourite propensity, without 
either molestation or expence.'* 

Here he employed himself, for some time, in various 
literary occupations. Among others he compiled an *' Uni- 
versal Marine Dictionary," a work of great utility, and 
highly approved by professional ipenin the navy. In 1764, 
he published a new edition of the Shipwreck, in 8vo, cor- 
rected and enlarged, with a preface which indicates no 
|[reat facility in that species of composition. In the fol« 

F A L CO N E R S7 

lowing year, appeared '* The Demagogue/' a political sa- 
tire on lord Ciiatham, Wilkes, and Churcbill, and intended 
as an antidote to the writings of the latter. It contains a 
sufficient proportion of the virulent spirit of Churchill, but 
lord Chatham and Wilkes were not at this time vulnerable, 
and " The Demagogue'* was soon forgotten. 

The Marine Dictionary was publishejd in 1769, before 
which period he appears to have left his naval retreat at 
Chatham for an abode in the metropolis of a less comfort- 
able kind. Here, depressed by poverty, but occasionally 
iSoothed by friendship, and by the affectionate attentions 
of his wife, he subsisted for some time on various resources. 
In 1768 he received proposals from the late Mr. Murray, 
the bookseller, to be admitted a partner in the business 
which that gentleman afterwards established. 

No reason can be assigned with more probability for his 
refusing this liberal ofier, than his appointment, imme- 
diately after, to the pursership of the Aurora frigate, which 
was ordered to carry out to India, Messrs. Vansittart, 
Scrofton, and Forde, as supervisors of the affairs of the 
Company. He was also promised the office of private se- 
cretary to those gentlemen, a situation- from which his 
friends conceived the hopes that he might eventually ob- 
tain lasting advantages. Dis aliter visum. The Aurora 
sailed from England on the 30th of September, 1769, and 
after touching at the Cape, was lost during the remainder 
of the passage in a manner which left no trace by which 
the cause of the calamity could be discovered. The most 
probable conjecture is, that she foundered in the Mosam- 
bique channel. 

" In person," says Mr. Clarke, " Falconer was about 
five. feet seven inches in height; of a thin light make, with 
a dark weather-beaten complexion, and rather what is 
termed hard-featured, being considerably marked with the 
small-pox ; his hair was of a brownish hue. In point of 
address, his manner was blunt, awkward, and forbidding ; 
but he spoke with great fluency ;'and his simple yet im- 
pressive diction was couched in words which reminded his 
bearers of the terseness of Swift. Though he possessed a 
warm and friendly disposition, he was fond of controversy, 
and in<:lined to satire. His observation was keen and rapid ; 
his crluqisms on any inaccuracy, of language, or expression^ 
were frequently severe.; yet this severity was always in- 
t^ndcid eventually to create mirth, and nut by any means 


to show bis own superiority, or to give the smallest offence. 
In his natural temper he was cheerful, and frequently used 
to amuse his messmates by composing acrostics op their 
favourites, in which he particularly excelled. As a pro' 
fessional man he was a thorough seaman ; and, like most 
of that profession, was kind, generous, and benevolent* 
He often assured governor Hunter, that his education had 
been confined merely to reading English, writing, and a 
little arithmetic; notwithstanding which he was never at a 
loss to understand eithler French, Spanish, Italian, or even 

As a poet, Falconer's fame must rest entirely on "The 
Shipwreck." His other pieces could nev^r have survived 
the occasion which produced them, and could have ranked 
bim only among the versifiers of a day, while the Ship* 
wreck bids fair for immortality. In the {)Owers of descrip- 
tion, he has scarcely a superior, and has excluded com« 
parison by choosing a subject w^h which accident only can 
make a poet acquainted, a subject which may be described, 
for he has described it in all its awful dignity, but which 
surpasses the common reach of imagination* The distant 
ocean, and its grand pheenomena, have often .employed . 
the pens of the most eminent poets, but they have generally 
produced an effect by indefinite outlines and imaginary 
Incidents. In Falconer, we have the painting of a great 
artfst taken on the spot, with such minute fidelity as well 
as picturesque effect, that we are chained to the scene 
with all the feelings of actual terror. 

In the use of imagery, Falconer displays original powers. 
His Sun-set, Midnight, Morning, &c. are not such as have 
desceitded from poet to poet. He beheld these objects 
under circumstances in which it is the lot of few to be 
placed. His images cannot, therefore, be transferred or 
borrowed ; they have an appropriation which must not be 
disturbed, nor can we trace them to any source but that of 
genuine poetry. Although we may suspect that he had 
studied the iEneid, there are no marks of servile imitation^ 
while he has the high merit of enriching^ English poetry by 
a new train of ideas, and conducting the imagination into 
. an undiscovered country. 

The principal objection to this poem is the introduction 
of sea-terms ; and although it most be confessed that he 
has softened these by an exquisite harmony of numbers, 
some of his descriptions okust eY^^remain uniotelligiMe't^ 


indolent readers. But Falconer did not need to be told of 
this objection, and in his introduction^ he deprecates what 
be had full reason to expect. U\ however, we attend to 
his design, it will become evident that the introduction of 
sea- terms was absolutely necessary. "The Shipwreck*' 
is didactic, as well as desc^riptive, and may be recom- 
mended to a young sailor, not only to excite his enthusi- 
asm, but to improve his knowledge of the art. Mr. Clarke, 
whose judgment on this subject may be followed with 
Safety, and whose zeal for the reputation of the Britisfa 
navy does honour both to his head and heart, says, that, 
the Shipwreck ^* is of inestimable value to this country, 
since it contains within itself the rudiments of navigation ; 
if not sufficient to form a complete seaman, it may cer- 
tainly be considered as the grammar of his professional 
science.' I have heard many experienced officers declare, 
that the tules and maxims delivered in this poem, for the 
conduct of a ship in the most perilous emergency, form 
the best, indeed the only opinions which a skilful niariner 
shonld adopt." 

With such views it was impossible to exclude a language 
which is uncouth only where it is not understood, and 
vrhich as being the language of those heroes who have 
elevated the character of theiir country beyond all prece- 
dent and all comparison, inerits*^ higher veneration than the 
technical terms of comihon mechanics; nor, upon this ac- 
count, ought the Shipwiieck to involve the blame which 
attaches to the " Cyder" of Philips, or the " Fleece" of 
Dyer. No ^rt can give dignity to such subjects, nor did 
they demand the aid of poetry to render them more useful 
or m6re pleasing. Falconer^s subject was one of the most 
sublime inflictions of Providence. He described it for 
those who might be destined to behold it, and he knew 
that if among sailors he found no acute critics, he would 
find intelligent and sympathizing readers. When there- 
fore we consider his whole design, the objection may ad- 
mit bf sbme apology eveh from those who will yet regret 
that k po^t of such genuine skill should have narrowed his 
firtie by writing for a class. * 

FALCONET (Camille), born at Lyons in 1671, was 
bred a physician, in which profession his family had long 

* Johnson and ChalAieraU English Poets^ 1810.—- Clarke's edition of the Ship* 



been celebrated, but distinguished himself more in genend 
literature than in qiedicine. He settled ^Jt Paris,, became 
a friend of Malebraucbe, and in 1716 was elected into the 
French academy. He bad a library of forty-five thousand 
Tolumes, from which, in 1742, he presented to the royal 
library all those that were wanting, to that collection. He 
died Feb. 8, 1762, at the age of 91,. being supposed (like 
Fagon), to have prolonged his life by his skill. He was of 
a lively disposition, with a ready natural eloquence ; and 
though he was not so famous in the practice of medicine^ 
he was much esteemed in consultation. His chief works 
are, 1. A translation of Villemont's ^^ Systema Planeta- 
rum/' published in 1707. 2. An edition of the Greek 
pastoral of ^' Daphnis and Chloe," translated by Amyot^ 
with curious notes. 3. An edition of Desp6rier's ^^ Cym- 
balum Mundi,*' with notes. 4. Several dissertations in the 
memoirs of the academy ; and some medical theses. — He 
was uncle to Stephen Falconet, the celebrated sculptor, of 
whom we regret that no good account has yet reached this 
country, where he has long been known for his writings. ^. 

FALCONIA (Proba), a Roman poetess, who flourished 
about 395, under the emperor Honorius, was a native of 
Horta, or Hortanum, in Etrurfa. There is still extant by 
her, a cento from Virgil, giving the sacred history from 
the creation to the deluge; and the history of Christ,"' in 
verses selected from that poet, introduced by a few lines 
of her own. Authors have sometimes confounded her with 
Anicia Falconia Proba, the mother of three consuls : aad 
some have said she was that Valeria Proba, who was the 
wife of Adelfius, a proconsul. Her poem was first pub- 
lished with Ausonius, at Venice, 1472, under the title 
*^ Probae Falconiae, cento Virgilianus, . sen Centimetrum 
de Christo, versibus Virgilianis compaginatum." The 
last ecUtion is that of Wolfius in the ^^ Mulierum GraBcarum 
Frag.*' Hamb. 1734, 4to.' 

FALETTl (Jeronimo), an Italian poet of the' sixteenth 
century, was a native of Savona, in the state of Genoa. 
He published in 1557 a poem, in ottava rima, on the wars 
of Charles V. in Flanders, and other miscellaneous poems; 
and in 1559, twelve of his orations were published at Ve- 
nice by Aldus^ in folio. He wrote on the causes of the 
German war under Charles V. and an Italian translation of 

1 Diet. Hist * Saxii Onomast.— CIarl('s Bibliograjpbical Dictionaiy* 

F A L E T T I. 91 

Athenagoras on the resurrection, 1556, 4to. He \vas also 
one of the authors of the celebrated collection under the 
title of " Polyanthea." He was distinguished as a sWtes- 
inan, an orator, and an historian, as well as a poet, and 
was deputed on an embassy to Venice by Hercules Antes- 
tini, duke of Ferrara. * 

FALK (John Peter), one of the scientific travellers 
employed by the late empress of Russia to explore her 
vast dominions, was born in Westrogothia, a province in 
Sweden, about 1727. He studied medicine in the univer- 
sity of Upsal, and went through a 'course of botany under 
the celebrated Linnaeus, to whose son he was tutor. He 
publicly defended the dissertation (in the Linna^i ^^ Amoe- 
nitates Academicae") which that famous botanist had com- 
posed on a new species of plants, which he called astrcme^ 
ria. In 176*0, he was so deeply affected with depression 
of spirits, that Linnaeus, in order to amuse bis mind,, sent 
him to travel over the island of Gothland, to make a col- 
lection of the plants it produces, and the various kinds of 
corals and coralline^ which the sea leaves on its shores ; 
but this journey was attended with no diminution t)f his 
distemper, which found a continual supply of aliment in a 
sanguine melancholy temperament, in a too sedentary way 
of life, and in the bad state of his finances. 
• Professor Forskael having left Upsal for Copenhagen in 
1760, Falk followed him thither, in hopes of being ap- 
pointed his assistant in his famous journey through Arabia, 
but the society that were to go on that importatit expedi- 
tion being already formed, his application failed, and being 
obliged to return, he herborised as he travelled, and en- 
riched the Flora Suecica with several new discoveries. A 
man in office at St. Petersburgh having written to Linnasus 
to send him a director for his cabinet of natural history, 
Falk accepted the post, which led him to the chair of pro- 
fessor of botany at the apothecaries' garden at St. Peters- 
burgh, a place that had been long vacant ; but his hypo- 
chondriac complaint still continued to torment him. When 
the imperial academy of sciences was preparing in 1768 
the plan of its learned expeditions, it took Falk into its 
iservice, though his health was uncertain. He was recalled 
in 177 J, but having got only to Kasan in 1773, he there 
obtained permission to go and use the baths of Kissiar, 

92 F A L K. 

from which he returned again to Kasan at the end of thk 
year,, with bis health apparently better; but his disease 
soon returned with redoubled violence, and his mind being 
deranged he put a period to his life on March 31, 17744 
His fate was generally and justly lamented. His papers 
were found in the greatest disorder. They contained, 
however, very useful and important relations. He parti- 
cularly made' it his business to inquire about jbbe Kirguises 
and the other Tartarian nations ; and as he frequently re^ 
mained for the space of nine months together in the same 
place, he was enabled to procure satisfactory reports con- 
cerning the objects of his investigations. The imperial 
academy, in 1774, appointed professor Laxmann to ar- 
range bis manuscripts in order for publication ; which was 
done accordingly, but they were not published until 1785, 
when they appeared at Petersburgh in 3 vols. Ito. ' 

FALKEN STEIN (John Henry), a voluminous com- 
piler of historical documents, was born in Franconia in 
1682, and died in 1760. In 1724 he was appointed direc- 
tor of the university of Erlangen, but turning catholic, he 
entered into the service of the bishop of Eichstadt, and 
after the death of that prelate, obtained the patronage of 
the margrave of Anspacb. Among other compilations of a 
similar kind, without taste or arrangement, but which may 
be useful to future historians, are his ^' Antiquities of 
Nordgau in the bishopric of Kichstadt,'' 3 vols. fol. * 


FALLE (Phiuf), a learned man, was born in the isle of 
Jersey in 1655, and in 1669 became a commoner of Exeter 
college in Oxford ; from whence he removed to St. Alban's 
ball, and took both his degrees in arts, that of master in 
July 1676. Afterwards be went into orders, retired to his 
Dative country, where he was made rector of St. Saviour's, 
and was afterwards chosen deputy from the states of that 
island to king William and queen Mary. He was also rec- 
tor of Shenley, in Hertfordshire, where he built an ele- 
gant house at the expense of lOOT)/. King William re- 
commended him to a prebend in Durham. The golden 
prebend was then vacant, but the bishop removed Dr. 
Pi<^kering to it, and gave Dr. Falle the fourth stall, of 
which he afterwards complained. The repairing of the 
prebendal house jcost bim 200/. He died at Shenley, in 

' Dr. Qleig's Suppl. to tbe Encyclop. Britan.— Diet. H»t. t oict. Hist. 

F A L ]L E. 93 

1742, and left his excellent library (excepting a collection 
of sacred music, which he gave ta the library at Durham), 
to the island of Jersey. He published three sermons; one 
preached at St« Hilary's in Jersey, in 1.692 ; another at 
Wfaitehall in 1694 ; and another before the mayor of Lon* 
don in 1695. He was the author also of ^ An account of 
the isle of Jersey, the greatest of those islands that are 
now the only remainder of the English dominions in 
France: with a new and accurate map of that isl^d,*^ 
1694, 8vQ. This is much quoted by bishop Gibson. ' 

FALLOPIUS (Gabriel), a most celebrated physician 
and anatomist of Italy, was descended from a noble family, 
and born at Modena, most probably in 1523, although some 
make him born in 1490. He enjoyed a strong and vigo^ 
rous constitution, with vast abilities of mind, which he cuU 
tivated by an intense application to his studies in philoso* 
phy, physic, botany, and anatomy. In thia last be made 
some discoveries, and, among the rest, that of the tubes 
by which the ova descend from the ovarium, and which 
frpm him are called the ^' Fallopian tubes.'* He travelled 
through the greatest part of Europe, and penetrated by 
his labour the most abstruse mysteries of nature. He prac« 
tised physic with great success, and gained the character 
of one of the ablest physicians of his age. He was made 
professor of anatomy at Pisa in i 548, and was promoted to 
the same office at Padua in 1551 ; at which last place he 
died October 9, 1563, according to the common opinion, 
in the prime of life, but not so, if born in 1490. 

His writings, by which he very much distinguished himr 
self, were first published separately, at the time they wefe 
written ; and afterwards collected with the title of, ^^Opera 
genuina -omnia, tam Practica, quam Theoretica, in itres 
tomos distribttta.^' They were printed at Venice in 15B4, 
and in 1606; and at Francfort in 1600, ''cum Operum 
Appendice," and in 1606, in 3 vols, folio. ^ 

FALSTER (Ohristian), was a celebrated Danish critic 
and philoh)ger of Flensburg, the exact time of whose 
birth and death we have not been able to learn. His chief 
works, which are all of a curious and interesting nature, 
^nd published between the years 1717 and 173 i, are: 
1. ^' Sapplemeutum Linguae Latinss,'' consisting of obser* 

I Atlk.Ox. vol. II.— Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, vol If. p. 166. 
* Gen. Diet. — Moreri.-^iceroo, ?ols. IV. and X.— M»nget and Haller.—- 
Saxii Onomatt. 

M F A L S T E R. 

nations on Cellarius's edition of Faber; Flensburg, 1717. 
2. ^^ Animadversiones Epistolicae/' of a similar nature, 
published at the same place and time. 3. *' Quaestiones 
Romanx/* containing an idea of the literary history of the 
Romans, with memorials of eminent writers and works; 
Flensburg, 1718. 4. <* Cogitationes Philologicae,'* Lips, 
1719. 5. ^^ Sermo Panegyricus de variarum gentium bib-> 
liothecis/' ibid. 1720. 6. Vigilia prima noctium Ripen<» 
sium^'^ containing observations on A. Gellius, Hafnias, 
1721. 7. "Araoenitates Philologicse," Amst. 1739 — ^32^ 
3 vols. And, 7. ^^ A Danish translation of the fourteenth 
satire of Juvenal,'* Hafn. 1731, in 4to, the rest are 8vo. * 

FALZ (Raymond), a celebrated medallist, was the son 
of a jeweller, and born at Stockholm in \65S. His father 
dying in his infancy, he was sent to Stettin to the care of 
his maternal uncle, and afterwards being brought back to 
Stockholm, employed himself in goldsmith^s work, paint- 
ing, and modelling in wax. In 1680 he went to Copen- 
hagen, and thence to Lubeck, Hamburgh, and many other 
places, for the sake of improvement in his art. At Augs* 
burgh he learned to work on steel. In 1683, after study- 
ing the French language, he went to Paris, and was em- 
ployed by Cheron the French king's medallist, and having 
acquired a very high reputation for his workmanship, be 
began business on his own account, and executed a great 
number of excellent medals illustrative of the history of 
Louis XIV. who was so well pleased with his performances 
as to settle a pension of 1200 livres upon him, besides 
paying him liberal prices for his works. In 1686 he took 
a trip to the Netherlands, and thence into England. After 
returning to the continent, he re-visited his native coun- 
try, Sweden, where the king gave him an handsome pen- 
sion ; and in 1688, Frederic, elector of Brandenburgb, 
invited Falz to his court, and appointed him his medallist. 
After increasing bis fame in Sweden, at Berlin, and at 
Hanover, he died at Berlin May 26, 1703.* 

FANCOURT (Samuel), a native of the West of Eng- 
land, who may be termed the inventor of circulating li- 
braries, was, at the beginning of the last century, pastor 
of a congregation of protestant dissenters in Salisbury, 
where he had a number of pupils for near twenty years. 
Professsing a creed very different from the opinions of 

1 $axli Onomast. < Moreri. 

F A N C O U R T. 95 

Calvin, as appears by his numerous publications, he in- 
curred the displeasure of persons of that persuasion, aud a 
controversy arose in which clergymen of the establishment 
and the dissenters had an equal share. It turned on the 
divine prescience, the freedom of the human will, the' 
greatness of the divine love, and the doctrineof reprobation. 
Driven from a comfortable settlement to the great me* 
tropolis, where he acquired no new one as a teacher, Mr. 
Fancourt, about 1740 or 1745, established the first circu- 
lating library for gentlemen and ladies, at a subscription 
of a guinea a year for reading ; but in 1 748 extended it to 
a guinea in all^ for the purchase of a better library, half 
to be paid at the time of subscribing, the other half at the 
ddivery of a new catalogue then in the press, and twelve 
pence a quarter beside, to begin from Michaelmas 1754, 
to the librarian. Subscriptions were to be paid without 
further charge to the proprietors, but to pay only from 
the time of subscribing; out of which quarterly payments 
were to be deducted the rent of the rooms to receive the 
books, and accoinmodate subscribers, a salary to the libra* 
rian to keep an open account, and to circulate the books ; 
a stock to buy new books and duplicates as there was occa-* 
sion; the expence of providing catalogues, and drawing 
up writings for settling the trust. This trust was to be 
vested in twelve or thirteen persons chosen by ballot out 
of the body of proprietors ; and the proposer, Mr. Fan* 
court himself, was to be the first librarian, and to continue 
so as loDg as he discharged his office with diligence and 
fidelity. Every single subscription entitled the subscriber 
to one book and one ps^mphlet at a time, to be changed 
ad libitum for others, and kept ad libitum^ if not wanted 
by other subscribers. Mr. Fancourt advertised himself 
also in these proposals as a teacher of Latin, to read, write, 
and speak it with fluency in a year's time or less, at twelve 
guineas a year, one guinea a month, or twelve pence an 
hour, allowing five or six hours in a week. The great 
hypercritic of Mr. Fancourt's design was the late Dr. C. 
Mortimer. Not to trace the poor librarian through every 
shifting of his quarters, he fixed at last at the corner of 
one of the streets in the Strand, where, encumbered with a 
helpless and sick wife, turned out of fashion, and out- 
planned by a .variety of imitators, and entangled with a 
variety of plans, not one of which could extricate him 
from perplexities, this poor man, who may be said to have 

96 F A N C U R T. 

first circulated knowledge among us, sunk under a load of 
debt, unmerited reproach, and a failure of bis faculties, 
brought on bj the decay of age, precipitated by misfor- 
tunes. His library became the property of creditors, and 
he retired in humble poverty to Hoxton-square, where 
sonfe of his brethren relieved his necessities till the close 
of his life, in his ninetieth year, June 8, 1768. As a 
preacher, though neither what is now called popular, nor 
pastor of a London congregation, he was occasionally called , 
upon to fill up vacancies, and is said to have preached 
with a considerable degree of manly eloquence. 

He published three or four occasional sermons, besides 
bis tracts against Calvinistic principles, which were an-^ 
sw^red by Messrs. Morgan, Norman, Bliss, Millar, and 
Eliot, all, or mostly, dissenting ministers, and defended 
in various pamphlets by the author. ^ ' * 

FAN N I US (Caius), surnamed Strabo, was consul at 
Borne in 161 B. C. with Valerius Messala. The law called 
Fannia was made during his consulate, for regulating the 
eicpences of feasts, and empowering the pretors to drive . 
the rhetoricians and philosophers from Rome. This law 
prohibited more than ten asses to be spent at a common 
feast, and an hundred at the most solemn, such as those of 
the Saturnalia, or of the public games ; which seems al« 
most incredible, when it is considered that a sheep at 
that time cost ten asses, and an ox an hundred, according 
to the opinio!) of several learned men. Caius Fannius, his 
son, distinguished himself by his eloquence, and was consul 
120 B. C. He opposed the enterprizes of Caius Gracchus, 
and made a speech against him, which is praised by Cicero. 
Caius Fannius, cousin-german of this latter, was questor 
139 B. C. and pretor ten years after ; served under Scipio 
Africanus the younger in Africa; and, in Spain, under 
Fabius Maximus Servilianus. He was the disciple of Pane* 
tius, a celebrated stoic philosopher ; married the youngest 
daughter of Lelius, and wrote ' some annals, which are . 
much praised by Cicero. • 

FANSltAWE (the Right Hon. Sir Richard, Knt. and 
bart.), a statesman, negociator, and poet of the last cen- 
tury, was the youngest son, and tenth child, of sir Henry 
Fanshawe, knt. r^bnembrancer of the exchequer, and bro^- 
ther of lord viscount F&nshawe, of Dromore, in the king- 

1 dent. Mag. vol. LIV, ^ Geu. Diet. , 

ifcto 6f tfeland, and was bbcri at "VVare-part Ji) Hertford- 
shire, in the month of June 1608. Being only seven ye^jrs 
* of age wh6n his fatfaijer died, the care of hia e,dqc.atiqn 6fi* 
Tolved nAon' his mother, who' placed him under tlie faroofis' 
scho^fmaSt^r Thotnas I^arnaby. Npyemter 12, ii523, $e 
' ivias' ^daiitte'd k fellow-commoner of ile&u^. coDege, Caqi- 
' 6ndg€», uhder the tuition *oif t)r. Beale, vftk^vf ne prosf- 
cuted'hts Studies with success, anci discovered a genius for 
'ela^stcal learning. Irlience he was removed to the Inner 
*TeriipIe, Jart. 2:2, 1^26 j hut at his mother's dealt he r^- 
sofved to pursue a line of life better adapted to his genius 
and inclination, and accordingly he tra,velled to FrancCiand 
Spain, for the purpose of acquiring the languages, s^^d 
studvit)^ the n'lanners of thosie countries. On his retuitn 
home he was appointed secretary to the embassy at.Mad rid, 
under lord Aston, and was left resident there froa), the 
tiine of lord Aston*s resignation to the appointpient of sir 
Arthur Hopton in 1638. 

Being in England at the breaking-out <j>f the civil war, 
%e declared early for the crown, and was enpiployed yi 
i^eVerat important matters of state. In 1644, attjending, ]ti^ 
c'dbrt at Oxford, he had the degree of D. C. L, conferred 
tipon him, and was appointied secretary at ws^r to the. prince 
bf Wales, whom he attended into tb^. western parts pf 
'Eajgland, and thence into the islands of Scillyand Jerse]^. 
In 1648 he was appointed treasurer to the navy uqder 
Yiirince Rupert, which office he held till 1650, when he waa 
created a baronet, and sent to Madrid to represent* tb^ 
faecessitbus situation 6f his master, and to beg a temporary^ 
lui'^istince from Philip IV. He was then sent for tp Scptr 
land; and served therie in the capacity of secretary Qjfs^ate 
to the great satisfaction of sdl parties, although he took 
beith'er cov'eh^nt nor engagement *. About this time he, was 
j^ecooithended by the king to the York jparty, who received 
hitii With gredt kindness, and entrusted him with the broad 
^itl'i^hd signet. In 1651 he was taken prisoner at th^ 
baittie'df Worcester, and committed to close cilstody itf 
liondfdr) ; but^ having contracted a dangerous sickness, he 
had" Iib'ertj^ allowed him, upon giving bail, to go for th^ 

* When lir Richard Fanshawe't ill meat ; upon which Cromwell, ^^ho was 

tai^ ?^igf4thiai to apply for hii «n- prtseot, replied, that be nerar kttew 

'gement Jifter the battle of Worcester* the engagetneok giT«n as a medicme $ 

^here he wag taken prifoner, air Hftuiff his libeity was Uwr grantad ob 4000f. 

Vaue proposed, as one of the condi* bail, 

fibos, that he should take tb« fBgtfe- ' 

Vol. XIV. H 

M J" A N S !i A W tU 

recovery of bis health to any place be $hou}d cbuse^.pjro-* 
vided he stirred not five miles thence without leave from 
Ae parliament. In 1654 he was at Tankersley park > in 
Yorkshire, which place he hired of his friend lord Stjn^- 
fordy to whom he dedicated his translation of the '* JLusiad 

' of Camo^ns/* written during his residence there. In Fe- 
bruary 1659 (under pretence of travelling abroad with the 
eldest son of Philip earl of Pembrok^),. he obtained his 

' bail to be returned, and repaired to king pharles IL^t 
Breda, who knighted him in April following ; ao4 ip* 
pointed him master of requests, and secrej;ary of the t>ajtia 
tongue. ' ^ ,,.. i .... 

Upon his majesty's restoration he expected tp l^e. ap« 
pointed secxetary of state, from a promise which had for- 

' n^erly been made him of that office ;, ^ut ^o hi^ g^feat diji- 
appointment, it was, at the instance o^tHe. duke of Alb^ 
marie, gfven to sir William Morrice, which c^cumsta^c^ 
lady Faushawe states thus : ^^Tbe king promised sir Ijlipbaj^d 
that he should be one of the secretaries of sUte (jat theJEi^to- 
tion), and both the duke of Ormond and lord chancellor 
Clarendon were witnesses of it ; yet that false man.fnade 
the king break his word for his pwn accon)modatiQi^,,. ajod 
placed Mr. Morrice, a poor country gentleman of about 
200/. a year, a fierce presbyterian, and one who never si^iy 

* the king's face ; but still promises w^re made of the reyen^ 
lion to sir Richard/' 

He wais elected one of the representatives of the ^niver(» 
i^il^ of Cambridge* in the parliament which met ^tbe $tb 
of May 1661, and was soon after sworn a privy cqunsellor 
of Ireland. Having by his residence in foreign pourts 
qualified himself for public employments abroafd, .he was 
sent envoy extraordinary to Portugal^ with a dormant coi|9f> 
mission to the ambassador, which he ws^ to inake. ijise of 
as occasion should require. Shortly after^ he yft^ 9^ 
pointed ambassador to that court, where he negqtja/^d th^ 
marriage between bis master king Charles U. and the \x\^ 
farita donna Catharina, daughter of king iJohn VL and 
Returned to England towards the end of the sameye^ur. It 
appears that he was again sent ambassador to that crown in 
J662^, and was, upon his return to England the following 

* Sir lUchard bad the good fbrtuoe this tsost him no more thta t letter of 

to W tb0 Artt eboseo, mod the fint thanks, two hract of bnchtf had twent|^ 

yetvrped member. io the eommoas* bf0od^pitc€t for wiooi . 
hoiuK after tho king cane home^ luA 

F A N S H A W £. 99 

f^Tf^ 'sWorti df his maj^tj^'s pWvy-councif. His iiitegrit^, 

libiiities, and industry, became so well known in Portug^^ 

that he was recon^metided and desired by that crown to be 

aent to ?paiti^as the fittest jiersoh to bring ibout an, accom- 

modatiot) between Spaiti and Portugal. ^ Iti the beginning 

of t664 he was sent aalbassieid6r to Philip IV. king , of 

Spain, and arrived, ' February the 29th^ at Cadi^j where 

he was saluted iti-a manner tinexampl^d'to'bthersy aiid 

received with sereral circumstances of particular esteem* 

' It appear* from one of sir Ricb^rd*s li^tters, that this ex- 

tilraordtnary respect was paid him not only lipoh his owti^ 

but also upon his master the king of Enghind^'S account. 

Heaays, *' I had not been three hours on shore (at' Cadiz) 

' when an extraordinary Messenger arrived from IVIadrid 

with more particular orders than formerly^ from his catholic 

Bfajesty, importing that our master's fleet, when arri\^d^ 

jmd his ambassador, should be pre- saluted from the city m 

a manner dnexampled to others, and which should' hot be 

drawn into example hereafter. Moreover (aiid this 90 

^likewise), that I and all my company must be 'totalty de- 

^frayed, both here and all the way up to Matdrid, upbfi'Bis 

catholic majesty's account; with several other circumstances 

of- particular esteem for our royal master, above airthe 

'world beside.'' From a passage iii another letter oThis^itis 

^evident, that the hope the Spaniards entertained^ of haviiig 

Tangier and Jamaica restored to them by England, was, 

'< that Which made his arrival impatiently Ibliged for, ^nd 

^so magnificently cetebrated." During his residence at this 

court, however, after all' that apparent good will^ he ei» 

^perieticed such frequent mortifications as ministers u^e -^ 

^eet with in courts irresolute and perplexed iti their own 

arid had made a journey to Lisbon upon the earnest 

<ff Sp^din, and returned without effect. On asudd^, 

trhett tibe recovery of Philip j IV. grew despei'ate, a project 

4bf -a treaty Was sent to the ambassador, - containitig mor^ 

)ldi^ntages of trade to the nation, and insisting upon feWefr 

iiieotivenient conditions thftn bad ever been in' any of the 

%nBMJr,' and urging theimmediate acceptsCtidn or rejection 

%f It, <m account of the 1tlng*s Illness, " wbith," they de* 

Minsdf ^ ^* might make such ati alteration rh ' bdu nsels, thaf, 

at it- w^re ootdotie in his life^^time^ they khew not what 

^^V happen i alter/' The ambassador, ' surprised with 

ttiis ovei^ei ifOifttpared %htit Was^offered with wh^t he w^c 

to demand by Msjostirncitions ; itii what Was defective in 

H Q 


100 r A N 8 H A W E. 

those particplart he added to the articles piMented 'to biaiy 

with such farther additions^ as, upon his own obsetvMKMi 

and conference with the merchants, occurred to hi«i ; wbioh 

. being agreed to, he signed the treaty, with a secret avticie 

respecting Portugal, and sent it to England. The treaty 

j was no sooner broqght to the Jcingt and perused in councii^ 

jbut many faults were found with it, and in the end the 

.Jih^g concluded that he would not sign-it ; and theiunbas- 

sador was recalled. 

. SirRicbard waspreparingforbisreturntQEi^land; wiieb^ 

•lune 4, 1666, he was seized at Madrid with a vipLent ferer, 

which put an end to bis life the 16tb of the same montb, 

the very day he had desigJied to set out on hisjnetqro faonse. 

,}lh body, beijpg embalmed, was /conveyed jay his lady, 

>yith all j^i$. children then living, by land to Calais, aiid 

afterwards to AU Saints cburch in HertTocdi wbei^it was 

jjlepc^Ued jn t;he vault of bis father* in-*law, sir John HaK«> 

^^on,. till May IS, 167Ji, and then wa^ reo^QA^ed iBt9'<;a 

fiew vault, made on purpose for him and bis family in the 

^parish-church of Ware. Near the vaijilt (here isahand-* 

spoi^ monument erected to bis niemory. . . He was remarb*- 

able for bis meekness, sincerity, humanity, and : piety; 

and ^so ivas an able state&man and a great 9^b<riar^ being 

Jn; particular a complete master of sev;eral modern iaii- 

gW&^ especially l^p^isb, which was perfectly familiar 

to Jiim. 

Altboqgb mnch of his life was spent in, ac/tive business, 

J^ie iound leisure to proifuce.the CoUosfriug.wot^s.: 1. Aa 

English translation in rhyme of Guarini^s ^^ IJl Pallor Fido^ 

,jqr.the Faithful Shepherd,"' 1646, 4to. 2. A translation from 

.J^^nglish into Latin versfs pf Fletcher's *^ Faithful Shepr- 

jh^dess," I4»58. 3. In the optavo editipo pf <' The. Faiths 

ful Shepherd,*' are inserted the following poems of our 

-author; An Ode pn^his ip^e$ty's Proclamatipn in l^iQf 

^commaifding the gentry to reside upon tbeis eiH^tes in the 

(Country; an English-translation of *tbe foiiith book qf Vkv* 

^1*91 Jsineid; Qdes of Hpr^ce, translated ipAo English; 

«f^nd a summary Discourse of the Civil Wars, of B/9mfU 

.4. He 'translated from Poitugues^ ii||o» English, Can^oeoaT 

<^ I^usiad, or Portvigal'if I^istoriaal Poem,?' i«5^ folip. 4. 

After his depf^ase were pub^ishod tpfo pieQes ip 4to, 1671> 

" Querer per solo querer,'V" Tq love only f^love's salie/' 

a dramatical romance, r^pres^iHejiji befiwe^ th^ )(iiig aqi 

queen of Spain ; and *^ Fiesui^ df^ 4j[^e.i|z/' Fealiviil at 


Af^jebUi BcNih wrtttcti tn Spftnisb by Antonio de Men- 
doga, upon celebrating tbe birth-day of Philip VI. in 1623, 
at Aranj^ez; and tranriated by our aothor in 1654, during 
his coofiaeiaent. 6. His correspondence was published in 
170ly m one volume, dvo, under this tkle: *^ Original 
Lettersof his excdieney sir Hichard Fanshnvre during hi^ ; 
embassy io Spain and Portugal; whicbi together with di^' 
vers lettcn and answers froo» the chief ministers of state in ' 
England, Spain, and Portugal, contain the whole nego* . 
tiattoBs of the treaty of peace between those three crowiis.^* ' 
The publisher received these letters from -the hands of a 
daughter of sir Richard, who had them in he;r possession. 
He also composed other tlungs, remaining in manuscript j 
which he wrote in his younger years, but bad not th'e^ 
lebure ta complete. Even some of the preceding printed - 
pieces have not all the perfection which our ingenious 
aatbor could have given them : for, as his biograpdder obv 
serves, '< b^iig, for his loyalty and zeal to his master*s 
service, tossed from place to place, and from country to ■ 
country^ during the unsettled times of our anarchy, some 
of bis manuscripts falling by misfortune, into unskilful 
handv, were printed and published without his consent or 
knowledge, and before he could give them his last finish- 
ing strokes.'* But that was not the case with his transla^ 
tion of ^' II Pastor Fido,*' which was published by himself, 
and procured him much reputation. 

His lady, by whom he had six sons and eight daughters, 
of whom one son and four daughters survived him, was the ' 
dtfu^ter of sir John Harrison by Margaret his wife, daugh- 
ter of Robert Fanshawe, of Fanshawe-gate, esq. great uncle 
to sir Richard, to whom she was married in Wolvercot 
churchj near Oxford, May 18, 1644. She compiled, for 
the use of her only son, ^* Memoirs of the Fanshawe Fa« 
poiiy," containing a particular account of their sufferings in 
the royal cause, in which she and her sister Margaret Uar« 
rison (who in 1654 married sir Edmund Tumor, of Stoke* 
Rochford, co. Lincoln, knt.) bore a considerable share, be* 
ing tbef constant companions of sir Richard in tliose peri* 
loua- times. The description of her and her husbahd*« * 
taking leave of Charles I. when he was a prisoner at Hamp- 
ton-court, is a very affecting specimen of these Memoirs^ ' 
and is told with great simplicity. ** During the king^s stay "^ 
at Hampton-court, I went three times to pay my duty to/i 
him, both as 1 was the daughter of his servant, and the wife 

IW: F A N S H A WE. 

of his serTaot; the last time I ever fftw him I could not ' 
refrain from weeping. When I took my leave of the king, 
lie saluted me, and I prayed God to preserve his majesty 
with long life and happy years. The king stroked me on 
the cheek, 'and said, '' Child, if God pleasetb it shall be 
SQ, but both you and I must sabmit to God^s will ; and you •. 
know in what hands I am in/ Then turning to my hus- 
hed, he said, < Be sure, Dick, ta tell my son all that I 
have said, and deliver these letters to my wife. Pray God > 
bless her ; and I hope I shall do well." Then taking my 
husband in bis arms, he said, ^^ Thou hast ever been au ^ 
honest man ; I hope God will bless thee, and make thee a 
happy servant to my son, whom I have< charged in my let««- > 
ter to continue his love and trust to you ;* adding, ^ And 
I do promise you, if I am ever restored to my dignity, I . 
w}ll bountifully reward you both for your. services and suf-^ . . 
feringg/ — ^Thus did we part irom that glorious sun, that . 
within a few months afterwards was extinguished^ to the 
grief of all Christians, who are not forsaken of their Gic>d/' 

. These memoirs, from the variety of interesting matter . 
they contain, might, if they were published, prove an aic- 
ceptable present to the public. The excellent writer of 
them was no less disti^nguishedfor her strei^^tb of mind and 
courage than for her piety and virtue. When the vessel . 
that carried her from Ireland to Spain was attacked, she put. 
on men^s clothes, and fought with the sailors. In the se- • 
cond volume of Mr. Seward's '^ Anecdotes*' are many other 
curious extracts from lady Fansbawe's Memoirs.^ 

.fANTONI (John), a celebrated physician, was born at 
Turin in 1675. He studied philosophy and the belles, 
lettres in the university of bis native city, with distinguished ; 
success, and then passed to, th^e medical classes, in which 
bo gave farther evidence of his abilities, and obtained his de~ . 
gi^f^e of doctor. He was enabled, through the liberality of bb 
prinpe, (o traverse France, Germany, and the Low Countries^ 
ev^ry Yfb^ve ipaking valuable additions to bis knowledge, 

1 Biog. Britt qew edit, ao article contributed by Edmund Tumor, esq. Tbe 
seeonnt of sir Richard in the preceding edition of the Biog. Brit, and in this Die- 
tioMrf, baiog ta|(eo from the Life prefixed to hk JLetter^, wai erroneow, as tft* 
facts. An adyertisement app<>ared in the London Gazeltet No. 3778, aanoupc^ 
iag thai the account of $\r Richard prefixed to his Letteri, was added by the 
b(yHtM]left, during th^ absence and without the consent of >the person by whose ' 
^iiF^pt^pn the letters «?ere printed » and that it is very erroneous : but as to ijhe • 
letters themselves, " the reader may depend on the truth of them, setting as^i^ 
tlM^erivrs of t)ie ipir^Sf'^ 

FA N T O N I. lOa 

On tits return to Torin, he commenced pubjic teacher of 
anatomy, and afterwards was successively chosen to fill the 
chairs of theoretical and practical medicine. In the interim 
the king of Sardinia appointed him physician to the prince 
of Piledmont, his son. This office, however, did not inter- 
fere with his labours in the university, where he was stilV. 
distinguished near the middle of the succeeding century, 
notwithstanding his advanced age. The period of bis 
death is not known. 

The first publication of Fantoui was entitled '^ Disser- 
tationes Anatomies^ XL Taurini, 1701." The second^ 
^' 'Anatomia corporis humani ad usum Theatri Medici ac- 
commpdata, ibid. 1711.** This edition, which is, in fact, a 
part of the preceding work, relates to the anatomy of the 
abdomen and chest only. 3. ^< Dissertationes duee de 
atructura et usu dursB matris et lymphaticorum vasorum, ad 
Antonium Pacchionum conscriptse, Romas, 1721.'* 4. 
*^ Dissertationes duas de Thermis Valderianis, Aquis Gra- 
danis, Maurianensibus, Genev®,'* 1725, in 8vo, and 1738, , 
in'4to« 5. '^ Opuscula Medica et Physiologica, Genevas, 
1738.** This contains likewise some observations of his ' 
father. 6. ^^ Dissertationes Anatomicae septem priores re- ' 
DOvatas, de Abdomine, Taurini, 1745.** 7. ^' Commenta- ^ 
ridlum de Aquis Vindoliensibus, Augustanis, et Ansionen* ^ 
sibus, ibid. 1747.*' His £ather, John Baptist Fantoni, ' 
though less distinguished than his son, was also a teacher 
of anatomy and of the theory of medicine at Turin, as well ~ 
as librarian, and first physician to Victor Amadous II. duke ' 
of Savoy. He died prematurely in 1692, (having only at- 
tained the age of forty), in the vicinity of Embrun, where/, 
^b'e duke, his patron, was encamped, during the siege of 
Cherges. He left several unfinished manuscripts, which 
John Fantoni revised, and d( which he published a coUep- ■'■■ 
tion of the best parts, under the title of '^Observatiopes ' 
Anatomico medicae selectiores,** at Turin, in 1699, and at ■. 
Venice in 1713. This work contains some useful ob$erva* ^ 
tions relative to the diseases of the heart. ' 

FARDELLA (Michael Angelo), a celebrated . profess , 
sor of astronomy and natural history at Padua, was born in 
1650^ of a noble family, at Tripani in Sicily. He eqtered '/ 
the third order of St. Francis; taught mathematicsLai Mes* i 
8id9, and theology at Rome, where he bad takien a doctors ; 

1 liioreri.— Diet. Hist — Rees's CydopttdiSi from Eloy. 

de^ the college della Sapienza. . Francis IK 4uke «i{^ 

Modena made him professor of philosophy and geometry, 
in his capital ; but he gave up that situation to go to Ye- 
nice, where be quitted the Franciscan habit in 1693, by. 
permission of the pope, and took that of a secular priest. 
He was afterwards appointed professor of astronomy and 
physic in the university of Padua, and died at Naples, from 
a second attack of .an apoplexy, January 2, 1718. J^ar- 
della had a lively genius and fertile imagination, but be* 
came so absent, by a habit of profound thoug^ht, that be 
sometimes have lost his. senses. He left se- 
veral works on literature, philosophy, and mathematics ; 
some in Latin, others in Italian. The principal are, ^^ Uni- 
versal Philosophiae Systema," Venice, 1691, 12m6; " Uni-i 
verssB Usualis Mathematical Theori a,'' 12mo; ^^ Animas 
humanae Natura ab Augustine detecta,^' 1698, folio ; seye-; 
ral works in favour of Descartes^s philosopl^y, &c» ^ 

FARE (Chahles Augustus, Marquis de la), was bora, 
in 1644, at the castle of Yalgorge^ in Vivarais.' He wasi 
captain of the guards to the duke of Orleans, and ,his son, 
who was regent. His gaiety^ and sprightly wit, made hint 
the delight of the best companies. He left a fevjr songs, . 
Md other poetical pieces, which have been printed ^yith 
thbse of his friend the abb^ de Chaulieu, and separately, 
with his Memoirs, 2 vols, small 12mo. They ar^ full of 
wtt and' delicacy ; but we are told he had attained the age 
of sixty before he made any poetical effort;, and[ that then 
bis inspirer was rather Cupid or Bacchus than Apollo*^ He 
also wrote the words of an opera, called ^^ Pantbea.^' His 
^^ Memoirs'^ are written with great freedom and openness, 
and show the dislike which their author, and all his party, 
had to the government. We do not find when they were , 
first published, but an English edition bears da(e 1719. 
The Author died at Paris, 17 12.' 

TAREL (Wiluam), a learned minister of the church, 
and most intrepid reformer, was the son of a gentleman of . 
Pauphin6 in France^ and born at Gap in 1489. H^^stu- 
died philosophy, and Greek and Hebrew, at Paris with great 
success, and was for some time a teacher in the college oif. 
cardinal le Moine. Bri9onnet, bishop of Meaux, being in-* 
clined to the reformed religion, invited him to preach. in 
Ills diOc^ei in 1521; but the persecution raisejl thei^ft 

1 Moreri.— NicerPQ^ toI. XIL * Diet. Hist, iii La Fare. 

FAREL. idh 

agmns^1ifv':e9JK)]i:|ftrotq9^aiit$ who wtpre styled heretics; ia^ 
1^23, obliged him topfOFide f or: l>ia secMrity pot of Eraocei 
He tb^ retired to. ScraM»bu;:gb, where Bucer. and Capilo^ 
admired him a# a. brother.; a^nd hc^ was after ward^ireceii^ed. 
a^.si^b b{y Zwiaglius at Zurich^ by.Ijall^r at Berue^ and> 
by. Oecol^i^PIEHlii^s at Ba^il^ • As.he^ was thought well qua- 
lified bj^ ^eal a94 kpo^wledge- for such a ta^k). be was ad« . 
vised ta andertake/thie reformation of religipa at^ Montbe« - 
liard^ io. which design be was supported by the duke of 
Wittisnib^l'g^ wh9 wasiU>rd of that. place ; a^d he succeeded ^ 
iait o^Qst happily, lie was a man on so9>e occasions oft 
tqo. q^l^ wilWth and enth'Usiasm against popery, whicb| 
h9wever« b^^. te^ippe^ed a little^ by tl^ advice of Oecolaob- 
p^ius. OacQ^n. a,pr9jCQssion*dayy be pulled out of the 
prii^t> bapd the imag^ of St. Antony, and threw it from a . 
bridge, initp the mer, a bpldness and imprudence which 
was unnecQssaryf af^ might :have cost him his life. Eiras«^. 
rous by no . means liked FareVs temper, as appears from 
what.hi^,. wr/pte of: him to the o^cial of Biesancon. ^f You 
h%v^/' sa^yp he^ "in your neighbourhood the new.evan** 
gejiatx F^re);; th^n whom I never saw a man more falsey; 
more yir^lent^ more seditious.*' Erasmus has also givea a 
^^TJ. wf^ifQurable character of him elsewhere; but ha 
th|9^htFai;<ftl h^d; censured .him in soipe of his vviritiiigs^ 
and therefore is not to .be. altogether believ)ed tn every 
ti^^ag hf^pays.of him ; nor indeed was. a man of decision 
and .in^r^pidi^y jik^Ly tp be. a favourite with the timid and. 
timff-serving j^asmus^ 

in.i^i^Sy he had thi9 same success in promoting the re«* 
fofmatio^ in th^ city of Aigle, and soon after, in the baili«« 
wick of Morat He went afterwards to Neufcbatel in 1 529^ 
aqct' di$pMt;ed against the Roman catholic party with so 
much stretig^h^ that this city embraced the reformed reli* 
gipB^ and established it entirely Nov. 4, 1530. He was 
sent* a deputy to the. synod of the Waldenses, held in thf» 
valley , of Angrogne. Ifence he went to Greiieva, where h« 
lati^^^.fifg^tnst. popery : but the grand, vicar ^and the. 
oth§p*^l<^rgy .resisted him with so much fury, 'that he was 
obliged to r0tire. - He was called back in 1534 by the in* 
hi^l^ftaoto,>7laK> had /enounced the Roman catholic religion} 
and Wfis tbe-cbi^f 'persota that procured the perfect abdi^ 
tion of it the next year. He was banished from Gei^ema 
with Calvin in 1538^ and retired to Basil, and afterwards 
to Neufchate), wjbiei'e.tfiere was gr^iat probability of a large 

106 FA R E'L^ 

evangelical ban*est. Ffooi thence be wi^t t6 Metz, bht 
held a thousand difficolties to encounter ; and was obliged ^ 
to iietire into the abbey of Gorze, where the count of Fur* * 
slemberg protected him and the new converts. But thej 
could not contki&e* there long ; for they were besieged in 
the abbeys and obliged «at last to surrender, after a capitu- 
lation. Farel -vefy happily escaped, though strict search. 
wcM made afner biai/ having been put in a cart among the ' 
sick and infirm. « He took upoti him fats fbrmer functious 
of a minister at Neufchatel, whence he took now and then 
a|ourney to Geneva. Whc^n he went thither in 1^53^, he ' 
w|is present at Servetus's execution. - He- went again* to 
Geneva in 1564, to take bis last leave of Calvin^ who ivas ' 
dangerously HI.;' He took a second journey to Metz in ' 
li65, being invited hy his ancient *flpck^ to witness the - 
success of bis labours, but tetumed tb Neufchaitel, and ' 
died there Sept 13^ or, as Dupia says, Deo* 3, in thesame ^ 
year. • ^ ' . 

,He married at the age of si^sty-nin^, and left a* son, who 
survived him but three years. Though be was far better 
qi^^ified to preach than to write /books,' yet he was i^e 
author of some few publications of the controversial kind, 
an^ng which are a treatise ^' Upon the true use of the ' 
CviisV Paris, 1560, and another ^* Up(>n the authority of ' 
the Word of God, and bumati traditions.*' ^ 

FARET (Nicholas), a French wit and poet, was bom 
in 1 600 at Bourg en &*esse, and going very young to Paris, * 
attached himself to Vaugelas, Boisrobert, and Coc^ffetau.; 
and was afteirwards made secretary to the couht d'Hareour^ 
and then steward of his house. Faret was one of' the first 
members of the French academy, and employed to settle 
its "Statutesi He was very intimate with St. Amand, who 
celebrates him in his verses, as an illustrious debauchee^ 
merely to furnish a rhyme to Cabaret. He was at length 
appointed secretaiy to* the king, and died at Paris in Sep- 
tember 1 646, leaving several children by two marriages. 
His works are, a translation of Eutropiiis; ^< L*Honniete ' 
Homme,'* taken from the Italian of Castigiione, 12ma4 
** Vertus necessaires a un Prince.;*' and several poems in 
the coUecttpns of his time. He also left a life of Ren4 II. 
duke of Lorraine, and Memoirs of the famous eount d*Har<» 
coort, MS,*- 

< Metchior Adam.-^Geii. Diet.— Dttpiv. 
'\ * ' ' t JBUWI.— Meerott, vol: XXIlL^^JMct. HmI. 

PARI A. ld» 

ii DE SOUSA (Emanuel), one of the mwi eele* 
bfMed bMstortatis and poets of bis nation in the seventeenth 
century^ was born March 18, 1J90| at Son to near Cam- 
villa in Portugal^ of a noble family, both by his father's 
apd mother's side. His father's name was Amador 'Perez 
dlEiro^ and his mother's Loaisa Faria, but authors are not 
agreed in their conjectures why he did not take his father's 
name, bat preferred Faria, that of his mother, and Sousa, 
wjiich is thought to have been his grandmother's name. 
In hts infimcy he was very infirm, yet made considerable 
progress, even when a puny child, in v^riting, drawing, and 
painting. At the age of ten, his father sent him to school 
t<^ learn Latin, in which his proficiency by no means ans- 
wered his. CKpectations, owing to the boy^s giving the pre- 
fensnce to the Portuguese and Spanish poetsl These he 
read incessantly, and composed several pieces in verse and 
t>ipse in both Jaagnages, but he bad afterwards the good 
sense to destroy his premature effusions, as well as to per- 
ceive that the Greek and Roman classics are the foundation 
o£a true style, and accordingly he endeavoured to repair 
bis error by a eai;eful study of them. In 1604, when Ginf|r 
in his foarteenthyear, he was received in the rank of gen« 
tleoMtn.into the household of don Gonzalee de Moraes, 
biibqp ofPorto^who^wito his relation, and afterwards made 
him his secretary; and during his residence with this pre* 
late^. which lasted ten years, he applied himself indefati<» 
gablyr to- fais/studies, and composed some works, the best 
of which was an abridgment of the historians of Portugal, 
" JCpitome de las historias Portuguesas, desde il diluvio 
hasta el anno 1628," Madrid, 1628, 4to. In this he has 
been thought to give rather too muph scope to bis imagi- 
nation, and* to write more like an orator than a historian. 
In.i612:he fell in love with a lady of Porto, whom he calls 
AU>ajiii% and who was the subject of some of his poems { 
butr.itia: doubtful whether this was the lady he married 
in.i'6'i4, some time after he left the bishop's bouse, on b6^ 
cottoi: of his urging him to go into the church, for which he 
hafi' DO..ij)oKoation« He remained at Porto until 1618, 
when.'fae ^paid'his feilier a visit at Pombeiro. The year 
follbw^ngrbe went to Madrid, and into the service of Peter 
Alvaria^irPereira^ 'secretary of state, and counsellor to 
Philip the III. and IV. but Pereira did not live long enough 
to give* him any other proof of bis regard than by procuring 
)iim to be made;a)^kQi^t4of.the order of Christ in Portagalv 

1«» ^ F A R I A. 

In 1628 be returned to Lisbon with bis family, hat qmlted 
Pprtugal in 1631, owing to his views of promotion being 
disappointed. Betuming to Madrid, he. was chosen se- 
cretary to the marquis de Castel Rodrigo, who wais about 
to set out for Rome as ambassador at the papal court. At 
Rome Faria was received with great respect, and his merit 
acknowledged ; but having an eager passieo for study, . he. 
visited very few. The pope. Urban VIIL receive hiin 
vctry graciously, and conversed femiliarly with him on the 
subject of poetry. One of his courtiers, requested Faria to 
write a poem on the coronation of that pontiff, which we 
find in the second volume of his poems. In 16S4, .having' 
some reasi[>n ,to be dissatisfied with his master, the ambas« 
sador, he quitted his service, and went to Genoa with a. 
view to return to Spain. The ambassador, piqued-at his 
departure, which probably was not very ceremonious, wrotei 
a partial account of it to the king of Spain, who caused 
Faria to be arrested at Barcelona. So strict was hb con* 
iinement, that for more than three months no person had 
access to him ; until Jerome de Villa Nova, the protho- 
iK^ary of Arragon, inquired into the affair, and made his 
innocence known to the king. This, however, had no 
dt\ker effect than to procure an order that be should be a^ 
prisoner at large in Madrid ; although the king at the same 
time assured him that he was persuaded of his innocence, 
and would allow him sixty ducats per month for his sub* 
sistence. Faria afterwards renewed his solicitations to be 
allowed to remove to Portugal, but in vain ; and his con* 
finement in Madrid, with his studious and sedentary life, 
brought on, in 1647, a retention of urine, the torture of 
which he bore with great patience. It occasioned his.deatbp 
however, on June 3, 1649. He appears to have merited- 
an excellent character, but was too little of a man of 
the world to make his way in it. A spirit of independence 
probably produced those obstacles which he met with in his *■ 
pr<)gress; and even his dress and maaner, we are told, were 
rather those of a philosopher than of a courtier. Be* 
sides his History of Portugal, already mentioned, and of 
which the best edition was published in 1730, folio, he 
wtote, 1. ^^ Noches claras,** a collection of moral, and poli* 
tioal discourses, Madrid, 1623 and 1626, 2 vols. 12ma 2. 
*^ Fuetite de Aganipe, o Rimes varias,** a collection of hit 
ppems^ in 7 vols. Madrid, 1644, &c. S. *^ Commentarioa 
8obnikui:Lu3iada8 de Luis de Camo^ns,*' an immense com* 

FAR I A. 109 

aientary on the Liisiad, ibid. 163.99 in 2 vols, fotio. He is 
wd to have began it in 16 14, and to have bestowed twenty- 
five years upon it. Some sentiments expressed hete had 
^alarmed the Inquisition^ and the work was prohibited. He 
ffras permitted, however, to defend it, which he did in, '4* 
** Defensa 6 Information por los Commentarios, &c/' Ma- 
drid, 1646 or 1645, folio. 5. << Imperio de la China, &c. 
and a.n account of the propagation of religion by the Je- 
suits^ written by Semedo : Faria was only editor of this 
work, Madrid, 1643, 4to. 6. '< Nobiliario del Conde D* 
Petro tie Barcelos,'^ &c. a translation from the Portuguese, 
with notes, ibid. 1646, folio. 7. ** A Life of Don Martin 
Bapt. de Lanuza,'' grand justiciary of Arragon,'* ibid. 1650, 
4to. 8. "Asia Portuguesa," Lisbon, 1666, &c. 3 vols, 
/olio, 9. *^ Europa. Portuguesa," ibid. 16,78, 2 vols, folio. 
10. "Africa Portuguesa,*' ibid. 1^81, folio. Of this we 
have an English edition by John Stevens, Lond. 1695, 3 
vols. 8 vo.' 11. " Ameri«i Portuguesa.'' All these hiisto- 
rical and geographical works have been considered as cor- 
rect and valuable. Faria appears to 'have published some 
other pieces of less importance, noticed by Antonio. ' 

FARINACCIO (Prosper), an eminent lawyer, was born 
October 30, 1554, atBom^. He was'a Roiiiad advooltte^ 
imd fiscal procurator ; took pleasure in deifending the least 
-atipportabie causes, and is said to have acted with extreme 
rigour and severity in his office of fiscal procurator. This 
4»ndi]ct drew him into very disagreeable situations, and 
would hav^e prov^ his rain, had not some cardinals, whd 
admired > bis wit and genius, interceded for him with Cle- 
ment YIIl. who said, alluding to the name of Farinaccid, 
that " thd farina was excellent, but the sack which con'^- 
tained it was good for nothing." Farinaecio died at Rome 
October 3rO, 1618, aged sixty-four. His works have been 
printed at Antwerp, 1620 ; and the following make 13 vols. 
folio : ^ Decisiones Rotse," 2 vols. ; " Decisiones Rota 
novi^ftimse," 1 vol. ; " Decisiones RotSB recentissima?," 1 
vol; ** Repertorium Judiciale,*' 1 vol.; "De Haeresi,'* I 
vol.; *' Consilia,*' 2 vols. ; " Praxis Criminalis," 4 vols, j 
*^'Succus praxis criminalis," 1 vol. All these were consi* 
dei^ed as valuable works by the Roman lawyers.' 
. FARtNATO (Paul), an Italian painter, was born at 
Verona in 1522; his diother dying in labour .of bioi. W^ 

■A ClMafepte.-«ADtotti0 Bibl. Htop.r-Kicer(my T9l. :tXXVI. 
^ Moreri.— EryUirasi PiDa^otbeca. 


tJO F A R 1 N A T 6. 

.w&» a dito)ple of Nicoio Golfino, ' and an kdnsirable de^ 
signer, but not altogether so happy in his colouring: 
though there is a piece of his > painting in St. G^orge'^ 
ehurefa at Verona, so well performecl in both respects, that 
it does not seem inferior to one of Paul Veronese, wbicii 
is pFaced next to it He was famous also for being ^n eli^ 
cellent swordsman, and a very good orator, abd Strutt 
mentions some engravings by him. He had considerable 
knowledge in sculpture and architecture,' espedally th^t 
. part of it which relates to fortifications. His last moments 
are said to have been as remarkable as his first, on account 
of the death of his nearest relation, He lay upon bi» 
death-bed in 1606 ; and his wife, wbowas sick iii the sarne 
room, hearing him cry out, " He was going,** told him, 
^ She would bear him company ;^^ and actually did so, 'f» 
they both expired at the same minute.* 


FARINGDON (Anthowy), an EngRsh divine, was Mom 
at Sunniivg in Berks, 1596. He was admitted i^holar df 
Trinity college, Oxford, in 161^, and elected fellow iii 
1617. Three years after, he took a master of arts degree-; 
.about which time entering into orders, he. became a cele- 
brated preacher in those parts, an eminent tutor in thie coT* 
lege, and, as Wood says, an example fit to be followed hf 
:all. In 1634, being then bachelor of divinity, he was madle 
vicar of Bray near Maidenhead in Berks, and soon after 
4ivin.ity- reader in the king's chapel at Windsor. He eoi>- 
tiiipedat the first of these places^ though notwtthout some 
trouble, till after the civil commotions broke o^t; arid 
then he was ejected, and reduced with his wife and family 
to such extremities, as to be very near starving. 'Lloyd 
says that his house was plundered by Iretoh, in meah re- 
venge, because Mr. Faringdon had reproved him for some 
irregularities when at Trinity college. At length iit Jobi^ 
Robinson, alderman of London, related to archbishop Laud, 
and some of the parishioners of Milk>street, London, iii* 
vited him to be pastor of St. Mary Magdalen iu that city^ 
which he gladly accepted, and preached with great atorot 
bation from the loyal party. In 1647, he published a foltQ 
volume of these sermons, and dedicated them ,to his patron 
Robinson^ ** as a witnesse or manifesto,'* says he to him^ 
*^ of my deep apprehension of your many noble £afOtur% 

F ^ B I N G D O N. ^ 111 

ind great charity to me and oiiiie, ^en the •^ttrpneifi^'of 
the weather^ and the roughnesse of the times, had blg^wn 
all from U3» and wellrueer left us naked/' 

\^ ' After, hi^ death, which happened at bis house in Mril^- 
«treet, 9ept. 1658^ his executors published, in 1663#:a 
second folio volume of bis sermons, containing forty, and»a 
third ii) 1673, containing fifty* He left also behind hijon, 

^ in MS. memorials of the life of John Hales, of Eaton, 'his 
intimate friend and ifeUow-sufierer ; but these memorials 

. have never come to light. Some particulars of bis in^^ 
macy with Hales will be given in our accoufot of that ei^- 
cellent man.^ > 

FAHINGTON (C^ORas), an English artist of gr«fit 
projmise, the fourth son ojl the rev. William Farington, B. £)• 
rector of Warrington^ and vicar of Leigh in Lancashif^^ 
was born in 1754, and received his first instructions in. ti|e 
art from his brother Joseph^ one of the present roya) acf- 
demicians ; but bis incliqatiops jading him .to the study 9^ 

, historical painting,, he acquired farther assistance from. Mf. 
West. He was for some, tifne eoaplpy ed by the. late alder- 
man Boydell^ for, whom he executed seyera) ve;;[^y.excellje|9t 
drawings , from the Houghtqa .collection. He studied long 
in the royal, academy, and obtained a silver m^dal in 177^{; 
and in 1780, obtained the golden medal for the best hiji- 
iorical picture^ the subject of. which was the cauldron scene 
in Macbeth. In 1782 be left England,.. and went to the 
East ^Indies, being induced to undertake that, voyage hy 
some advaptageous offers. In .India be painted many pio- 
tures ; but his principal undertaking was .a large work, r^ 
presenting the Durbar, or court of the nabob, at Meiy- 
shoodabad. Whilst em^pyed on this work^ he imprudently 
exposed himself to the night air, tq observe some ce^rei^ 
monies of the natives, in order to complete a series of 
drawings begun for that purpose, when he was suddenly 
seized with a complaint, which, in a few days, un^fortur 

^ately terminated his life in 1788. ' / 

FARMER (Hugh), a learned divine among the protege 
tant dissenters, was born in 1714, at a village near Shrews*' 
^ury, where his parents resided, and being early designed 
for the dissenting ministry, received the. first .part of his 
grammatical learning in a school in Llanegrin, near Towy n^ 

-^ Atiu t>x. vol. II.-— tteyd's Memoirs, fol. p. 543.— Harwood's Alumni Eto- 


* Idwsrds'* Anecdotes of JPaintios. 

tli F A R M E &. 


Meridnettisfaire, which had be^n founded by two : df bi« 
Jprogemtors. From this place he wiais seiVt -to pei'fect his 
classical education under the tuition of Dr. OWen,'0f W8t^-' 
-rington ; and ill 1730, began hi« '^cKdecttical' kiddies at 
Nortfaampton, under the care of Mt; (afterwards Dr.) DoB-*: 
dridge, being one of the doctor's earHest (hipils. After' 
Mr. Farmer had finished his academical cdurse, iife becathe 
chaplain to William Coward, esq. of WailtfaMtii^'-Stowey E^^ 
sex, and preacher in a ineeting-lidfise which had t>een lately- 
- elected by that gentleman, whose name h '6f' greiat note 
"am^ng the -diasenten, on account of^the* laVge bequesta- 
which he made for the education of young nyeh fortHe- 
ininistry, and for other beneficent purposed. Mr/CoWard- 
watt remarkable for the pecttliatitftea abd oddities of' faia - 
' tbmpet ; knd in tfai^ respect tnany pleasant atoriea kti r6« 
Iftted concerning him. Amongat bia other whimsies, His 
*{i6uae was shut up at an mrcommon early hotir,- w^ b^ll^Ve 
-ataix in the winter, and seven in the summer; iitid'wht>- 
ever, whether a viaitalit or a atated resident, tresJ3a$sed 
tipon rtie titoe, was denied admission. Mr. Farmer having 
one evening been somewhat too late, was of eotirs6*^5c- 
cluded; In this exigence be fa^d r^ourse to a iieighbOui'^' 
ing jfiahrily, that of William Snell, esq. a solicitor, in which 
he continued more than thirty years, during the fives Of • 
Mr. and Mrs. Sneil, by whom he was tHeatedmot^ tile^ an ' 
equiki tbatv kn iitferior. Here he enjoyieda lotig^ jfe61ries of ^ 
peaceful leisure, which he employed in collecting i large 
fund of sacred arid profane literature, and in hia dbfti^s ab I 
A pastor. His congregation, whicfa^ whien he accepted 
the charge of ik, was very aihall, giiadually became one of -^ 
the mo^ wealthy dissenting societies in or near the city bf - 
London. • * . 

Mr. Fahner^a first appearance as an author Was ih a dis^ * 
toiirse on the suppression of the rebellion of 1745. It ^A ^ 
preached on the day of public thanksgiving fkppolnted up6n 
that occasion in 1746, and printed in the same year. ' TiSt^ 
was the only sermon that we recollect his hating ev^r cOm^ - 
mHted to the press. His abilities, though they nbight h^t^ : 
been usefully displayed in that way, led him to thoise liovel 
opiniona on which his temporary fame was fouhded. 16 ' 
17^1, he published ^^An Inquiry into the nature atid dta^^ ' 
sign of Chriat-s Temptation in the Wildemeaa ;" the gen^ 
ral intention of which is to show, that this part of the even^ 
geiical history is ibt only to be^understt^od as a rtlftitttlof 

r A R M £ R. US 

vifionairy l^pres^ntations, but that the wbole was a dmnfe 
vision, premotiitoiy of the labours and offices of our Lord^s 
ftttiiresdinistry. An interpretaiion so new and singular^ 
Gouid not pass unnoticed^ In 1762 there appeared a 
pamphlet against the Inquiry, entitled ^^ Christ's Tecnpta^^ 
tionsi real focts : or, a Defence of the Evangelic History ; 
shewing that our Lord's temptations may be fairly and rea^ 
sonably understood as a narrative of what was really trans* 
acted." A second edition of Mr. Farmer's treatise was 
soon called for ; in which the subject received additional 
iiiustration from a considerable number of new. notes. Be*^ 
sides this, he published in 1764, an appendix to the ^Mn* 
quiry," containing some farther observations on the point 
in debate, and an answer to objections^ Another tract, the 
pubiieation of which was occasioned by the ^' Inquiry," was 
^titled '^ Th^ Sovereignty of the Divine Administration 
vindicated,, or a rationid Account of our blessed Saviour's 
remarkable Temptation in the Wilderness ; the Possessed 
at Capernaum, the Demoniacs at Gadara> and the Destruc^^ 
tion of the Swine : with, free Remarks on several other im<^ 
portant passages in the New Testament." This was a post-* 
humous piece, which had been written before Mr. Farmer's 
work appisared, by Mr. Dixon, who had been a dissenting 
minister, first at Norwich, and afterwards at Bolton in 
Lancashire. Mr. Dixon proposes a figurative or allego^ 
rical interprdtation of our Lord's temptation. A third edi-* 
tion, with largfs additions, of Mr. Farmer's ^^ Inquiry'* was 
published in 1776.. In 1771, he published ^^ A Disserta^ 
tion on Miracles, designed to shew that they are arguments 
of a divine interposition, and absolute proofs of the mission 
and doctrine of a: Prophet," 8vo« Not long after the ap- 
pearance of the ^^ Dissertation," a notion was propagated^ 
that Mr. Farmer bad made considerable use of a treatise of 
Le Moine's on the same subject, without acknowledging it^^ 
and it was asserted, that his book had the very same view 
with Mr. Le Mokie's, and was a copy of his work. Mr« 
Farmer therefore endeavoured to vindicate himself in a 
pamphlet, published in 1772, entitled '* An Examination 
of the late rev. Mr. Le Moine's Treatise on Miracles^" in 
which he enters into a particular discassion of that per^ 
formance, and a defence of himself; but the accusationf 
continued to be repeated, particularly by a writer iii the 
London Magazine. 

In 177;5, Mr. Farmer gare to the world <* Essay on tb« 

Vol. XIV. I 

114 FA R M £ R. 


Demoniacs of the New Testament/* in which bb opi^ 
aliens, were too far remote from those of the Christian world 
^o give inucli satisfaction. It was ably attacked by Dr& 
iWortfaington, a fesrned clergyman^ who had already fa^ 
soured the public with some pious and- valuable writings^ 
in ^^ An impartial Inquiry into the case of the Gospel De^ 
moniacs^ with an Appendix, consisting of an essay on 
Scripture Demonology/' 17.77. There were some things 
advanced in this work, whicl), in Mr« Farmer's opinion; 
deserved to be considered ; and he thought that ceitatif 
parts of the subject were capable of farther and fuller illus^ 
tration, . He printed, tbei^efore, in 1773, ^^ Letters to the 
rev. Dr. Worthington^ in answer to his late publication, 
entitled An impartial Inquiry into the case of the Gospel- 
Demoniacs." Another of Mr. Farmer's antagonista vft$^ 
the. late rev. Mr. Fell, a disseutii^ minister, at that time of 
Thaxted in Essex, and afterwards one of the tutors of tlie 
dissenting academy at Homerton. This gentleman pub* 
lished in 1779, a treatise, entitled^* Dsemoniaes ; an in^ 
quiry into the Heathen and the Scripture doctrine of Dae^ 
mons; In which the hypotheses of the rev. Mr. Farmer, and 
others, on this subject, ate particularly, considered;^' la^ 
this Mr. Fell deduces, the injurious .consequences to natu*^ 
ral'-and revealed religion . which he apprehends to k^esuU 
fro;n the doctrines advanced in the ^^ Dissertation on Mi"< 
racles,'' and the ^^ Ess^y on the Demoniacs,'', but aoqnits 
Mr. Farmer of any. evil design, and allows ^^ that he really 
meant to serve the cause of virtue, which he thought cowkkd 
|iot be more effectually done than by removing every thingf 
which appeared to him in the light of superstition.' \ .- 

Mr. Farmer's last work appeared in- 1-789, and was eo^ 
titled ** The general prevalencex>f the worship of HunMin 
Spirits in the ancient Heathen Nations asserted and prov.ed.'^ 
|n. this work, which had little success, there are -a numbeiB^ 
of notes, referring to Mr. Fell, and which shew Mr. Fantoer^r 
sensibility to. the attack that had been made uponibimiby 
that writer. Indeed, says his panegyrist, we cannoiiap^i 
prove of ike oblique manner in which some of these. noieflr^ 
are cp^mposed. It would have beea far preferable if^ oup . 
author, either not to have taken any notice. of Mr. Fell aft 
al], or to have done it in a more open at>d • rnqnly^ way^i 
Mr. Fell was not backward in his own vindicatian, . TJba9. 

' . • " 

appeared in 1785, in a publication entitled ^^The Idolatry 
^ Greece and.. Rome distinguished from that of .other. 

»AllM£lt. lis 


lieitheti nations : in a letter to the reverend ftagli Farmer. 
At tbe-iftafDe time that in this tract ample retaliation is 
made' apon Mr. Farmer for his personal severities, it 
appears to us to contain many things,' which, if he had 
contincied to pablish on the subject, ifould have been 
foand desierving of eonsideratioh and reply. 
^ Ash minister Mr. Farmer received everv mark of honour 
from the di^e^iters which it was in their power to bestow. 
For a great number of years he preached twice a day at 
Wahfaamstow: but, an associate being at length provided 
for him at that place, he became in 1761 afternoop* 
preacher to the congregation of Salters-hall, and some 
timfe-aftei^'Wascfaoisen one of the Tuesday-lecturers at Sal- 
ter3«>halL He was^tso a trustee of the rev. Dr. Daniel 
Williams's' tat4ous bequests ; and he was likewise one of 
Mn C^wikrd^s trustees-; in which capacity he became a 
dispenser of the large charities that had been left by the 
gentletAati with whom he had been connected in early life. 
As Mfi Fanuer advanced in years,^he gradually remitted 
of his employmehts as a divine. He resigned first, in 1772, 
tfatt baing afternoon^preacher at Salters-hall ; after which, 
in 1780^ he gave up the Tuesday lectureship of the same 
piaoe; 'Iff his pastoral relation at Walthamstow he con- 
tinued a few years longer, when he quitted the pulpit 
entirely. In these several cases his resignations were ac* 
cepted. Witil peculiar regret* After he had ceased to be a 
preaclier^ it was his general custom to spend part of the 
winter at Badi. Early in 1785, Mr. Farmer was afflicted 
with ialmofin a total failure of sight, which, however, was 
restored by the skill, first of Baron Wenzel, and after- 
wards of Mr. Watben. Infirmities, however, growing upon 
him^ he departed this life on the 6th of February, 1787^ 
in the seventy^third year of his age, and was buried in 
Wtiltbamstow church-yard, in the same grave with his 
fvieii<t8'Mr. and Mrs. Snell. On Sunday, the 18th, his 
funeral sefmon was preached by Mr. Urwick, of Ciapham,' 
whose dtecourse was printed. In his last will, besides' 
providing handsomely for his relations, and remembering 
hit servants, he l^ft ^ hundred pounds to the fund for the 
widows of dissenting ministers, and forty pounds to the 
pool* of Walthamstow parish. His regard to the family' 
with which he had so long been connected, and to. which 
be had been so peculiarly obliged, was testified by his 
bequeathing pecuniary legacies- to every member- of that 

I 2 

lie *^ A R M EH; 

ffttnily. Smaller legacies were left by him to others t>f intt 
frteiids. His executors were William Siiell, esq* of Clap« 
ham, and William Hood^ esq. of Chaacery-laney barrister; 
the first the son, and the second one of ,the grandsons of 
Mr. Farmer's great patron. To another grandson, the ten 
itobert Jacomb, our author bequeathed his library, with 
the exception of such classic books as Mn Snell might 
select ; who also was a residuary legatee, in conjutiction 
with his sister, Mrs. Hood. In this will he also made his 
request (for that is the term used), that his executors 
would burn his sermons and manuscripts^ unless he should 
4irect otherwise by a separate paper ; and, in case they 
should not do it, the legacies of a hundred pounds eticb^ 
which he had left them, were to be null and> void. H^^ had 
nearly completed a second volume on the demonology of 
the ancients ; a curious dissertation on the story of Balaam^ 
which he had transcribed for the press, and fordieprinttog 
of which he had given his directions, and had made pre^ 
parations for a second edition of bis Treatise on Miracles^ 
by which it would have been considerably enlarged, and 
highly improved; all which were destroyed^ as^ in tbi 
opinion of the executors, coming within the intent of bis 
will. His biographer laments bitterly this undistinguisbingf 
destruction, which, indeed, seems rather too much to re^ 
•emble what happened in Don Quixote's library* 

As to his general character, we are told that he was^ 
particularly excellent in the pulpit, and that bis sermons 
were rational, spiritual^ evangelical, and not unfrequenitly 
pathetic ; that be had an admirable talent, <wkhout trim^' 
iping, of pleasing persons of very different sentimfents^ 
Skud that when he was speaking of the dot;trines of the 
gospel, th^re was a swell in his language that looked as^if 
he was rising to a greater degree of orthodoxy in express 
sion than some persons might approve^ but U never came 
io that point. In conversation he was lively and brilliants to 
an uncommon degree ; and, like Doddridge, be sometimes ' 
went far enough in his complimentary language io persons 
present. He was likewise very backward in readily de* 
daring his sentiments, when asked them^ concerning^ par^- 
ticular topics, living writers, or recent publications. - Any 
question of this kind not unfrequently produced from htiUy 
what has ' been ascribed to the quakers,. another questiaft 
in return. He appears, however, to have been no philo« 
sopber, for we are told that it was probably some' feeling 

F A R M E R^ lit 

eP kis last work's not having met with the attention h6 
expett^iy which dictated the order concerning the burning 
of his manuscripts. He had gre^t generosity of disposi* 
tion, and in his distributions to charitable designs and 
^ects went to the utmost extent of his property. * 

dF-ARMER (Richard), D. D. a learned critic and dis- 
Ithguished scholar, was the descendant of a family long 
seated at Ratclifie Culey, a hamlet within the parish of 
Shepey, in the county of Leicester. His grandfather 
(who died in ! 727, aged sixty-three) is described on his 
tomb in St. Mary's church at Leicester as " John Farmet 
of Nuneaton, gent.*' His father, who was largely en* 
gaged in Leicester in the business of a maltster, married iit 
I7S3-3, Hannah Knibb, by whom be had fire sons and 
four daughters. He died in 1778, at the age of eighty, 
atrd bis widow in 1808, at the advanced age of ninety- 
seven. The subject of this article was their second son^ 
and was bora in Leicester, Aug. 28, 1735.' He received 
tthe -early part of his education under the rev. Gerrard 
Andrewes (father of the present dean of Canterbury) in the 
free grammar-school of Leicester, a seminary in whicli 
many eminent persons were his contemporaries. About 
i7oS he left the school with an excellent character for 
temper and talents, and was entered a pensioner at Ema<* 
nuel college, Cambridge, when Dr. Richardson, the bio*i 
grapher of the English prelates, was master, and Mr« 
fiidcham and Mr. Hubbard were tutors. Here Mr. Farmer 
applied himself chiefly to classical learning and the belles 
lettres, with a predilection for the latter, in which, in truth^ 
he was best qualified to shine. He took his degree of 
Bi. A. in '1757, ranked as a senior optime, and gained the 
silver cup given by Emanuel college to the best graduate 
rf that year, which honorary reward is still preserved with 
great care in his family. His only Cambridge verses were 
a poem' on laying the foundation-stone of the public library 
in \^S5f and a sonnet on the late king's death in 1760. 

In 1760 he proceeded M. A. and succeeded as classical 
tutor to Mr. Biekham, who was at that time presented to the 
eollege-rectory of Loughborough, in Leicestershire. He 
proved an excellent classical * tutor, and had the art of 
gairiingthe esteem of his pupils; but, having less attach* 
flient to theology and mathematics, he is thought to have 

1 BijQg< J>ict.-'-)&S^iioH».byt|ic)atiiMicbac;lZ)odiQB| 6vo, 1805. 

lis FARMER. 

been less zealous in recommending those studies, altho^ii 
he never remitted what was necessary for the p^rposes of 
initiation, and more can perhaps seldom be achieved by 
any tutor in the short time he has to direct the pursuits of 
bis scholars. At what time he took orders is not mentioned, 
but during his being tutor he served the curacy of Swave- 
sey, a village about eight miles from Cambridge. The 
bent of his private studies being to ancient literature and 
antiquities, he was in 1763 recommended to, and elected 
a fellow of, the society of antiquaries. In 1765 he served 
the office of junior proctor of the university. In May of 
the following year he published, from the university press, 
proposals for a history of the town of Leicester, " originally 
collected by William Staveley, esq. barrister at law, now 
first offered to the public from the author's MS. with very 
large additions and improvements, &c.'* It is somewhat 
singular that Mr. Farmer should mistake the name of 
Staveley, which was Thomas, both in these proposals and 
in the imprimatur which he obtained for it in 1767. That 
however he set about this work with full intention of 
pursuing it with diligence, is evident from the tenour of 
many of the letters which he addressed at that period to 
some eminent antiquaries, his friends ; but, in a very few 
months, he began to perceive that the task he had under* 
taken was much more laborious than he had at first ima- 
gined. He clung to it, however, through many delays^ 
sometimes flattering himself, and sometimes his subscribers, 
that it would be completed, until, sit length, when be had 
actually begun to print it^ he took the advantage of his 
promotion to the mastership of Emanuel college, and 
urging that as an excuse for discontinuing his labours, ad*- 
vertised to return the subscription-money, which was punc- 
tually done when called for; He then presented the MSS. 
and plates to Mr. Nichols, who has since completed the 
history both of the town and county of Leicester, with a 
degree of spirit, ability, and industry, perhaps unprece* 
dented in this department of literature. 

In 1766 Mr. Farmer published his justly celebrated 
*^ Essay on die Learning of Shakspeare,'^ a thin octavo 
volume, which completely settled a much litigated question^ 
contrary to the opinions of many eminent writers, in a 
manner that carried conviction to the mind of every one 
who had either carefully* or carelessly reflected on the 
subject. It may in grutb be pointed out as a master-piece^ 

FA R M E R, ua 

ip^ketber we eonsider the ' sprigbtUness and vivacity with, 
which it is written, the clearness of the arcangeaient, the 
force aiid variety of the evidence, or the compression of - 
scattered materials into a narrow compass; materials^which; 
inferior writers would have expanded into a large volume* 
A second edition of this valuable performance was called 
for in 17,67, in which are a few corrections of style; anda. 
third was printed in 1.789,. without any additions, except a 
note at the end, accounting for his finally abandoning hisi 
intended publication of the Antiquities of Leicester. It 
was afterwards added to the prolegomena of Steevens's. 
Shakspeare^ 1793, 1 5 vols, and in the two subsequent editions, 
of 21 vols, by Mn Reed in 1803, and Mr. Harris. in 181^. : 
In 1767 Mr. Farmer took the degree of B. D. and ia 
1769 fvas appointed by Dr. Terrick, then bishop of Lon-; 
don, to be one of the preacher^ at. the chapel rpyal. White-?' 
hall. During the. residence in London which this office 
required, he lodged with the celebrated Dr. Askevvv ia 
Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, and became himself a coir 
lector (>f bool^s at a time wheb. such as are now thought 
invaluable could be picked up at stalls at the most trifling, 
prices. In 1775, on the death of Dr. Richardson, he w^$. 
chosen master of Fnianuel college; Mr. Hubbard, the^e-« 
nior fellow, who had been chpsen, declining it, with,, saysi, 
Mr« Cole^ ^Vhis wonted moderation and disinterestedpjess,. 
and g^iving his fijdl suffrage to his friend Mr. Farmer.'! 
He pow took the, degree of D. D. and. was very soon suc- 
ceeded in his tutorship by. Dr. William Bennet, the pre-v 
sent very {earned and amiable bish*>p of Cloyne. In^ 
1775-^j Dr. Farmer served, in his turn, the office of vice-j 
chanoejlor. During his holding ^his office an event oc- 
curred,, which would scarcely be wprth mentipning in. ^ 
life of Dr. Farmer, not been grossly misrep;'esented« 
.When the disturbances in Anaeric^ Jbad become ;seriou^„ 
jh^ university of Cambridge, with numberless other loya3| 
l)adiep^< . voted an address to ^he king, approving of tbi^ 
measures adopted by government to reduce the pqlpnief 
to th€[ir duty ; the address however, was not carried Uipa- 
jninipu^iy, and was^ in pfirticular, opposed by Dr. Jpbci 
^ebb,>)SO .well known for his free opinions in. pQ]itics.an4 
religion, and by some others, of whom, one man, a^mein- 
ber of. the caput, carried his opposition, so far,, a^ aptuallj 
^p refuse the key of the place wiiiicb contained the $ea| 
aecessary gn ^jxch Qccasipn^. In this^emergency th^ yig^^ 


«hafied}or, Dr. tatm^v, is said 4o have forced open &6 
door. with a sledge*baitiiners and ibis aot of yioiente is 
oalled courtly zeal, and all his subsequent preferments a^ 
attributed' to it; But tbe fact is, tbat the opening of this 
door (of a chest) was not an act of* intemperate zeal. 1^ 
sense of the university had been taken ; the senate, by its 
/vote, had given its sanction to the measure before the vice* 
eiiancellor exerted bis authority, and gave his servant tAs 
official orders to break open the chest. 

On the death of Dr. Barnardiston, master of Bene^t 
eollege, Dr. Farmer was, on June 27, 1778, unanimously 
elected proto-bibliotbecarius, or principal librarian of the 
university, to which he was well entitled from his literary 
eharacter, and in which* office he afforded easy access to 
tbe public library to men of learning of all parties, kn 
obligation which some have not repaid by tbe kindest r^-* 
gard for Jiis memory; Not so the late Mr. Gilbert -Wafee* 
c field, who, besides other grateful notices, says, in p. 94—- 
B5 of his Life, that heis ^^ acquainted with striking instances 
: of liberality in Dr. Farmer towards those of whose integrity 
' he wais convinced, however opposite their sentiments'*— |^ a 
. character, which, although Mr. Wakefield is here speakihg 
of the. mastership of the college, may be applied to Dr. 
Farmer throughout the whole progress of his life. * ' 
: In April 1780, Dr. Farmer was collated by bishop Hurd, 
then bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, to the prebend of 
^ Aldrewas, and the chancellorship annexed, founded in fine 
^ cathedral church of Lichfield. In February 1782 he was 
t. made prebendary of Canterbury, as it is supposed, through 
; the recommendation of the then first minister, lord 'North, 
.which he resigned in 1788, on being preferred by theikte 
^ I/lt. Pitt to a residentiaryship of St. PauPs. A few bolirs 
:. after this appointment, he jocosely said to his fHend Mr. 
i- Nichols, <^ I could now, if I thought proper, cheat the 
r pninister, for I have in my pocket an appointment t61he 
. residentiaryship of St. Paulas, without having resigned ^the 

(irebend of Canterbury." ' 

y. \ Dr. Farmer had now attained the utmost of his wi^es; 
and although both an English and an Irish bishoprick #ere 
offered to him, he declined them, for which various reli^na 
: have been assigned. One is certainly erroneous. It has 
.. been said ^^ that in early life he had felt the power of Idve, 
' and bad suffered such a disappointment as had sunk deep 
' i» ibia mindi and for a time threatened his undecstattdkig. 

F A B U E S. ISt 

JFtooi tbat period) though he retained his faculties entire^ 
.be acquired some peculiarities of manner^ of which he was 
MO £»r conscious, as to be sensible that they would bardty 
jbecome the character of a bishop; being likewise strongly 
^^lached to dramatic entertainments (which, if we mistalie 
. i^oty the English bishops never witness), and delighting in 
^ ^lubs where he could hanre rational conversation without 
. i^tate or ceremony of any kind, he very wisely preferred 
his residentiaryship to the highest dignity in the church*** 
What is here said as to his habits being incompatible with 
the character of a bishop, cannot be denied ;. but these 
Jiabits were partly natural, from indolence and a love of 
ease> and partly acquired by a seclusion from polished 
^Qciety. The lady to whom Dr. Farmer is said to have 
Ji)een attached, was the eldest daughter of sir Thomas 
. Jlattoo, with whom he became acquainted while curate^of 
<§wavesey. Cole says, sir Thomas refused his consent, and 
this refusal appears to have been given in 1782, when Dr. 
tFarmer was in his forty-seventh year, and if, as Cole af* 
jfirois, the lady was then only twenty-seven or twenty-eight 
years of age, she must have been an infant when Dr. 
' Farmer became acquainted with her father. The whole^ 
J|0)vever, may be only one of Cole's gossiping stories; and 
whether so or not, Dr. Farmer, neither at this or any 
previous time, exhibited any symptoms of ^^ disappointed 
)ove,*' It is more rational to suppose, with bis last bto« 
f rapfaer (Mr. Nichols), that when be arrived at that situa* 
lion, as to fortune, which gave htm a claim to the object 
of his affections, he found, on mature reflection, that his 
habits of life were then too deeply rooted to be changed 
into those of domestic arrangements with any probable 
.chanoe of perfect happiness to either party. As to bia 
•promotion to a bishopric, it may yet be added, that 
although few men have been more beloved by an extensive 
. qircle of friends than Dr. Farmer, there was not, perhaps, 
,0Ae of them who did not applaud his declining that station, 
or who did not think, with all their respect for him, that 
4>e would not have appeared to advantage in it. It is not 
<a» a Divine that Dr. Farmer was admired by his contem* 
, pararies, or can be known to posterity. 

Few circumstances of Dr. Farmer's life remain to ht 
noticed. His latter years were nearly equally divided 
.between Emanuel college and the residentiary -house in 
Amen Cprner, His town residence was highly favourable! 

FA R M £ R. 

to his love of literary soctely, and for many yeat!^ be was a 
member of diiFerent clubs composed of men of letters,' by 
wbom he was mucb esteemed. He died,, after a long and 
painful illness, at the lodge of Emanuel college, Sept: 
8^ 1797, and was buried in thechapel. His epitaph in the 
cloisters was wrkten by Dr. Parr, who, in another plec^ 
and while be was living, said of him, ^^ His knowledge 
ia various, extensive,: and recondite, with mnch seeming 
negligence, and perhaps in later years some real relaxation ;. 
he understands more, and remembers more, about com- 
non and uncommon subjects of literature, than many of 
th^se tvho would be thought to read all the day, and n>e^ 
ditate half the night. In quickness of appiiehension, ai^d 
acuteness of diserimination, I have not often seen his equak 
Through, many a convivial hour have I been charmed with 
bis vivacity ; and upon his genius I have I'eflected in many 
a serious moment with pleasure, with admiration ; but not 
without regret, that he has never concentrated and exerted 
all the great powers of his ; mind in some great work,. upoiJi 
spqie great subject. Of his liberality in; patronizing leaTiied 
men 1 could point out numerous instances. Without the 
smallest propensities to avarice, he possesses a large in^ 
ccM^e ; and without the mean submissions of dependence^ 
)ie is risen to high station. Hia ambition, if be has anyy 
|s. without insolence ; his munificence is without ostenta*' 
lion ; his wit is without acrimony ; and his learning without 
pedantry.'' The value of this elegant character is its li^ 
berality, for Dr. Parr avows that ^* upon some ecclesias- 
tical, ai)d many political matters,'' there could be no co^ 
incidence of opinion. From rooted principle and ancient 
l^abit. Dr. Farmer was a tory, and Dr. Parr is a whig i it 
|Dusl be a third character, grown out of the corruption of 
jjEill principle, that would injure the fair fame of Dr. Farmer 
j^y attributing his rise in the world to clerical or political 
jipbserviency. » \ 

: Besides the very liberal and faithful discharge of. his 
duties as master of his college, Dr. Farmer may be con^ 
s^dered as a benefactor .to the town of Cambridge, for by. 
Jbis exertions every improvement and convenience introN 
duced for the last thirty years of his life, were either 
originally proposed, or ultimately forwarded and carried 
into execution by him. The plan for paviiig, watching, 
and lighting the town, after many, ineffectual atteuqpts, 
^as accomplished in his second vice-phanpeUorsbip, greatly 
to the satisfaction of all parties. As a magistrate, he was 

FA R M E R. : MS 

active and diligent ; and on more tiian one oooasion of 
rioU,^ displayed great firmness of mind in dangerous con«^ 
junctures. In bis office of residentiary of St Paul's, if he 
neas not the first mover, he was one oif the most strenuoui 
.advocates for inUx)ducing the monoments of onr illustrious 
heroes and men of talents into the metropolitan cathedral. ' 
His libraryv which was particularly rich in scarce tracts 
and old English literature, was sold by Mr. King in 179S^ 
a sale (tf thirty-five days, which produced 2,210/; aitbough 
jibe books are supposed to have cost him less than 500/.-—* 
This and bis other property he bequeathed to his brothev 
Joseph, a gentleman many yeavs a much respected resi^^ 
dent at Leicester, who died in 1S13. Such was his indif*" 
£erenee to money matters, that his accounts with some 
of his pupils were never settled to the day of his deatb^ 
Uader such circumstances, it became neeessary to re^ 
mind them of the debts they had early contracted witK 
their worthy tutor, and which still remained uncancelled.. 
The application was in most instances attended with the 
dsesired success. The debt was no sooner statedthan dis- 
eliarged. The mention of Dr. Farmer's name precluded 
the necessity of further inquiry* His life, they knew, wa^. 
distinguished by the most disinterested acts of generosi^ 
and friendship. Some names might indeed be mentioned 
of persons who were disposed to controvert the justice of 
these claims, and to prevaricate rather than to settle j but 
they were few.* 

. FARNABIE, or FARNABY (Thomas), a learned grami 
mariao, was born in London about 1575. His father wai 
a carpenter in that city ; his grandfather had been mayor 
of Truro in Cornwall ; and his greats-grandfather was aii 
Italian musician, who had settled in England*. After 
having received a proper grammatical education, hewai 
admitted of Merton-college, Oxford, in the beginning of 
1590, where he became servitor to Mr. Thomas French^ 
fellow of that college, and soon distinguished himself as a 
youth of lively parts and great hopes. Being, however, of 
an unse^ttled disposition, he abruptly quitted the university^ 
aad, abandoning both his religion and his country, passed 

' * There was a Giles Farnaby, a musician, who was a coDtemporary wiUi ouf 
author^ and of wham some notice is taken in oar musical histories, but could 
■St be the person mentioned abo¥e. " 

< ^ Nidiola>8 Bowyer.-— Encyciop. Britan. Suppl. — ^Europ. Mag. FebJ ISOa-^ 
Cole's MS AthesR in Sri(. Mas.— ^Seward's Biosraphiaaa.— >BgiwelVt JM% qH 

124 F A R N A B I E, 


over to Spain, and was for smne time edticaied ibere in 
a coUege belonging to tbe Jesuits. At length, growins 
weary of the severe dtsciplioe of the institution, he fouiia 
SI, way to leavje it, and went with sir Francis Drake and ski 
John Hawkins in their last voyage, in i 595. By the former 
of these great naval Gommanders he is said to have been 
held in some esteem. Mr. Farn^bie is afterwards repotted 
to have served as a soldier in the Low Countries. No ad* 
vantage was gained by him in these expeditions ; for, bav<» 
ing been reduced to much distress^ he landed in CornwaU, 
and from the urgency of his necessities was obliged to de-! 
fecend to the humble employment of teaching children thmr 
horh^iboak. Whilst he was iu this low situation he did not. 
cbuse to go by his own name, but changed it to Thoma# 
Baiorafe, the anagram of Farnabie. By degrees jbe rosn 
to those higher occupations of a school-master for which 
he was so well qualified, and after some iime^ he fixed ait 
MaKtock in Somersetshire, where he taught a grammar- 
^ool with great success. In 1646, when Mr. Charles 
Darby was called to teach the same school, he found hi 
Ihat town, and the neighbourhood, many persons who had 
been .Mr. Farnabie^s scholars^ and -who, in their grey hairs^ 
were ingenious men and good grammarians. From Mar«^ 
tock Mr. Farnabie removed to London, and opened S| 
school in Goldsmiths* -rents, behind Red-Cross-streetyiieai? 
Crippiegate, where were large gardens and handsoml^ 
bouses, together with all the accommodations proper for 
the young noblemen and gentlemen committed to his care;. 
6o established was his reputation, that at one time th^ 
number of his scholars amounted to more than three hundreds 
Whilst he was at the head of this school, he was created 
master of arts in the university of Cambridge, and^in thch 
64th of April, 1^16, was incorporated to the same degree 
»t Oxford. . 

, After a course of years, oa account of some diffeflenca^ 
with his landlords, and the frequent sicknesses which <h;«« 
curred in the city, Mr. Farnabie determined^ in 1636^ t5 
#]uit London, and reside at Sevenoaks in Kent, inth^ 
Beigh}>oi|rhood of which town (at Otford) he had purchase^ 
an estate. Here he renewed his former occupation, and, 
jTrom the jinmber of npbiemen^s jand gentlemen^s .sons wbp 
boarded with him, grew so rich as to add considerably to him 
landed property. One of the estates purchased by him waa 
'•ear Horsham in Sussex. His works, which have transmitted 

I" A H N A B I E. Ii25 


kk fMime wi& honour to posterity, were not only well re^- ' 
ceived at home^ but abroad, and have been applauded by 
several eminent foreign scholars. When the civil comoio-i- 
tions broke out, in 1941, our author was esteemed to be 
ilUaifected to the parliament, because, on occasion of the 
protestation's being urged that year, he had said, tliat *^ it 
was better to have one king than five hundred." Being 
afterwards suspected of having favoured the rising of the 
county for the king about Tunbridge, in 1643, he was 
imprisoned in Newgate, and thence carried on shipboard* 
It was even debated in the house of commons whether he 
should be sent to America ; but this motion being rejected^ 
he was removed to Ely-house in Holborn, where be re-^ 
fnained for a considerable time. It is insinuated by An- 
thony Wood, that some of the members of both houses^^ 
inrho had been his scholars, were amongst those who urged 
his being treated with severity. Mr. Farnabie departed 
this life on the twelfth of June, 1647, aged seventy-two, 
and was interred in the chancel of the church at Sevenoaks. 
He was twice married* His first wife was Susanna, daugh^ 
ler of John Pierce, of Launcells, in Cornwall, gent. By 
ber he had a son named John, who became a captain in 
king Charles's army, and inherited his father's estate in 
Sussex, where he lived in good esteem, and died about: 
the beginning of 1673. Mr. Farnabie's second wife was 
Anne, the daughter of Dr. John Howson, bishop of Dur*^ 
ham, by whom he had several children. One of them, 
Francis, succeeded to bis father's estate at Kippington, ill 
the parish' of Sevenoaks. From this gentleman Anthony 
Wood derived his information concerning the particulars 
of our famous school-master's life, and asserts that he waa 
the chief grammarian^ rhetorician, poet, Latinist^ and Gre^ 
tiBUf of his time. Wood adds, that his school was so 
much frequented, that more churchmen and statesmeft. 
issued from it, than from any school taught by one man i» 

' . His works are : 1 . ** Notae ad Juvenalis et Persii Saty* 
ras," Londi 1612, ft^vo* The third edition was printed at 
London, in 1620, under the following title : ^^ Junii Juveo 
nalis et Auli iPersii Flacci Saryrse : cum annotationibus acl 
tnarginem, quae obscurissima quseque dilocrdare possint*. 
Tertia Editio, prioribus multo emendatior et auctior." Th^ 
book is dedicated to Henry prince of Wales, who received 
the author very kindly, and in some measure coawtanded 

126 If' A R irf A B I E: 

him to Write siich comments on all the Latin poetis.' 2f. 
" Notae ai Seiiecae Tragoediaw," Loud; 1613, 8\o. The' 
third edition was printed at the same place^ in 1^34, utider 
the following title : *' L. et M. Annaei Senecae Tragcedia;. 
Post omnes omnium editiones recensionesque editio tertia 
auctior et emendatior, operS. et studio Thomae Farnabii.'*^ 
To this edition is prefixed a privilege granted him from the 
king, dated October 1634, for the sole printing of th^t, 
and several other of his works, for orie-and-twenty years*' 
The book is accompanied with commendatory verses, by 
Daniel Heinsius, Richard Andrews, M. D. Hugh Holland, 
Laurence Whitaker, and Na. Tomkins. 3. " Nbtae ad 
Martialis Epigrammata,*' Lond. 1615, 8vo. Other editions' 
in 12mo, were afterwards printed, both at London and 
Geneva. These notes were dedicated to sir Robert Kille- 
grew. 4. " Lucani Pharsalia, sive de Bello Civili Csesaris* 
et Pompeii Libri X. Adjectis ad margiriem notis T. Farna- 
bii, quae loca obscuriora illustrent,*' London, 1618, 8vo/ 
Dedicated to sir Francis Stuartl To this edition are pre-^ 
fixed commendatory verses by R. A. M. D.and Mr. Selden/ 
5: ** Index Rhetoricus Scholis et Institution! tenerioris 
^tatis aCcommodatus,** Lond. 1625, 8vo. To an edition 
published in the same city, in 1646, were added, " For- 
miileeOtatdriae et Index Poeticus." The fifth edition was 
printed at London, in 1654, under the following title: 
** Indeic Rhetoricus et Oratorius, Scholis et Institutioni 
tenerioris JEtatis accoinmodatus. Cui adjiciuntur Formulae 
Oratoriae et Index Poeticusl Oper& et studio I'homae Far- 
nabiil Editio. quinta, pfioribus emendatior." This book' 
is dedicated to Dominico Molino, Senator of Venice. The 
Index Poejticus, annexed to this, was first printed at Lon- 
dbn in t634. In the preface to the ** Index Rhetoricus/* 
Mr.'Farnabie informs his readers, that he had published, 
apput t^<fehty years before, his Scheme of Tropes, in verse,, 
withptjt his name; which, meeting with success, was 
clamed' by a certain plagiary ; upon which our author 
cbiiiJibsM his " Index Rhetoricus." Mons. Gibert speaks 
of this work w^ith commendation, and observes tliat Mons. 
BaiUet has passed a favourable judgment upon' it. Father 
VaVass^'ur, though he affirms that Mr. Farnabie's Latin is 
^otiietimes exceptionable, allows him, nevertheless, to have 
been a diligent and learned writer. 6. ** Florilegium Epi- 
grammatum Graecorum, edrumque Latino versu a variis 
redditorum/* London, 1629, 8va, &c. 7. "Notae ad Vir- 

P A R N A B I R trf 

giliuiDy'^ London, 1634, 8td. 8. << Systema Grammati-^' 
cuQiy^' London, 1641, 8vo. King Charles the First ordered 
Mr. Farnabie to write a Latin grammar, for the use of alt 
the schools, when that which had been established by law,' 
and against which many complaints had been made, was U» 
he reformed* 9. "Notae in Ovidii Metamorphoses," Paris, 
1637, folio; and London, in 12mo, 1677, &o. 10. ^^ Pbra« 
siologia Anglo-Latina,'' London, 8vo. 11." Tabulae Grae-^ 
cae Linguae," London, 4to. 12. "Syntaxis," London, 8vo. 
13. ^< Notae in Terentium." Our author had finished bis 
notes upon Terence only as far as the fourth comedy^- 
when he died. But Dr. Meric Casaubon completed the: 
two last comedies, and published the whole at London, 
lt€5i, l2mo. Anthony Wood hath added lo the catalogue, 
** Epistolae variae ad doctissimos Viros.'* But this article 
^oes not refer to a distinct publication, but to the letters 
occasionally written by Farnabie to learned men, and par* 
ticularly to Vossius. * 

' FARNEWORTH (Ellis), distinguished by translating; 
some capital authors, was born (as is presumed) at jBonte-r 
shall in Derbyshire, where his father, of the same names, 
was rector. He. was bred first at Chesterfield scIiqoI undev; 
Mr. William Burrow^ a celebrated master, and afterwards, 
removed to Eton. He was admitted of Jesus college, 
Cambridge; and matriculated Dec. 17, 173X). In 1734 he. 
took his degree of B. A. and in 1738 that of M. A. In: 
1762 he was presented by Dr. James Yorke, dean of Lin- 
coln^ to the rectory of Carsington in Derbyshire; but did 
not enjoy it long, as he died March 25, 1763. His pub-^ 
lications were, 1 . " The life of Pope Sixtus V. translated 
from the Italian of Gregorio Leti^ with a preface^ prole- 
gomena, notes, and appendix, 1754,^' folio. 2. ^^ Davila^S: 
History of France,'* 1757, 2 vols. 4to. 3. "A translaiioa 
of the' works of Machiavel, illustrated with annotatioas^ 
dissertatiofis, and several new plans on the art qf war/* 
V76I, 2 vols. 4to:, reprinted in 1775, 4 vols. 8va .4. **A 
stibrt history of the Israelites, from the French of the abjb^ 
d^ Fieury,^V 1756, 8vo, has been attributed to him, but it 
was hii only by the kindness of Mr. Thomas Bedford (son 
of Hilkiah), who gave him the translation, in hopes, that he- 
might raise some money by it, as he was then poor. Nona 

•"■•'•.' . " 

1 Btog. Brit.— «Aih. Ox. vol. H.-^rGeo. Di«t where hi» Life was first inserted^ 
«<-Niceron« toI. XVI. 


indeed of his works itppear to hitve been ^ofitable^ A*- 
though bis translation of Machiavely which be literally 
'^ hawked round the town," now sells at a very high price« 
On one occasion Dr. Addenbroke, dean of Lichfield, re- , 
eomntended him to translate Spelman's Life of Alfred from 
the Latin into English, and Farneworth was about to have 
begun, when Dr. Pegge luckily informed him that the Lifd 
of Alfred was originally written in English, and thence 
translated into Latin. Mr. Farneworth is supposed to have 
been the author of a ludicrous and pleasant account of 
l^owell, the fire-eater, in Gent. Mag. 1755, signed Philo- 
pyrpbagus Ashburniensis. He was at that time curate tor 
the rev. John Fitzherbert, vicar of Ashbourne. * 

FARQUHAR (George), an ingenious comic writer^ 
was the son of a dergyman in Ireland, and born at Lon- 
donderry in 1678, where he received the rudiments o£ 
education, and discovered a genius early devoted to the 
muses. When he was very young, he gave specimens of 
his poetry ; and discovered a force of thinking, and turn 
of expression, much beyond his years. His parents, bav^* ' 
log a numerous issue, xould bestow on him no other for- 
tune than a liberal education : therefore, when he wa» 
qualified for the university, he wa^ sent in 1694 toTcinity*. 
college, in Dublin. He made great progress in his stodiesy 
and acquired a considerable reputation : but bis gay and 
volatile disposition could not long relish the gravity and- 
retirement of a college life, and therefore, soon quitting 
it^ he betook himself to the diversions of the stage, aod 
got admitted into the company of the Dublin theatre. He 
bad the advantage of a good person, and was well received 
%% an actor, though his voice was somewhat weak: for 
which reason he resolved to continue on the stage, till 
something better should offer. But his resolution was sooi^ 
broken by an accident : being to play the part of Guyo*^ 
ndar, who kills Vasquez, in Dryden's " Indian Emperor/* 
and forgetting to exchange his sword for a foil, in the en-* 
gUgement he wounded his brother tragedian, who repre-^ 
sented Vasquez, very dangerously ; and though the wound 
did not prove mortal, yet he was so shocked at it, that be 
determined never more to appear on the stage. 

Sqpn after this, having now no inducement to remain at 
Dublin, he went to London, where, in 1696, the qele- 

* Nichols'! Bowyer* 

F A R a U ft A It 15& 

l»rate<t actor Wilks pre vaifed' upon him to write it play,* and, 
kiifO^ng his humour and abilities, assured him, that he 
was considered hy all as fitter to furniah compositions Ant 
the stage, thab to act those of other writers. Another en- 
couragement, tvhich suffered him to exercise his genius ait 
leisure, he owed to the earl of Orrery, a patron as w^H ds ' 
a master of letters, who conferred a Iteutenant^s comniis- 
sion upon him in his own regiment in Ireland, which Fai^ '' 
qubar held several years, and gave several proofs' both cfl 
c6urage and conduct. Tn 1698, his first coTn<idy, callefl 
'VLove in a Bottle,'' appeared on the stage; and for il& 
spfightly dialogue and busy scenes, was wed receiveA 
by the audience. In 1700 he produced his ^< Cpnstaftt 
Oouple, or. Trip to the Jubilee," it being then the jubilee 
year at Rome, when persons of all countries flocked 
tRither, for pardons or amusements. In the character of 
nif Harry Wildair, our author drew so gay and airy a cba^ 
racter, so suited to Wilfcs^s talents, and so aniiiiated by hie 
gesture and vivacity of spirit, that the player gained almost ' 
as n)uch reputation as the poet. Towards the eud of this ' 
year, Farquhar was ifi Holland, probably upon his military- 
duty: and be h^s given a very facetious description of'' 
those places and people, in two of his letters, dated frorft 
the Brill aiid from Leyden^ in a third, dated from' the' 
Hague, he very humourously relates how merry he wais 
therie, at a treat made by the earl of Westmorelamd ; while' 
not only himself, but king William, and others of his sub- \ 
jeVts, were d(6tained there by a violent storm. There i$ 
also among his poems, an ingenious copy of verses to his 
mistress upon the same subject. Thiij mistress is supposed 
tb have been Mrs. Oldfield, whom he first recommended 
td the fl^age. In 1 70 1 he was a spectator, if not a mobmer, 
at Dryden's funeral; for the deacription he has giten of it 
iQ^bne of his letters, affords little indication of sorrow. 

Encohra^ed by the gi^at success of his last play, he ' 
wr^te a continuation of it, in 1701, called, •* Sir Harrv 
\V*iIdair, ^f. The Sequel of the Trip to the Jubilee?" 
iii wbUh Mrs. Oldfield obtained as much reputation, and 
Was as greatly admired in her part, as Wilks was in 
his.. In 1702 he published his ^* Miscellanies, or, OoL- 
lection of poems, letters, and essays," which contm a 
Tariety of humourous and pleasant sallies of fatrcy. It' 
. is said^ that some of the letters were published ftom 
copies returned to him^ at his request^ by Mrs. OlctKdd. 

Vol. XIV. K 

186 *- A a a U H A R. 

There is at Ae end of them^ ^* A discourse upon Come^^ 
in reference* to the English stage ;^' and in one of the let* 
-iers, ** The Picture/* containing a descripfcion and cba* 
•i^aoter of himself, irom which we learn that be vms very 
ingenuous, very good-liatured, and very thoughtless, in 
,1703 he brought out another lively conoedy called ^' The 
Inconstant^ or, the way to win him f but the fashion now 
Jurning towards Italian arid French operas, this comedy, 
although not inferior, wasr received more coldly than .the 
former. Farqubar was married this year, and, as was at 
•'first reported, to a great fortune ; which indeqd he ex*- 
ipectedf but was miserably disappointed. -The lady had 
imlien in love with him, and so violent was her passion, 
that she resolved to have him at any rate : and ^s she knew 
be was too much dissipated to fall in love, or to think of ma- 
:trimony, unless advantage was annexed to it, she first 
x^atised a report to be spread of her being a great fortune^ 
.end then had him persuaded that she was in love 'with 
bim. He married her : and though he found himself de« 
xeived, his circutastances embarrassed, and his family in- 
creasing, he never once upbraided her for the imposition, 
but behaved to her with all the delicacy and tenderness of 
an indulgent husband. 

Very early in 1704, a farce called " The Stage-coach,'^ 
dUi the composition of whidi he was jointly concerned with 
another, made its first appearance, and was well received. 
!His next comedy, named '^ The Twin-Rivals,'' was played 
in 1705; and in 1706, his comedy, called. "The Recruit- 
ing Officer." He dedicated this " to all friends round the 
.Wrekin,'' a noted hill near Shrewsbury, where ho'^bad 
been to recruit for his company ;. and.wbere, from h\» ob- 
iervations on country life, the manner in which Serjeants 
dinteigle clowns to enlist, and the loose behaviour of .the 
officers towards the milk-maids, and country girls, he col^ 
lected matter sufficient to form a comedy which still holds 
Its place on the stage. His kst comedy was " The Beaux 
fitvatagem," of which be did not live to enjoy thefuU suc- 
cess. ■ The characters in this play w^e all said to have 
.been taken fron^ originals then living in or near the city of 
Xitchfield } and the last of them, Thoma^Boodi a secyant 
.in ^e fiamily of sir Theophilus Bidjlulpb, diefl in 176^. 
:He was the Scrub* ^ .Tbis^perhapAofjall his pieces baa na- 
.mained' longest, and is oftenest acted on tlie stage. To- 
.wards the clo^e of bis short life, be was unhappily oppresse<3 
with some debts : and this. obliged him to ma^^e application 

^ASaUHAR. Itl 

/4(9Pt«oiiitier| wbo b«d formerly made him many professions 
^'ef tfiiendsli^. His pretended patron adtised bim to con- 
-▼ert his eoauaaission into the.inon^ he waAtedy aad 
'l^tedged his honour that in a short time he would pro^dde 
•him another.'^ This cireomstseiice lippearing favottraUe, 
fand unable tO'-bear the thougins of want» be. sold his 
; commissioh : but' when ^e tenewed bis applicdAion» afad 
'i«presented hiff' distressed situatioti, his noble patroo had 
r forgot his promise^' or rather, perhaps^ bad nev^ei^ the least 
iiiise^tkm to. fulfil it. This distracttng dbappointment so 
- preyed updn his miiid^ as to occasion his d^atby April, 1 !70!7, 
f before he was thirty yeais of age. Sood^ after^ the. foUow- 
ingflettisr to Mr. Willis was found, among hia pikers: 
'.<< Dear Bob, I have not any thing to leave thee to perpe* 
rtvale may miemory but two lielpless' girls ; look upon them 
/semetiroes, and think of him that was to the last moment 
'Jof his life, thine, George Farqubar.^' I'his recoooimende- 
tion, vwhich resemUed - the celebrated testament of Euda-^ 
onidasy'^'was duly regarded by Wilks; and wbea the girls 
becaoie of an age ;to be: put out into the world in business, 
jte proottred a benefit ^or eaeh o£ them, to suppjytbe^ ne- 
cessary reocfurces^ . . 

» The suocess of Farqubar's comedies is said, in general, 

''#ar to have exceeded his own expectations; and of bis 

meritr as a writer, various opinions have beeo- entertained. 

^itysia^beaUpwed, however, that he was usually happy in 

tkie^liaiee of his subjects, and adorned theaai witb.a great 

jfwAev^ -of tcharaeters and incidents :. that his style impure 

'and nmffeioted:; bis wit natural and flowing ; and his plots 

genemlly well coniswed. . Licentiousness has been justly 

objeetewto hia obmedies, whieh.was the vice of the times. 

Ifops Jisedt^'Cati him a farce- writer ; but his produictmia 

'Were so pleasing, . that many years ago his works had. gone 

through eight editions-; and to this day bis comedies Jceep 

-' their tank upon theataga 

*■ 'Of Us iamily, his wife-died in circumstances of the ut- 
most ia^hgenoe: one* of his daughters was married to an 
inferior tradesman, ' and died soon after. Tbe other in 
I1ld4 was living, in indigent circumstances^ without any 
kmmdedge of refinement ia rsentiments or expences ; she 
seemed to take<tio pride !iti her father's fame^ and was in 
swery lespeot fitted lo ber hmiibk atatiou. ^ ■ 


. > Btojs. Biit»— Biof . JPirai&.«^ibber'< (•hrei.<— Spence't Aoecdotes MS. 

% 9 

ife t* A R fiL 

FARR (Samubl), an eminent physician at Taunton, ttaf 
born in 1741, of parents who were protestant dissenten, 
and was first educated at the dissenting aeadetny at War- 
tington, from whence he removed to Edinburgh,, and these 
and at Leyden pursued his medical studies^ talcing. his 
degree at the latter university. Re afterwards settled Mt 
Taunton, where he was highly esteemed for his skill* and 
|>ersonal character. To the learning which peciUiafty 
qualified him for his profession, he united a coiisidefabie 
acquaintance with general literature and science ; and with 
liedica] knowledge and judgment, be possessed die powers 
of instructing and entertaining, as the lively and sensible 
eompanioti of the social hoor« He died Match II, 1195, 
at the bouse of John Fisher, esq. Upeott, near Taunton. 
His publications^ in most of which he discovers outeb 
original observation, extensive experience^ and conrecs 
Aeory, were, 1. "An Essay on the medical viitiaea of 
Acids," 1769, ]2mo. 2. ^' Apherismi de Manmno, ex 
summis medicis collect!,*' 1772, (dmo. His atientioD.te 
the subject of consumption produced again, S. ^ Inquiry 
into the propriety of Blood-letting in Gonsomption/' 1775, 
Svo. Although he does not absolutely probibit blood* 
letting, he seems to place little reliance on it in this cruel 
disorder. 4. ^ The History of Epidemics ; by Htppocsates^ 
in seven books, translated into English from the Greek, 
with notes and observations, and a preliminary disserta* 
tion on the nature and cause of infection,'* iMi, 4to, I» 
this work are not a few errors in judgment, proceedings 
]9robably, from a too great aitachment to the aothoeity of 
Hippocrates. Dr. Farr acquired more' vepatation b]^ his 
last work, 5. << The Elements of Mimical Juri^mdeoce f 
to which are added, directions for preserving liie Pnblie 
Health,** 1788, 8vo.* 


FASSOLO (B£UKarihko), of Pavia^ aq artist w1k» 
flourished about 1518, was a popil oridiiiator of Lionaida 
da Vinci, and the most suceessfol of all his imitators^ Ltmo 
perhaps excepted, if be be judged by di« cMily picture^ 
which, without hesitation, may be asorihed:tohkii«- Thi&. 
pieture^ which belonged to the gallery of prince Braschi^ 
was carried by the French to that of ^e Loowe^ and ve« 
presents, in a grrape of Batiural siM> the Madonna with tba 


r A S S O L O. 1)| 

tefittit on bet hp : the mother in qniet repose, with botit 
eyes, and absorbed in meditation ; her simple attitude ii 
conlMuit^d by the lively one ctf the child, who seems to 
take refuge at her neck and breast from some external 
objetit. The picture is inscribed ^' Bernardinus Faxolus 
de Papia fecit, 1518,''^ 

FASTOLFF (John), knight, and knigbt-banneret, a 
valiant and renowned general, governor^ and nobleman in 
France, during our conquests in that kingdom, under king 
Henry IV. V. and VI. of England,^ and knights-companion 
I of the most noble, order of the garter, has been supposed^ 
from the title of his French barony, and from his name 
. being so often corruptly mentioned in the French histories^ 
owing to his long residence*, and many engagements in 
the wars there, to have been born in France, at least of 
French extraction. Others, allowing" him to have been 
a native of England, have no less erroneously fixed bis 
birth«>p[aee in Bedfordshire ; but it is well known that he- 
was descended of an ancient and famous English family in 
the county of Norfolk, which had flourished there and in 
other parts of the kingdom, in very honourable distinction^ 
before the conquest : and from a train of illustrious an<r 
cestors, many of them. dignified with tlie honour of knight* 
hood, invested with very eminent employments, and pos* 
sessed of extensive patrimonies. But one of the principal 
branches being seated at Castre in Fleg near Great Yar^ 
mouth in that county, which estate descending to these 
ancestors, he afterwards adorned with a noble family seat^ 
it is presumed he was born there, or in Yarmouth. His 
frther was John Fastolff, esq. of that town, a mian of con« 
fiaderable account, especially for. his public benefactions^ 
pi6#s' foundations^ &c« His mother was Mary, daughter 
of Nicholas Park, esq. and married to sir Richard Mortimer^ * 
of Attleburgfa ; and this their son was born in the latter 
eod of king Edward the Illd^s reign. As he died ac the 
^e of eighty, in 1459, his. birth could not. happen later 
than 137S. It may faiiiy be presumed he was grounded 
^a^well in that learning and other aocompHshnjents which 
aftlsrwards, improved by his expqrtence and sagacity, ren- 
dered kim so &mou8 in war and peace, as in those virtuous 
and relfgious prlndples which governed his actions* to j^he 
ktit. His ££^ther dying before be was of agCj the carec^ 

in F A S T O L F r. 

his person and estate were committed to John duke of 
Bedford, who was afterwards the most wise and able regent 
of France we ever had there ; and he was -the last ward 
Which that duke had : others, indeed, say that he waa 
trained up in the Norfolk family, which ^yill not appear 
improbable when we consider that it was nq^ unusual in 
those times for young noblemen whilst under wardship' to 
be trained under others, especially ministers of state, in ' 
^eir houses and families, as in academies of behaviour, and 
to qualify them for the service of their country at home 
or abroad. Bi^t if be was under Thomas Mowbray duke 
of Norfolk, while he enjoyed that title, it pouldbebu^. 
one year, that duke being banished the kingdodd by king 
Bichajcd 11. in 1398,^ though bis younger son, who was 
restored to that title many years after, might be one of At 
John Fastolff^s fecjrffees. And it is pretty evident that he 
was, but a few years after the banishment of that duke, in 
some considerable post under Thomas of Lancast^r^ after^ 
wards duke of Clarence, and second son of the succeeding 
king Henry IV. Thjs Thomas was sent by his f^^tber sq 
^arly, according to some writer^, as the second year of his 
reign, which watS in 1401, lord lieutenant of Ireland. And 
it is iiot improbable that Fastol if was then with him; ifor 
we fii^e informed by William of WyrQestre> that in the sixth 
and seventh years of the said king Henry, that is, in 1405 
and 140j6, this John FastolflF, esq. w^ conti^iually with 
bim. And the same lord lieutenant of Ireland w^s again 
ihere in I40B, IQ Henry IV. and almost to the beginning 
of the next year, when it is no less probable that Fastol$ 
was stillwith him; for, in the year last mentioned, w^ 
find that he was married in that kingdom to 'a rich, 
young widow of quality, named Milicent,lady Castlecomb^ 
daughter of Robert lord Tibetot, and relict of sir Stephen 
iScrope, knight ; the same, perhaps, who is nie.ntionedj^ 
though not with the title of ' knighthood, by sir P; Ley- 
cester, .to have been the said lord lieutenant^s deputy of 
trelaild, during most of the intervals of his return to Eng- 
land ; which deputy-lieutenant died in his office the same, 
year. This marriage was solemnized in Ireland on the 
feast of St. Hilary^ 1403, and FastolfF bound himself iQ\ 
the sum of lOOOl to pay her 1002. a yefar, for pin-money 
during life i and she received the same to the 24tb year of 
king Henry VI. The lands in Wiltshire and Yorkshire 
^hicb came to Fastolff by this marriage with the said lady, 

J A S T O L F J?. 13« 

da^cemled to Stephen Le Scrope^ her son and heir. Wa 

miky .reasonably believe that this marriage in Ireland en-^ 

gaged bis settlement in that kingdom, or upon his estate 

in Norfolk, till his appointment to the command of some 

forces, or to some post of trust under the English regency 

in France, soon after required his residence in that king*- 

dom. For, according to the strictest calculation we can 

make from the accounts of his early engagements in 

:France, the many years he was there, and the time of his 

final return, it not long after his marriage that he 

left either England or Ireland for that foreign service ; 

being employed abroad by Henry IV. V. and VI. in the 

wars in France, Normandy, Anjou, Mayne, and Guyenne, 

upwards of forty years ; which agrees very well with what> . 

Caxton^has published, in his concise, yet comprehensive 

c^iaracter of him', little more than twenty years after his 

death, where he speaks of his ^^. exercisyng the warrys ih 

the royame of Fraunce and other countrees, &c. by fourty 

yeres enduryng." So that, we cannot see any room, either 

in the time or the. temper, in the fortunes or employmenta 

of this knight, for him to have been a companion with, or 

follower and corrupter of prince Henry, in his juveniie 

4nd dissolute courses ; nor, that Sbakspeare had any View 

of (^rawing his sir John Falsiaff from any part of this sir 

John FastolfTs character; or so much as pointing at any 

indifferent circumstance in it that. can reflect upon hW " 

memory, with readers conversant in the true history of 

hioi.. The one is an old, humourous, vapouring, and- 

eowardly, lewd, lying, and drunken debauchee, about the 

princess court; when the other was. a young and grave, 

discreet and valiant, chaste and sober, commander abroa4; 

Qoptinualiy advanced to honours and places of profit, for 

^is brave and politic atchievement^, military and civil ;;f 

continually preferred to the trust of one govcjrnment or 

Qtjier; of countries, cities, towns, &c. or as a g^nerail^ 

and commander of armies in martial expeditions while * 

abroad ; made knight-banneret in the field of battle ; baron 

ijii fr^nf^e, and kni&;bt of the garter in England ; and, par-^. 

tiPi^larly, when finally settled at home, constantly ,ex^rcised 

in acts of hospitality, muniBcence, and charity ; > founder 

of religions buildings, and other stately ediBces ornamental. 

ta his country, as their remains still testify ; a geiieroua; 

patron pf worthy ^nd learned men, and a public benefactor 

40 th^/nious aod the poor, Jn short, the mora we gow^. 

136 £ A 3 T O L E F. 

piire the circmnttances in this historical character, witli 
thost in that poetical one, we can find nothing discredit- 
able in the latter, that has any relation to the former, or 
that would mislead an ignorant reader to mistake or con- 
found them, but a little quibble, which makes some con- 
formity in their names, and a short degree in the time 
whereiu the one did really, and the other is feigned to live. 
And, in regard to the prince of Wales, or oar knight's 
being engaged in any wild or riotous practices of his youib^ 
the improbabilities may also appear from the comparison of 
their age, and a view of this prince's commendable en- 
gagements till that space of time in which he indulged bis 
interval of irregularities, when the distance of our knight 
will clear him from being a promoter of, or partaker ir» 
them. For it is apparent, that he had been intrusted with- 
a command in France some time before the death of king. 
Henry IV. ; because, in 1413, the very first year of his son, 
trho was now grown the reformed, and soon after proved 
the renowned, Henry V. it appears that FastolfF had the. 
eastle and dominion of Veires in Gascoigne committed to 
his custody and defence : whence it is very reasonably in^ 
ierred, that he then resided in the said duchy, which at 
that time was possessed by the English. In June 1415^. 
FastolfF, then only an esquire, was returned, by indenture, 
with ten men of arms, and thirty archers, to serve the king 
at his arrival in France. Soon after king Henry was ar- 
rived in Normandy, in August following, with above 30,000 
men, the English army having made themselves masters of 
Harfleur, the most considerable port in that duchy, Fastolff 
was constituted lieutenant thereof, with 1500 men, by the 
earl of Derby, as Basset in his MS history informs us ; . 
but, as we find it in others, the king, upon this conquest^ 
constituted his said uncle Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset 
and duke of Exeter, governor of Harfleur, in conjunctiot^ 
with sir John FastolfF; and, having repaired the fortifica- . 
tions, placed therein a garrison pf two thousand select 
men, as Titus Livius numbers them ; or of fifteen hundred 
men at arms, and thirty-five knights, according tc^' HalPs . 
account ; to which number M onstrelet also adds a thousand' 
archers. Towards the latter end of October, in the year . 
last mentioned, he was dangerously engaged in the ever^ 
memorable battle of Agincourt, where it is said that Fas-» 
tolfF, among others, signalized himself most gallantly by 
faking the duke of Alen^on prisoner |[ though otb^bis- . 

F A S T O L FF. ^ 187 

tdrinns t^ that duke was alaifi after la desperate encouoter 
with king Henry himself^ in which he cut off the crownedl 
crest of the king's helmet. The fact is, that, in a sue-* 
oeeding battle, FastolfF did take this duke's son and suc^ 
cessor prisoner. In the same year, 1415, he, with the 
duke and 3000 English, invaded Normandy, and pencr 
trated almost to Rouen ; but on their return, loaded with 
booty, they were surprised, and forced to retreat towards 
Harfleur, whither the enemy pursuing them, were totally 
defeated. The constable of France, to recover his credit^ 
hiid siege to Harfleur, which made a vigorous defence 
under sir John FastolfF and others till relieved by the fleet 
linder the duke of Bedford. He was at the taking of the 
castle of Tonque, the city of Caen, the castle of Courcy,. 
the city of Sees, and town of Falaise, and at the great 
fijege at Rouen, 1417. For his services at the latter be 
was made governor of Conde Noreau ; and for his eminent 
services in those victories, he received, before the 29th of 
JmiUftry following, the honour of knighthood, and had the. 
manor and demesne of Fritense near Harfleur besto\yed. 
upon him during life. In 1418 he was ordered to seize 
upon the castle and 'dominion of Bee Crispin, and other 
manors, which were held by James D^Auricher, and several 
other knights; and had the said castle, with those lands, 
granted him in special tail, to the yearly value of 200Q. 
scutes. In 1420 be was at the siege of Monsterau, as Peter 
Basset has recorded ; and, in the next year, at. that of 
Meaulx-en-Brie. About five months after the decease of 
king Henry V. the town of Meulent having been surprized 
in January 1422, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, 
and sir John Fastolff, then grand master of his household, 
and seneschal of Normandy, laid siege to the same, and 
re-took it. In 1423, after the castle of Cravent was re- 
lieved, our knight was constituted lieutenant for the king 
and regent in Normandy, in the jurisdictions of Rouen,^ 
£vreuii, Alen^on, and the countries beyond the river. 
Seine: also governor of the countries of Anjou and Maine, 
and before the battle of Verneuil was created banneret* 
About three months after, being then captain of AIen9on,( 
and governor of the marches thereof, he laid siege to the 
castle of Tenuye in Maine, as a French historian informsi 
U9, which waift Surrendered to him; and, in 1424, he wa^ 
sMt to oppose the delivery of Alengon to the French, upoi| 
aditticotery kiuude that a Gascoigner had secretly contracted 

138 F A S T a L F F. 

to betray 4be same. In September 1425, he laid siege to 
Beaumont le Vioompt, which surrendered to him. Then 
tho be took the castie of S«ilie-le*Guillem» fron^ whidh he 
was dignified with the title of baron : but this, revolttng> 
afterwards again to the French, was assaulted by the earl 
of Arundel, and retaken about seven years after. In the 
year last mentioned^ our active warrior took also St Ouen 
D'Estrais, near Laval, as likewise the castle of Gravelle, 
with other places of strength, from th^ enemy } for which 
dangerous and indefatigable service in France he was about 
the same time elected in England, with extraordinary 
deference to his merits, knight companion of the order of 
tbe garter. In 1426 John lord Talbot wa3 appointed 
governor of Aojou and Maine^ and sir John FastolfF was 
removed to another place of command, which, in ail pro- 
babiUty, might be the foundation of that jealousy, emula*« 
ttoD, or competition,, between them, which never was cor- 
dially reconciled. JLp October 1428, he had a protection 
granted him, being then going into France; and there he 
performed an enterprise of such bravery and conduct as is 
scarcely thought, to have been paralleled in ancient at 
modera history^ The English army, at the siege of Or- 
leans, being iu great want of provisions, artillery, and 
Qther . necessaries, sir John FastolfF, with some other ap-* 
proved commanders, was dispatched for supplies by WH^ 
lium de la Pole duke of Suffolk, to the regent at Paris ; 
who not only provided him plentifully therewith, but aU 
lowed him a strong guard at his return, that be might coni; . 
?ey the same safely to the siege. The French, knowing 
^be importance of this succour, united two armies of very 
superior numbers and force to meet him; but, either in. 
different encounters, or in a pitched battle, as the French, 
themselves allow, he totally overthrew them ; slew greater- 
iiumbers than he had under his command, not to mentioa 
tpe wounded and the prisoners; and'conducted his oonvoy 
$ȣe to the English caonp. And because it was in the time 
qf Lent, and he had, among his other provision, several 
of his carriages laden with many barrels of herrings, which 
He applied to form a fortification, the French have ever 
since called this victory ^^ The battle of herrings." But 
m the fortune of war is precarious, the English army wa& 
si^on after obliged to raise the siege of Orleans, and though • 
they received recruits from the duke of Bedford, they werci- 

ia W degree strop^ euou^h ^ ^n^uoteir tb^ fxewh wm^r 

F A S T O L F P, 1S» 

WL t^Xst^. AV the battle wbich happened tberrin JuM 
1429, many of the English, who were of most experienced 
4^d approTed valour, seeing themselves so unequal, and 
the onset of the French so unexpected, made the best 
retreat they could ; and, among them who saved them^ 
selves, as it is said, was sir John Fastolff ; who, with suck 
as' eouid escape, retired to Corbeil ; thus avoiding being 
killed, or, with the great lord Talbot, lord Hungerford^ 
and sir Thomas Rampston, taken prisoner of war. Here 
the French tales, which some English historians have in** 
<?onriileraiely credited, contradict or invalidate themselves; 
for, after having made the regent most improbably, and 
without any examination, or defence, divest Fastolff of bw 
honours, they no less suddenly restore hiin to them, for, 
as they phrase it, ^* apparent causes of good excuse] 
though against the mind of the lord Talbot;" between 
tsHliom there had been, it seems, some emulons contests^ 
and therefore it is no wonder that Fastolff found him upon 
this occasion an adversary. It is not likely that the regent 
ever conceived any displeasure at this conduct, because 
FastolfF was not only continued in militairy and civil em>^. 
ployments of the greatest concern, but appears more in 
favour with the regent after the battle of Patay than be* 
fore. So that, rather than any dishonour here can ba 
allowed, the retreat itself, as it is told, must* be doubted* 
It was but in 14S0 that be preferred him to the lieutenaney 
of Caen in Normandy, In 1432 he acoompanied him into 
France, and wa^ soon after sent ambassador to the council 
of Basilj^ and chosen, in the like capacity, to negociata 
4 final or temporary peace with France. And thatyear^ 
FastolfF, with the lord Willougbby, commanded the army 
which assisted the duke of Bretagne against the duke oi^ 
Alengon. Soon after this he was for a short space in £ngw 
land ; for, in 1433, going abroad again, he constituted 
John Faistolff, of Qltnn, probably a near relation, his ge- 
neral attorneyw In 1434, or the beginning of the year 
after, sir John was again with the regent of France ; atid^ 
in 1435, be was again one of the ambassadors to conclude 
a peace widi France. Towards the latter end of thia year 
the Yegent died at Rouen, and, as the greatest proof be 
could give of his confidence iix the honour and integrity o^ 
sir John FastolfF, he made him one of the executors of hk 
last will. Richard, duke of York, who succeeded iu the 
Htg^cy of France^, made Faatolff a g^rant of an annuity of 


twenty pmtnds a year of his own estate, '^ pro notabiH €t 
laudabili servicio, ac bono.consilio;'* which is suQcient t6 
abew this dake*8 sentiments also of his merits. In 1436$ 
and for about four years longer, he seeiri% to have betm 
well settled at his government in Normandy ; after wbicb^- 
in 1440, he made bis final return home, and^ loaden 
with the laurels he had gathered in France, became as il^- 
lustrious in his domestic as he had been in his foreign^ 
character. The late Mr. Gough, by whom this article wat> 
much enlarged, had an inventory of all the rich jewels,- 
plate, furniture, &c. that he either had, or left in France^ 
at his return to England* In 1450 he conveyed Co John 
Kemp, car^linal archbishop ofJYork, and others, hismanop- 
of Castre in Fleg, and several other lands specified in the 
deed of conveyance. The same year, Nov. 8, the king, 
by writ directed Richard Waller, esq. David John William 
Keedham, and John Ingoldsby, to cause Thomas Danyelly 
esq. to pay to sir John FastolfF, knight, the 100/. that he* 
was indebted to him for provisions, and for his ship called 
the George of Prussia, alias DanyelPs Hulk, which ship 
the said Danyell took on the sea as a prize, and never had- 
itcpndemned; tso that the king seized it) ordered it to be- 
s^d, and sir John to be paid out of it. At length being * 
arrived, in 1459, beyond the age of fourscore years, he- 
says of himself, that be was ^^ in good remembrance, alfaeit- 
I am giTetly vexed with sickenesse, and thurgh age in-* 
febelyd." He lingiered under an hectic fever and asthma^ 
for an hundred and forty-eight days ; but before be de- 
parted he made his will on the fifth of November in that 
vear, and died at his seat at Castre the next day after^ 
being the festival of St. Leonard, or the eve before, as 
appears in the escheats, in the 39th or last year of king 
Henry the Vlth's reiga, and no less than thirty-six year^ 
beyond the extravagant period assigned by ^Fuliet. He' 
was buried with great solemnity under an arch^ in a chapel 
qf our lady of his own building, on the south side of tjher 
irhoir at the abbey -church of St. Bennetin the Holm, in 
Norfolk, which was mined at the disscdution ; «nd so miich' 
W|w he respected «fter bis decease, that John Beauckatnp> 
lord of Powyke, in his last will dated the 15thof Edwani 
IV. appointed a chantry, more eapedatly ftir the soul ci& 
sir John Fastolff. 

The ruins of bis house at Castre still remaining, abew^^ it- ; 
^K bi^ve be^ alike ci^pacieua and atrong. it was awxtetf^ 

FA ST O L F r. 141 

rpand; ^Imt Ihe tnoat is i now for the most part filled up. 
Tiie graad entrance was on the West. The house formed 
%'feotai^led parallelogram; the south and north sides 
logger than east and west; the stables in front; the best 
rooms on the right Innd of the sqoare^^ under which side is 
a^sohle vatrft, and over itpiohably the hall. The embattled 
hiick tower at. ihe Qortb wesit comer is standings abo?w 
one hundred feet high ; and over one of the windows were 
carved his arms in* the garter as above described, supported 
by angel8,> now removed; on one of the doors asalttre 
engrailedc T»it adjoined & dining* parlour^ .fifty-nine feet 
long, and"lwenky*eight broad. East from the castle stood 
the college, fomdng three sides .of a square larger tbaa 
the former,, with two round towers; the whole converted 
into bams and stables. Tlie . eastle moat is said to havis 
communicated with a 4iavigable.creeh, andJn a farm bous^ 
north west of the ^manaioni, tivlled^the bargei^hoMis^, is shewn 
a large -arch, capable- of receiving a boat of considerable 
barthen. Vl^ver says he jiad licence fixMn Hefwy VI. t» 
build his house castle-wise as a fortification on tbat side of 
Yarmootl^ to which pi^rbaps . relates the iioeitbe grsnted 
him 1443, 22 Hen. VI. to employ some of the Mng^s ships 
to carry* materiab for building, and furnishing one of his 
maosidn^houses: The current tradition is, that this house 
was erected by a French nobleman, who was taken prisoner 
by our femoiAs knight, according to the model and archi-^ 
teccure of his own castle in France,* as the price of his 
ransomu • ' 

Sir John Fastolff Imi by bis will appointed John Paston^ 
esq^- eldest son and -heir of sir William Paston, thejudge^ 
one of has execntoes ; and h^d given to them all his manors^ 
laads) &c. in trust, to found the college of the sev^en 
priests, and seven poor men^ in the manor-house at Castrej 
&c« ^^ Fop the singular trust and love,^ says sir Johny 
'Vtbat I have to my cousin John Paston before all others^ 
being in evevy h^M that he will execute this my last will.'* 
Edward IV. 1464, for 300 marks, 100 in hand, and the 
reaMModer when due fbtmdatian takes ^piace, granted John 
Fasten^ sen^ esq. licence to-found the college ^before man« 
tioaedy 'AimI bis favour and proteotion against Yelverton^ 
Jemvey, and others ; but it appears tiwt &is John Paston, 
esq. haii entered on this manor of Castrfe, and was impri^ 
soned iu the Fleet of London by Nevill, bishop of Exeter, 
{m Nov. 3, 1464,) theo cbanoelioc. On his death, in 1464^^ 

Us . F A S T O L F I*. 

- > 

he left ttito his eWestson sir Jobn Paaton. July- .69 i4B0f 
the king .granted bim a warftot under hurshandaBri juiv^ 
fieal^ tatake possession of all the lands aad inheritance of 
his late father, or of Agnes his grandmother, .or of Mavr 
garet falsi mother, or of William Pastoo, and Cteotoeat 
JPaston, his uncles; also the manor and place ofiCintre, 
or of any other estate which bis &tfaer had, by: way of gsft^ 
»r purchase, of the late sir John FastolfF; which laads had 
ibeen seiised by the king, on. evil surmises made .to hu»» 
against his deceased fsther, himself and unQlds,'Qf all 
^bich they were sufficiently, . openly, and worsbipfoUy 
jcleared before the king. *^. So\diafc all yee nc^. being ia 
lrbe:said place of Caster^ or ia any liflahode,. late tfae»ir 
John Paston^s, by way of gifk or .purchase, of^theiate.sir 
jfehn ' Fastolff, that was seized into our bauds, -aToididw 
.fK>asessaon of the same, and aufferour traly audiweU.h^* 
Aored; knight, air John Paston, to eejoy the^isofita-tfaereofi 
ivrith all the goods and chattels there, and pay aU the issnea 
^nd prohts thereof, as yee did unto his fadier, at any itime 
in bis life.? ■ ■ : . r.x. 

. Soon .afi^r this, on Monday before St. Bartholentfiw!^ 
day, 1469,. John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, la^d .{Keleft^ 
sioas to it ; and sent sir John Heveningham, .a couain of 
m JohnFastolfTs, to require John Paston^ esq«..gOKeiiiiar 
0/ it» beiiig a castle well fortified, in the ab^eoceiof ihia 
eldest brother air ,h>bo Paston, to deliver it up^ to hun ; 
maintaining that the said .duke had purchased the said 
castle of William Yelverton (that cursed Norfolk jn^lice^ 
* as Worcester styles him), whereas sk John had ordeiied it 
^ot to be sold, but to be a college for priests, and an hes« 
pital for. poor men. The said John Paston refusing «lfco 
fjucrender it,* the duke came before it with . 3000 acmed 
teen, and with guns^ culverines, and other artillery^ and 
laid siege to it immediately. The siege continued &ve 
weeks and three days* < . « 

February IQ, 1474, IS^Edw. IV. an indentmre waa made 
between sir William YeU^ton, William Jenny,.- Serjeant 
at law, and William Worcester, executors of sir John oti 
one part, and Thomas Cager and Robert Kyuon oo^th^ 
other, whereby the said Robert was appointed aurreyor of 
the lands and tenements in Southwark, and other places iti 
Surrey, late sir John's, to perform his last will, and alap 
receiver of the rents ; who was 'to have six marks per an^ 
Duu), and: to be allowed, besides all reasonable costs, that 

f A S T O L f F, l«f 


hd shall dd in the defence and koeptiig aut John Paston^ 
esq« and of all others daiming by him* Anthony lord 
vScales^ at another time, took possesfiion of it in the name of 
king Ed^irard IV.. under pretence that Paston wa« the king's 
villaa (thpugb absolotely false), atl v«rhich proved a gneat 
destrhotion to the geods and effects in the saose ; hot sir 
John Paston, through the {mowr and protectioo of king 
Edward iV. had afterwards possession. Anoih^i:jraisfQrtune 
also happened to pr castle about the saioie tiihe^ 
Jawing I to the negligetice of a- girl, .who in making a bed 
set fire to it by her candle,, and did considerable daaoage* 
Sir John FastolfF hud a house at Nofwich in Pokethmrp 
opposite- St Jameis's cbuvoh, called: Fastolff's place;! in the 
windowa of which Mr.. Bloreefietd saw aev^ml paintings of 
saints and scriptare. worthies, and. two Imights fightiitg, 
which he imaigined represented, sir John and his Frendi 
prisoner. He likewise built a splendid seat in Yarmouth^ 
and a palace in South wark. * 

As sir John/Falstoff's <Tsdour made him a^ terror in war, 
his humanity made him a blessing in peace : all we can 
.find in his> retirement beifig*ekgant, hospitable, artd- ge- 
nerous, eith^ as to the pisjces of bis ahode, or those per« 
^«ons and foundations on which he showered bis bounty* 
At bis death he possessed lands and estates in Novfoik, 
sSuflblk, Yoi^kshire, and Wiltshire* He -was a bene&Qtor to 
both the univeisities; bequeathing a considerable legacy 
to Cambridge, for building the schools of philosophy and 
law, for which the first order under tbeic chancellor Lau« 
rence, bishop of Durhaoi, is dated in«Jufie 1468 ; and, a€ 
Oxford, he was so; bountiful^ Magdalsn-coUege, through 
the affection he had for bis friend WilUam Wain6eet, thfe 
founder thereof two years before, that his name is coot* 
meniorated in an anniversaiy speech ; and though the pair- 
tidulars of bis boutity.are not. now. vemembered, because 
he erifeqffed the said founder in his life-time, yet it is known, 
that th^ boar's head in South wark, pow divided into tene* 
ments, yielding one hundred and fifdy pounds yearly, to* 
getber with Caidecot manor in Suffolk, were part of the 
iatids he bestowed thereon ; ai|d Lovingland in that county 
is conceived also toihave been another part of his donation* 
There had been an ancient free ohapel of St. John the 
Baptist in the manor house at Castre, the ancient seat 
<jf • his family, as early as the reign of Edward I. Sir 
'John intended* to havie erected a coHege for seven mantsi 

M«ecular pridsu (dMi of^wboYii t0 be b^tld}, Md «eve^ |)6or 
net) ; ^andto endoorat vritli 12a«iairki rent charge, ^otif of 
ueimai iliaiiors ivfaiqb he gftve or sold to his coiHin John 
Boston^ senior, esq; charged wkbthiii ehurity. Mr. Paiktbti 
UKniredto establifsb tbitf piotls foundation' tiH bis de^tti> 
€ Bd. IV. as did bii^ 8«iiv sW Jolto Pftslon, Icnight^ bm vi^e^ 
tber it wag ei^er mcotfiotat^d'lindfuUy^eU^^ Tan^ 

ner doobcsi as^tbere h no- farther meiition of it in ihe 
rolla: or ^die bishop of Norwich^ re)^ry. Oiily^n thfc- 
i^laatien, ^6 Hem VfIL tbefte is said to bavebeeft in Castte^- 
hall a chantry t^f the foundaiibn of si¥ J6hn FasfoUP, knight,^ 
werdi 2^L l%s.4A per annum. 6 Ed'. 3V. froth recetpts4t 
ajppears that the pHe^ts had in monej^y besides their diet; 
40^. pevjanniin)) and the poor men 40^. |)er annnch ^ch. 
Tbe fotindation- v^as' oertainly not completed ttit ' after 
his decease; f»r WUltam Worcester, in a Ibtter to'Mar- 
gavet l^ascoti in '14€6, i^\U her be hadHcommuned mfh her 
son whether it sliotild not be at Cambridgef in case it sbaH 
aorbe at^6as«re; neither at 8t. Bienet^s (in the Holme), ^ 
and -that ^the bishop of Winebester (Wamflete) was dis- 
fiasdd-eo-foaad a college in O^x^d ibr his sayd niayster tOr 
bci prayed ibe, yet With^ach lest cost'he might make som6 
c^bor ttiemorial in Cambridge.*^ ' * ' * 


.: FAUCHETr (Claitde), a'FrencT^dntiquAry of great fattie^ 
whose laborious researob(^s ituo the earlier and most ob^ 
acure parts of the history of bis country, obtained him more 
eelebinty than profitf, #as'borii at Paris m 1529/ Havrrig 
gone toltaly w4th eardinat de Totirnoti/ his eminence bfien 
aeotbim with di^pat^ben to the Frisnch cotirt, which served 
toinlti^ud^ him theref #fl9i advantage, arid procured him 
the planseof first presid^l'of the Gour Abs Monnoies ; aAd 
be issaid by some to hat^obtfained a pension from Hehrr 
iV. with the title of historiograpfeer. Ht died iti l€bi; 
ovei^ekned with debts. -His Work^ were qollected in ito 
at #feirfe, 4h-l€ta. Tbfe principal of them are, 1. His 
^^-Gaufeb aAd'^Ft^ncb anttqnitres,** thcf ftrst part of which 
treaas cbiefiy of matters anterior to the aVrival of the Franks; 
the .second id extended to Htigb Capet 2. ** A treiitisfe 
on thfe Liberties of the GaHican church.** 8. •*Ori thd 
origio of knighes, armorial bearings, and heralds.**' 4. 

1 Biog. drit. macli enlarged by Mr. iSougb, from Um aecoont given by 01d]r» 
in tbe first editioD of tbe Biog. Brit. Mr. GoQgb bad ail Oldjs's manuscripu 
aa the aubjecu 

F A U C H E Ti" 145 


**. Origin of dignitiea and magistracies in France.!^ -Ali 
these contain oinch curious matter, not to be found else^ 
where, biit are-written in a harsh, inconect, and tedious 
style* Saxias mentions an edition of his works printed- at 
Paris in i7 10, 2 vols. 4tO| which we conceive to l>ie a. mis* 
take for 1 6 1 0. It is said^ that ^ perusal of his French 
Antiquities gave Louis XIII. an inv^icible distaste toreading/ 
FAUCHEUR (Michel i^e), a French protestant preacher 
of the highest estimation in bis time. He preached oragi* 
nally at Montpellier, then at Charentop, and- afterwards at 
Paris; where his eloquence -was not less .admired tbaa in 
the provinces. He preached one day against daels in a6 
persuasive and, forcible a style, and with so. much energy^ 
that the marecfaal de. la Force, who was present^ declared 
ta some brave officers who were near him, that, sbonld a 
challenge be sent him, he would not accept it. Le Fau* 
cheur was not less esteemed for his integrity than for his 
extraordinary talents as a preacher. He died at' Pads, in a 
very advanced age, April 1, 16^7, leaving several volumes 
6f sermons, 8vo; ** Trait6 de I' Action de rOmteur," Ley- 
den, 1686, 12mo^ an excellent work, which appeared first 
under, the name of Conrart ; <^ Recueil de Prieres fit de 
Meditations Chr^tiennes,*' and a '^Trait^^sur rEucharisUe,'* 
Geneva, 1636, folio, against cardinal du Perron. This 
work was so much admired by the protestant churches, 
that it was printed at their expence, by order of a natjioi^al 

. FAULKNER (Georoe), a worthy printer of no mean 
celebrity, is rather recorded in this work for the goodness 
of his heart, than from his excellence as. an author. It is, 
bovf{(Bver, no small degree of praise to say of him, that he 
was the first man who carried his profession to afaigh de« 
gree of credit in Ireland^ He was the confidential printer ^ 
of dean Syirift ; and enjoyed the friendship and pa)xonage 
of the earl of Chesterfield, whose ironical letters to Faulk* . 
lier, comparing him to Atticus, are perhaps the finest parts 
of his writings. He settled at Dublin as a printer and 
bookseller, soon after 1726 (ia which year we find him in 
Londoa under the tuition of the celebrated Bowyer), and 
raised there a very comfortable fortune by. bis well- known 
.^yournal," and other laudable undertakings. In 1735, he 

1 GeiiKDict-^Mareri.«r-JiiceroD, vol. XXV.-^Dict. Hist.— Saxii Osomast 
« Gen. Pi5t.— Mprerur-Oi^t. Kisi. 

Vol. XIV. L 

Ut rAtfLKNEtlt 


mts ordered into ciuiNMly by tbe house of cominonii in Ir^«» 
Iftndy. fi»r baving-puiilkbed ^A prapoaal for the fetter resgt3S^. 
iMJdon and improvement of quadrille ;*' an ingenious trealiae 
by bisbop Hort ; wkich pmxioeed irom Swift ^*Tbe l^on 
club/' Having bad die misfortune to break his l^i be was 
satirically introduced by-.Foote^ wfao spared nobody, in tbo 
libaractcr of <* Peter Paragraph,^' in ^ Tbe Orators, 1762.^ 
He €t>miiiesyeed a suit against tbe mimic ; and bad tbe bo* 
nour of lord Townsbend's interference to arbitrate tbe dif-^ 
ferenee/ He died an alderman of Dublin, Aug. 28, 1775. 
His style and nAoner were finely ridiculed in ^' An Ejustle 
to Gorges Edmaod Howard, eaq. witb notes, explanatory, 
critical', and bislorical, by George Faulkner, esq. and ald^v 
UMin,'' reprinted in Dilly's " Repository," vol. IV. p. 175, 
But a lairer specimen of bis real talents at ^tstle-writinrg 
may be seen in tbe ^' Anecdotes of Mr. Botvyer,'^ or in tlie 
second volume of tbe ^ Supplement to Swift ;'' whence it 
appears that, if vanity was a prominent feature in bis (sba** 
racter, bis gratitude was no leas conspicuous. ' 

FAUNT (Arthur, or sometimes Laurence Arthur), 
an Englisb Jesuit, was bora in 1554, -at Foston in Leicester^ 
sUre, and entered a student in Mertan coUege, in 1569^ 
under tbe tuition of Jobo Potts, whom Wood calls a noted 
pbilosopber. In 1 ^70, Potts, who was a cqjiicealed papisir, 
being detected, conducted bis yoitiig pupii> wbose parents 
were of that perstiasioD, to tbe Jesuits^ college at Louvain. 
In this seminary be continued till be bad taken a bachelor 
oi arts degree, and. then went to Paris. From tbc^ice be 
tra«!«Ued to. Munich in Banraria, wliere duke Wiliiam al« 
lowed bifma bandsouKe salary to prosecute bis studies^ and 
where be. took the degree of M. A^ In 1575 be proceeded 
tor Rome, . and beeanie a member of the English Jesuits* 
college^ of which he'waa soon after appointed divinity* 
reader* He was much dtstinguisbed and favoured by sere'* 
ral princes, and particularly by pope Gregory Xill. who^ 
as fk token of his afiiection and confidence, gave bimn seal 
wbicb empowered him to grant a pass to any of his eountry** 
men travelling through the catholic dominions^ In 15M 
he -was appointed president of the Jesuits' college at Posna 
in Poland, in which conntry be i^nt tbe lem^underof his 
iife« He died at Utna, in the province of Lithuania, Feb. 

>> >?t«N?«'s 9Q^«r^<-'$«^ift> WorVft, passim. See }fidex.-«*See a CKricfttor* 
•f^aalkner, by Cumberland^ Id bis Life, p« 113, 4to edit. 

FACN.T. ■ t4t 


)tfA59}^ mucb mgfiett^ by bif$ fimterAitjr, among^ wbom 
be bad the cbaraoter of a prudent, learned^ and pjooa dii 
Tine. Hi8wori»are: I. ^* Dci Cbristi io terrU ecdesiai^ 
Po«fia, i584y 4to^ 2. '^ CoQtra AotooHiin Sadeelem Caivi^ 
nmam, libri III.'* 3. ^^ Theses devarik fidei coDtroveraiis,'^ 
Ppsna, .1584, 1590. . 4^ *^ Doctrina oadbtolica de Sanctoruni 
lovocatiooe, &c/^ ibid. 15J4,^ 8vo. 5. *' Apologia Libii 
snide Invocatione,&c. contra Danialem TossaimtQ/' Coloiu 
15S9, 8vo. 6, *^ Cosum Lutberana; et C«Jmist9 oppugn* 
natio/' Posna, 1586, 4to. 7. ** Apologia Tbesium de Costm 
Lutberana, &c.'' ibid. 1590, 4to. 8. ^'Qratio de causis 
Hseresis, &€." -9, ^' Tractatus de Contro?e«siis i«ter' or<^ 
^ineai Eccles. et Se^ularemia Polonia," 1^^2, 4to. ^' 
. FAUR (Gui de), lord of Pibrac, by ivbtoh name he i« 
much better known, was born at Tonlouae in 1528, and 
distinguished himself at the bar in tbat city. He peili^ted 
' his knowledge of jurisprudence in Italy, and then returned 
to be advanced to honours in hi# own country. In 1^60 be 
was deputed by his native city to the states-gteeral held 
a^ Orleans, and there presented to the king its petition of 
grievances, which he bad himself drawn up. By C|>arleii 
IX. be was ^eot as one of his acnbassadors to the co]»Qcil oi 
Trent, where he eloquently supported- the interests of the 
crown, and tb^AJiberties of the Gallican church. In* 1565 
the chancellor de V Hopital, appointed bim advocate-gene^ 
ml in the parliament of Paris, where he revived the in* 
iluence of reason and eloquence. In 1570, be was made 
ai^ouuseilor of state, and two years afterwards, pi'obably 
constrained by his superiors, wrote his defence of ibe mas«* 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, published in 4to, an4 en tided 
'* Ornatissimi cujusdam viri, de rebus Galltcas, efHstoIa, et 
ad haae. de iisdem rebus reftponsio $'- but this 'barbarous 
measure was too repugnat^ to the mildness of Pibrac*s eha- 
racter-to be approved by bim* For this, after the actes* ' 
sion of Henry IIL he made the best ameiids in his powisr^ - 
by proposing and bringing to a conclusion, a treaty of 
peace between the court and the protestants* White tbat 

{)rin'ce was duke of Anjou, and was elected king of Po<« 
and, he attended him as minister in that country ; but 
when the suceession to the. crown of France, on the death 
of his brother^ tempted Henry to quit thi^ kingdom elan-r 

■iTkiiiiier.— Pits.— Ath. Oi; vol. h^ljod^t Ch; Hfot-p^KlilM^'c 8i«i •t 

Leicestershire. - . . . .^ ' 

L 2 

U8 F A U K. 

destinely^ Pibrao was in danger of falling a: sitctifie^ to 
the resentment of the people. He afterwafds tiied in* 'rain 
to preserve that crown to his master. His services were 
rewarded by being created one of the chief presidents of 
the courts of law. He died in 1534, at the age of fifty -six. 
The story of his falling in love with Margaret wife .of 
Henry IVt is supposed to be chiefly owing to the vanity of 
that lady, who wished to have the credit of such a cqq^ 
quest. Pibrac published, besides his letter on ;the mas- 
sacre^ "which was in Latin, pleadings and speeches, '^ Le^ 
plaisirs de la vie rustique," Paris, 1577, 8vo, and a dis- 
course on the soul and the sciences. But the work by 
which be is best known, is his *^ Quatrains,^' or moral 
stanzas of four lines, which were first published in 1574% 
The last edition we know of, is that of 1746. They have 
been e^j^lravags^tly admired, and translated into almost ail 
languages, even Greek,,. Turkish, Arabic, and Persian. 
Th^ were rendered into English by Sylvester, the trans^ 
Mtof of da Bartas, in a manner not likely to give an ad* 
vantageous notion of the original, which^ though now anti- 
quated^ still preserves graces that recommend it to readers 
of .ta9t0f Pibrac w^s a classical scholar; and to the tasfbe 
Jto <farew- from that source, bis 'V^^^^i*^^®*^ ^^^ much of 
tbeir >?^celleuce. The subjects of some of them be took 
:lrom the book of Proverbs, which he used to say contained 

all the good sense in- the world. ^ 
:- FAUST. See FUST. 

•: :FAUSTUS^ an English monk of the fifth century^ was 
. created; abbot of a monastery in the Levin islands abont the 

year. 41^3, and afterwards bishop of Riez in Proi«enee, 
. about the year 466r • The time of his death is uncertain. 

^0 wi9ote« homily on tbii^ life of his predecessor in 'the see^ 

Miqiiiigius; which is extant among tholie attributed to £u- 
> aebitusf {^misenus. He go veraed his diocese uhblam^bly^iled 

a holy life, and died regretted and esteemed by the ebarcsh. 

In the grand controversy of ; the fifth cedtofjr, h^/rither 
-f^vvixed the Semi^Pelagians, which a recent hi^oHaii ittri- 

]l^t^;tQ h^s fear of the abuses of poedestinadbbv^nrd aniiis- 

u^deratsiliding.of the<^nsequencesiof Augustine^s doctrine. 

ItJseertain that in a treatise whichcbe wrote tm; aavipg 
. gf a^e^ ^ i^ shewed tha^gra^e always Mlu res^ firecedes^ and 

} ;Pi«t Jfiflt.'T-Mareri.-^yieeron, m «rt. Pibrac, vol. XXX'iV.<-'»^EIiog« par 
L'AbbcCajret, 1778.-*SaxiiO|i0Mii8Sl.iii Pibracittft. 


asiskts.ifce human will, and tbat^all the reward !of dur W 
hour 1$ tke gift' of God. In a disputation, likewise, with. 
Lucid us, a priest, who was very tenacious of the sentiments 
of Augustine, Fausttt€ieddeavo«ired to correct his ideas by' 
suggesting, that we must not separ^e grace and human 
kidustry ; that we must abhor Peiagius, and yet detest 
ihose who believe^ that a man may be of the number of 
the elect, without labouring for salvation. ^ 

FAVORINUS, an ancient philosopher and orator, was 
bom at Aries in Gaul, flourished under the emperor Adrian, 
M the second century, and taught both at Athens and 
fiome with high reputation. Adrian had no kindness for 
him; for such was the nature and temper of this emperor, 
ihat^ not content with being the first in dignity and power, 
he would needs be the first in every, thing else. This pe- 
dantic affectation lediiim, as Spartian relates, to deride, tb 
oentemn, to trample upon the professors of all arts and 
ficienceo, whom betook a pleasure in contradicting upon 
ail oectsions, right or wrong. Thus one day be reptfox^ed 
Eavorinus, with an aiir of great superiority, for usiAg a 
certain word; whrcfa, however, was a good word, and Ire- 
ijuemly used by the best authors. Favorinus submitted 
patiently to the eoyperor, without nuking any tepiy^ though 
be knew himself to be perfectly right : which when "his 

Mriends objected tot, ^* Shall not I easily suffer hiflD,'^ sa^s 
be, '^ to be the most learned of all men, who has thirty 
legions at his command?" This philosopher is said to 

. Iiave^ wondered at three things : (mt, that being a Gaul he 
should speak Greek so well; secondly, that being au 
eoiKich' he should be accusied of adiafitery; and thirdly, 
that beiog envied and baled by the emperor he should be 

, Remitted to : live. Maiiy works are attributed' to^ bkti ; 
uBiong the nest a Greek werk of *^ Miscellaneous History,^* 
cftehi quoted by Diogenes Laertius, but «one of them lu'e 
iiow! ei&tant. ' ' 

: FAVOUR (JoiiN), who, aceording to a tradition sttU cur* 
rent M^piaKfiix^ was a good divine^' a good physician, and 
a good lawyer,: was bcnrn at Southampton, and was pre*- 
paced for the university, partly there and partly at Win- 
chest^-scfaooL From this semini^ry he was elected pro^ 

« Gave, Tol. r.»>-Milner*s €b. Htot toU 11. p. 546-»7.<— Sasii OsomsiU 


^bationer fellow of New-college, Oxford, in 1576, and two 
years afterwards was ma^e complete fellow. On June 5, 

.1592, he proceeded LL. D. and, as Wood says, was made 
vicar of Halifax in Yorkshire, Jan. 4, 1593. In August 
1608, according to 'Moresby, but in March 1618, accord<> 
ing to Wood, he was niade warden or master of St* Mary 

'Magdalen^s hospital at Ripon. In March 1616, be was 
collated to the prebend of Drif&eld, and to the chanter* 

'fthip of the Church of York. He was also chaplain to the 
archbishop, and residentiary. He appears to have spent 
much of his time in tbe discbarge of the duties of the three 
learned professions. In an epistle to the reader, prefixed 
to a work we are about to mention, he gives as impediments 
to its progress, ** preaching every Sabbath-day, lecturing 
every day in the week, exercising justice in the common* 
wealth, and practising physic and chirurgery.'* Amidst 
all these engagiements, however, he produced a lai^e 4to 
volume, printed* at JLondon in 1619, entitled ^^ Antiquitie 
triumphing over Noveltie ; whereby it is proved, that An- 
tiquitie is a true and certain note of the Christian catho« 
licke church and veritie, against all new and upstart here- 
sies, advancing themselves against the religious honour of 
Old Rome, &c." This is dedicateiSP to archbishop Mat* 

; thews, and it appears that it was begun by the author, 
when he Was sixty years old, at the desire, and carried on 
und^r tbe encouragement of the archbishop. Dr. F^vonr 
died March 10, 1623, probably at an advanced age, and 

'was buried in Halifax church, where there is an inscription 
to his memory. * '^ 

FAVRE (Antony), in Latin FabeVy was a profound la^* 
\er and an author ; in a few instances, a poet, for some 
quatrains by him remain among those of Pibrac, and there 
h a tragedy of his extant, entitled "The Gordians, or 
ambition.'' He was born in 1557, was promoted as a law- 
yer in his native town of Bresse, afterwards became go- 
vernor of Savoy, and was employed in confidential nego- 
tiations between that dukedom and France. He might 
have been further promoted in his own country, but re« 
fused. He died in 1624. His works, chiefly on jurispru- 
dence and civil law, form ten volumes in folio, printed frOiik 
}658 to 1661. For his son 
FAVRE (Claude). See VAUGELAS. • 

» Ath. Ox. vol. I;.:-^ats6n's Hist, of WaTlfax; 
9 ^Joreri, — Diet, Hist. — ^Nioeron, vol. XIX. 

F A W C C T T. isi 

FAWCETT (BBHjrAMm)» a disseoting miaUler, was hptn 
at Sleaford in Lincolnshire, Aug. 16, 1715, and after a, re- 
ligious education at honied was placed under Dr. Dod- 
dridge at Northampton, where his conduct was ex^nplary, 
find his impnovetnent rapid. In 174j^ by Doddridge^s par- 
ticular recooaoiendation, he became a preacher at Taunton ; 
and in 1745 remoyed to Kidderminster, where he officiate^ 
.|is the pastor of a large congregation of dissenters for 
thirty-five years, dying iu Oct. 1780. He preached thriq^ 
every Sunday, besides weekly services, lectures, visits, &C 
He also carried on an extensive correspondence with his 
brethren in various parts of the kingdom, and found lei- 
sure to prepare his various publications for the press. To 
enable him to accomplish all this, be was a rigid .oecono^ 
mist of his time, and was seldom in bed after five o^clock 
in the morning, to which habit, and a temperate mode of 
living, he used to ascribe bis remarkable and almpst umn«' 
terrupted health and spirits until a ^rt time before his 
death, when he suffered severely from the stone. ,It is 
perhaps more remarkable, that he had no fire in his study 
m the depth of winter. His flow of spirits appears to have 
been rather immoderate, according to Mr. Orton^s account. 
'^ I am told that aftfr preaching twice, and administering 
the Lord's Supper, he was so lively in the evening that 
several of the people were in pain lest he shou^ throw 
himself out of the pulpit !" In his sentiments he was what 
is called a Baxterian, and drew upon himself, on some oc- 
casions, the censures of the more orthodox part of his 
brethren, particularly by one of his pamphlets, ^^ Candid 
reflexions on the different modes of explaining jthe Trini* 
ty/' His other works were small pious tracts ; some fune- 
ral, and occasional sermons ; and abridgements of Bas;teir's 
'^ Saints' everlasting Rest,'' and of some other pieces by 
that divine. His personal character was so consistent and 
amiable, that his death was kmented by persons of all per- 
suasions at Kidderminster. ^ 

FAWCETT (Sir WiLMAM, K.B.), a brave English offi- 
^fer, the descendant of a very ancient family, was born 
in' 1728 at Shipdenhall, near Halifax, in Yorkshire, which, 
for many centuries, had b^^eh in the possession of his an« 
cestors, and is now the property and residence of their 
lineal descendant. His father dying when he was very 

i 9rteo^ Lctttrs fo PisieuUns Miaiites^ by Falover, 3 foil, l^no, ISOS. 

1« F A W C E T T. 

jrof ng, his- Vacation was saperinteod^ by an uncle^ a verf 
v^rtby clergyman. He^was brought up at a free school hi. 
Lancasbirey fthere be was well grounded in dassical learn^ . 
i»gi 4ind.becattie also a* remarkable proficient in mathe-!> 
iMtics- He has very fireqoently been beard to declare^ 
tbat^ from bb earliest youtb^ be always fdt the strongest 
predilection for the army, whieb his mother and- niteress 
T^ataons xonstootly endeavoured ta dissuade him from;- 
bul^ finding all their arguments ineffectual, they either. 
bought^ or.he had an enstgncy given him,, in general Ogle'^ 
tborpe^ ssegtment, then >in Georgia ; but the war being then- 
going on in Flanders^ be gave up. bis ensigncy^ • and went 
tbere.iis^a volun^er^ furnished with letters- from the late 
marqab of Rockingba&LSwd Mr. Lasoellesi (afterwards lord 
Httrewood) to the commander and' several othere 4!»f 'th# 
officers.' This step- was a^ the time « frequently taken 
by young men of spirit -of the first rank and fortutie* lie 
i^ntercdas a volunteer, -but messed' with tbe officers, and 
was. very soon presented -wiib a pair iof> colours. Some 
time afterv> he married aJady ofgoodrfbrtuoe and family^ 
and, at tlie pressing entreaties of her .friends^ he most r^ 
Jnctattt ly oresigned his comm^i^siom; wbicb :her bad no m^met^ 
done^v tba» ibe felt himself miserable^ «id faisr new relationll 
findins: tbat'bis propensity to jk militsjry life was invbicibtey bis pnrcbasing an enstgncy in^^tbe third regiment > 
of ig^ards. Having noii^ obtained tbe: objeet of his miliM' 
anxioos wisfaes, he determined to losccnaocppovttmity c^ 
qualifyiBgifainBelftfor/tbe bigfa«ftt situatiob&^n bis fa^^ourita * 
piokission. .Witfa tfais view be pbid the imost uni^emitting*' 
atteati<ln>to bis-dal^ aod.e^eery^bdiir he could command-* 
vmR. gtKen»up:to>thetstady'o£ the: Frencb and German lan^ 
giiagesS)iiawhioh:(byitheafi8istanee ofhiS' classical l^lrn-^ 
ing}^he a^bn:beciuae siichF4tt'pr6fi0ieint as not only to nn- 
dersitapd, ami write botl^^'gc^matioaUy: and elegantly, bM 
tQs^pSeak/theni.fiuendy«^ -Wben .he was* a Ueu«enant in the 
gnarri% : he . translated from tbe freneb^ ^ Tbe Reveries) 
or^ Jklemoirs upon* the Axt t>i^ 'War^ by field -^marshal count 
Saxe,'- .whicb^was published iaA16%y in.-4>to^ and dedicated 
^^ To J the. general ofiioers.'? He also translated . from the! 
German^: ^f. Regulations. for the Prussian, cavalry/' which 
was also publisbed in. 1757, and dedicated to mS;^r-*general 
the earl. of Albemarle^ colonel of ahe king^sowo regiment 
of dragoons. And he likewiae translated from the <yet^ 
man^ ^^ Regul^itiotts for •theiPrusma Infantry^*' . to wbkh ' 

FA W C ET T. 158 

i^ 1759, and ^diedicii^d^oUQUt^aaBUgeneral th^ earl of 
Rotbi^, colonel oF ibe. tbird re^inaeut ^of foot gusirds. 

' Hav«>g auain^d tbe •itisiU»Qft of. adjutant in the goadrd% his 
af>iiiti«]» and n^sQwittiDg atl;raOQii 9oon be^Mue conspicn* .' 
Qlia.;^aii4» oo tbe Igte ^en^i^l Elliot's b^ing ordered to^ 
Qetmmy in tbe seven yeara war, be offered to l»ke htm asr 
h^iaid'-de^oaQipy which he gladly apcepied, as it gare him 
aiMifipori^ntty of gaining that knowledge which actiuJ ser-: 
▼ioe could ato$ie iiopart. When he served in Germany^, 
hjs. ardour, inicepldity, andatteDtiois^ to all the duties of 
his situatiop^ iv^re isncb,: ftbat,. i>n the death of general. 
£lUgt,.h^ had rimmedi^wely x>fi!Brs both from the late ^inos' 
Fi»r«Miiand, the comimmder in^cbief, and ibe late marqiua 
q{ Granhy^ to be > appointed aid-idencaoip* By the advice 
pf a^iiobi/e^aifl:<wbo>hinted to him ^t. the German war 
wpi^ld not last forever) be accepted thepffer of th^ lattery 
aftes making due apkoowledgements for the bonoiur in^ 
tended him .by the former. lo tbis^ his new situation bis 
a^doitr and aitention were^ if possible, increased, which * 
gaiiied< him tlie friendship of all those attached to. l<;»-d 
Grftoby, pactftcularljr . of a noble lord who, being fixed 
upe» to brings to En^iid tbe aoeoootof the battle idTWan^ 
biirgb, igave up his app^ifttment to captain Fawcett s an 
instancy of genevous. friendship which be always spoke of 
with the most kem-tfelt gratitude* On his arrival in Eng-* 
land, ..he was totnoduced by the then great minister to Ma 
Ii^emf^esty king Geoi^e. the Second, who. received him 
iBQSttgmcioasly, and not the less so. on his giving the whole 
amount in Gecman. Soou; after be was prom0ted<to^ a 
company in the guaards, with the rank of lieiitieiiant^oolonel 

. in .tbe^aroiy, and became mUitary secretary to^ and the , 
intimate end cofi&dential frieodi of lord Granby. Hia 
]i|9Aiiefs were formed witb.equalstireiigth and softness; and 
t<fe {Soilness, intrepidity^ and extensive militaiy knowledge^ 
h^ addled all the requisite talents of a^man of business^ and 
the .most persevering Assiduity, withoi^ thedeast ostCEUta-* 
tion* > .Notwithstanding'tbe most unassuming modesty, bis 
abilities we^^:now so genertdly knovm, that he was fixed 
upon! as the most proper person to manage and suppoit the 
interfsslpf his CQuikry,. in settling majdy of the toncerns of' 
the war in Germany^ and by that meatia Aecessarily be* 
came known to the great Frederic of Prussia, from whom 
he itfterwards had the most tempting offers^ which he de« 


cJipeA #itbotit hesitation, preferring the service of Ws 
king and country to every other consideration. 

Soon after his obtaimtig a company in the guards^ be 
acted as deputy- adjtitan^general under, generals Harvey 
and William ^i^herst; and, in May 1772, be was pro* 
moted to the rank of colonel by brevet. At the comiaence-* 
Bient of the American war, he was sent to Germany, co 
negociate with Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, ^c. for a body 
of troops to serve in North America, Gibraltar, and the 
East-Indiesi ' In August 1777, he was raised to the rank 
of majo^genera^, and the following year be succeeded to 
the ftdjntant^enerHlsliip by the death of general Williaoi 
Amberst, and abo became colonel of the fifteenth regiment 
of fooi» . In Nov. 1782, he was made a lieutenant* general, 
and in 1786 his majesty honoured him with the order of 
the Bath. On the deach of general Pfaillipson, in August 
}7d3, that regiment was given to sir William Fawcett» In 
tte ^itoe year the <^ Rules and Regulations for the foimi^^ 
tions, fietd eci^rcrse, ' and movements of his majesty's 
forces,"' were printed, and directed to be fc^lowed by tbe 
British' ardfiy, by ah order signed by sir Wliliam. In May 
1796 he obtained the rank of general, and on bis resigning 
tbe office of adjutant- general, bis majesty was so sensible 
<^itbe yaioe of hi^ services, as to grant him an allowance 
4»( fivi pounds per diem in lieu thereof, and ordered him to 
be -sworn - in as one of bis most honourable privy^council. 
His last promotion wa^ to* the governorship of Chelsea bos-* 
pital,* where he died March 22, 1804„ aged seventy-six, 
ftftd was interred iii the burial**ground of tbe hospital. A 
anonulnetit has since been erected to bis memory, and to 
that of ^ his kdy, wbt survived him about a yean ^ 
' ' FAWKES <FiiAKCis), a poetical and misceUaneous writel, 
was bori& in Yorkshire about 1721. He was educated at 
Xeedty under thecar^ of the rev. Mr. Cookson, vicar of 
thai parish, ftoih whence he went to Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge, and took 1) is b&chelor^s degree in 1741, and bis 
mas^Pliin 1745. ' After being admitted into boly orders, 
he settled at Bramham id Yorkshire, near the elegant se^t 
4f that nam^ belonging to Robert Lane, esq. tbe beauties 
of' Wbicb afibrded bim the first subject for liis muse. He 
j^ttblidhed his ^< Brambam Park,*' in 1745, but without bis 
name. Hi»n<^!2ct publications were the ^^ Descriptions of 


} fSent. Miif, lS(H«*-FMiUaier'» Hist, ofjC^frteea. 

May- and Winter,*' frorh Oayen Douglas, the former in 
1752, the latter in 1754 : these brought him into conskfer- 
»t>le 'notice as a poetical antiquary, and it was hoped that 
be^oiild have been encouraged to modernize the whole of 
that author's works. About the year \zts6 mentioned, he 
Wrmoved to the curacy of Croydon in Surrey, where he had 
to opportunity of courting the notice of Archbishop Her- 
ting, who resided there at that time; and to whom, among 
other complimentary verses, he addressed an ^^ Ode on 
his Grace's recovery," which was printed in Dodsley's Col- 
lection. These attentions, and his general merit as a 
scholar, induced the archbishop to collate him, in 1755, to 
the vicarage of Orpington, with St. Mary Cray in Kent, 
iti 1757 he had occasion to lament bis patron's death in a 
pathetic eFegy, styled Aurelius, printed with his grace's 
sermons in 1763, but previously •in our author's volume of 
poems in 1761. About the sam« time be married miss 
Furrier of Leetls. In April 1774, by the late Dr. Plump- 
tr^*8 favour, he exchanged his vicarage for the rectory of 
Hayes. This*, except the office of chaplain to the princess 
dowager of W&le^, was the only ecclesiastical promotion 
be obtain^. 

In 1761 hepbbtished by subscription A volume of* Ori- 
gitttri Poems and Transfatrons,** by which he got more pro- 
fit thai)' fstme. His- subscribers amounted to nearly eight 
hundred, biittio second edittoti was^ called for. Some 
other pieces by him are in Mr. Nith6ls's Collection, andia 
Ihe '•Poeticiil Calendar," a periodical selection of fugitiTe 
Verses \thidh he published in coig unction with Mr. Woty, 
'An indifferent poet of that time. In IT67 he published an 
eclogue, entitled <* Partridge Shooting," very inferior to 
lifis other p^dttctions. He ivas the editor also of a '^*' Fa- 
'«iily Bible," with' notes, inf 4to, which is a work of very 
• in^eon^iderable nftefit, but to which he probably contributed 
Ohfy bis name, a common trick among the retaikers of 
'♦< Complete Family Bibles.'^ 

'His translations of Anacreon, Sappho, Bionf, Moschus, 
llrd Musaeus, appeared in 1760, and his Theocrittts, En- 
couraged by another liberal subscription, in 1767. His 
Apollonius Rhodius, a posthumous publication, completed 
by th6 rev. Mr. Mean, of Etnanoel college, Cambridge, 
inade its appearanx^e in 1780, when Mr. Fawkes's widow 
was enabled, by the kindness of the editor, to avail herself 
of the subscriptions, contributed as usual very liberally*. 
Mr. Fawkes died August 26, 1777. 

15i FA W K^ S* 

Tbese.'scanty materisds are taken cbiefly IrQin ..Mr« Nr4 
cbols^s Life of Bowyer, and little can now be added to them* 
Mr. Fawkes was a man of a social disposition, with mwh 
of tbe imprudence which adheres to it. Although a prow 
found classical scholar^ and accounted an excellent trans-*. 
lator, be was unable to publish any of his works withQUfe 
the previous aid of a subscription ; and his Bible was • 
paltry job which necessity, only could have induced bka 
to undertake. With all bis failings, however, it appears 
that he was held in esteem by many distinguished conteA-*- 
poraries,, particularly by Doctors Pearce,. Jortin^ Johnson^ 
WartoA, Piumptre, and Askew, who contributed critical 
assistance to his translation of Theocritus. 

As an original poet, much cannot be said in his fsivour. 
His pQw^s were confined to occasional slight and Gficomi^ 
l^tic verses, /s^ch as may. be produced without great efforl, 
and are supposed tp. answer every purpose when they hav^e 
pleased those to whom they were addressed* The epitha? 
lamic ode may {>erhaps rank higher, if we icould forget aQ 
obvious endeavour to. iqiit^te Prydeii and Pope. In the 
elegy on tbe dea^ oi[ Dobbin, and one or two other pi^^es, 
there is a considerable portion of humour, whiob is, a mom 
legitimate proof, of genius than one species of poe^ v av# 
4i^posed.tQ allow. His principal defects are wunt of JM4g^ 
m^nt and taste. These, however, are less discoveimblQ in 
his translations, and it fvas probably a ponsciousnes^.af 
limited powers which incjio^d him so mocb to translatA^^* 
In this J)e every where displays a critical knowledge ie^ his 
author, while his. versification is smooth ^nd elegant,\and 
liis expression remarkably clear,. He. was onoe. c^teejmed 
the best translator since the days of Pope, a, praise .whiob^ 
if now disallowed, it is nouch that it could in hi» owa.time 
have been bestowed with justice.^ 

, FAYDiT (Aksexm£, or Gauc£^m,) was one oltb« most 
celebrated of the Provencal poets or troubadours. . He^faad 
a fine figure, abundance of wit» and a pleasing address, 
and Wias oiucb (encouraged by tbe princes of his ucae*}.lSef 
representing his comedies,, be soon acquired consLderald^ 
riches, which his vanity and his love of debancheKy 
and expence did noyt suffer him to keep* From ainiser- 

able state of poverty )ie was relieved by (^ -libemtiiy 
pf Hiphard Cwrdc Idon, who had a atrong. taste for. the 

1 Jobi^flon. and duOmers'i JSngliili Foed, 1810| il Tolt.*^Ni<lio1f'f Jh^m 
aad Bowyer. 

Pr(>ven^l poetry. After the death of this protector, he 
r^drkied to Aix, where he married a young woman of dis- 
tinguished wit and beauty ; but she did not long survive 
her^marriage with this profligate husband. He died soon 
9,U&r^ in 1220) at what age is not exactly known^ but cer- 
tainty early in life. Among the many pieces which he 
wrote, the foHowing are mentioned: I. A. poem on the 
death of his benefactor, Richard I. 2. '< The palace of 
Love/* imitated afterwards by Petrarch. 3. Several come- 
dies, one ijf which, entitled ** Heregia dels Prestes,*' the 
heresy of the priests, a satirical production against the cor-^ 
ruptions of the church, was publicly acted at the castle of 
Boniface, marquis of Montserrat' 

Dr. Burney hifomis us that he found his poem on the 
death of Richard I. in the Vatican, among the MSS. be- 
queathed to tha% library by the queen of Sweden, with the 
original music by the bard himseff, who was as much ad«^ 
mired by his contemporaries for setting his poems to music, 
as writing them. A translation of the poem, and the- mu- 
sic itself, may be seen in Dr. Bnrhey^s History. * 
^ FAYDIT (PETEa)i a priest of Ribro, once w^ll known by 
his singular opinions, entered the ^congregation of the ora- 
tory in 1662,'but was obliged' to quit it in 1671, being a 
fliiend to Cartesiahism, which was then a heresy. He 
preached against' the conduct of Innocent XL towai'ds 
France, and pubKshed a treatise on 'the Trinity 1696, in 
which appearing to favour trith^ism, he was confined at St. 
Lazare in Paris, but afterwards received bttlers from the 
kifig to retire to his country, where he died 1709. He 
left ^^ a life of St. Amable,'^ 12mo;^ <« Remarks oh Homer, 
Virgil, aad^tbe poetical style of Scripture," ^ vols. I2mo; 
a; Collection in Latin verse, at) d French prose, entitled, 
"Tombeau de M. de Santetiil^V ! 2mo ; " La Teleni&co- 
^matite, ou Gtntiqiue du Telemaque de M. Fenelon,'* 12mo, 
ttifool&sb attack on Fedeloifi'^ celebrated performance. All 
liis: works dstitidn iiingular opifiions, great reading and 
\Uarniog^, bfft little taste orjiidgment. " Le Moines em« 
-prantt^s,^' 2 vols.; l'2mo^ have l^en attributed to him, but 
Vthey ore by HaitM. * 

^^ FAYETTE (Marie MAMLttNfi, Piocbe de la Vergne, 
vi^dqnitess of), a French lady, daughter of Aymar de la 
> Vergn^ 4uaredial-de«€amp, and gov6rnbr of HsTre-de* 

.);'S,Mar«rf«-«>B«nie7'iHiit.ofMusl«, 1^1. II. • Moreri.— Diet. ^t. 

IM F A Y E TT f:- 

Grace, but more distinguished by herwtt and liti^aTy pm* 
ductiong than by her family, was married to the count d0 
Fayette in \6^S^ and died in 1693. She cultivated letters^ 
and the fine arts ; and her hotel was the rendezvous of aU 
who were most distinguished for literary taste. The dukor 
de la Rochefoucault, Huetius,. Menage, La Fontaine, Se** 
graisy were those she saw most frequently. The last,, when' 
obliged to quit the house of Mad. de Montpeiisier, fomid; 
an honourable retreat with her. The author of " The Me- 
moirs of madame de Maintenon,'* has not spoken favour- 
ably of this lady, nor represented her manners to be such 
as from her connections we should suppose. But madame 
de Sevignd, who bad better opportunities of knowing her, 
and is more to be relied on than the author of the memoirs, * 
has painted her very diflPerentiy^ This lady says, in a iet-^ 
ter to her daughter^ '^ Mad. la Fayette is a very amiable 
and a very estimable woman ; and whom you will love ' 
when you shall have time to be with her, and to enjoy the- 
benefit of hei* sense and wit \ the better you know her, the 
more you will like her.!* 

The principal works of this lady are, 1. " Zaide,'* af ro- 
mance, often printed, and read by persom who do not 
usually read romances. 2. ^' La princesse de Cleves,*' a 
romance also, which Fontenelle professed to have read 
four times. Mad. la Fayette was so regardless of fame, 
that she published the^ works under the name of Segrais, 
who, however, is supposed to have been no farther con- 
cerned than in -aiding a little in the design of them. 3; 
*' La princesse de Montpensier,'* another romance. Vol- 
taire says, that the romances of Fayette were the' frrst 
which exhibited the manners of people of fashion in' a ' 
graceful^ easy, and natural way ; all before having been ' 
pompous bombast, and swelling every thing buyond nature 
and jifei 4. " Memoires de la cour de France pour lte» , 
ann^es 1688 & 1689." This work it writterk with address 
and spirit, and abounds with striking pictures and curians 
anecdotes* 5. <* Histoire d*Henriette d'Angleterre.'* 6. 
** Divelr« portraits de quelques personnes de la cour.'' AU ~ 
these works are still esteemed ; and she drew up alsootheir 
memoirs of the history of her times, which were lent x.6 
every body, and lost, by her son the abj[>6 de la Fayette. , 
She understood Latin, which she learned tn a very shorif' 
time. \ 

1 Diet. Hist. * 

F A ^ Z i: I. L O. 159 

FA2ZELLO (Thomas), the historian of Sicily, was bom 
ftt Sacca, a town of Palermo, in 1498. He was entered ip 
the order of Dominican monks, ^nd was their provincial, 
but from modesty declined the honour of being elected 
general of the order. He was ten tioies choiien prior of 
the monastery at Palermo, and died in possession of that 
office in 1570. He wrote many works, but the most con- 
siderable was a ^^ History of Sicily," written in Latin in 
two decades, which first appeared in Palermo in 1558, fo). 
and which. has passed throug;h several editions, and was 
translated into the Italian language.^ , 


FEARNE (Charles), a barrister and law writer, was 
the eldest son of — ^ Fearne, esq. judge advpcate of the 
admiralty in the latter end of the late king's, reign. He 
presided at the trial of admiral Byng ; and on that trial, 
and in the general course of his profession, was distin^ 
guisbed as a very able and learned man. He gave his son 
Charles the first rudiments of education himself, and at 4^ 
proper age sent him to Westminster school, where he soon 
began to distinguish himself in classical and matbeipatical 
learning. Being designed for the law, as soon as he had 
finished, his education at this seminary, be was entered of 
the Inner Temple ; but at that tkne with no fixed r^soliif* 
tion to become a barrister. His life bad .hitherto passed 
in making excursions from one branch of learning to anor 
tber, in each of which he made very considerable ad- 
vances, and might perhaps have succeeded in any. During 
this state of irresolution^ his father died ; and his fortune^ 
which (from his habits of living) wa^ very inconsiderable^ 
jira^ ^ually partitioned between our author, and a brot;her 
and sisten Here it was that young Fearne exhibited thaft 
generosity and independence that distinguished him through 
the greater part of his life. His father had given him, on 
his entrance into the Inner Temple, a few hundred pounds^ 
to purchase chambers and books; and, as he had likewise 
given biiB a superior education to his younger brother, be 
nobly resolved on accepting this as a full equivalent £or bis 
j»hare in the remainder of h^^ father's fort;iAne. jHis bror 
tber and. sister had affection and delicacy enuqgh to resist 
this cpnduct for a while; but Fearne w,as immoveable* 

My fatherj^" .said he,^ *^ by tajkipg such upcomn\on pains 

1 Moreri,— Tir^botalu. 


160 . !• E A R N je. 

with iny education, no doubt meant it should be my who]6 
dependence ; and if that won^t bring me through, a feur 
hundred pounds will be a matter of no consequence.^* His 
brother and sister therefore shared the father's fortune be- 
tween them : the former settled in the Admiralty-office^ 
and the latter afterwards married a gentleman of equal rank 
and condition with herself. 

Amidst Mr. Fearne's various pursuits of knowledge, he 
had always a particular attachment ta experimental philo- 
sophy, which^ both at school and at the Temple, he prac« 
tised occasionally. Iii this employment, he fancied that 
be had discovered the art of dying Morocco leather of par- 
ticular colours, and after a new process* It appears that 
the Maroquoniers in the Levant (who are called so from 
dressing the skin of this goat, named the Maroquin) keep 
secret the ingredients which they put into the liquor^ 
which gives it that fine red colour. This secret, or what 
would answer equally as well, Fearne thought he had dis- 
covered, and, like most projectors, saw great profits arising 
from the discovery. It was his misfortune, however, to 
form a connection in this scheme, with a needy and ex- 
pensive partner, which opened his eyes to the fallacy of 
bis hopes ; and at the suggestion of his friends, he reverted 
to bis original profession, or what his father intended for 
such, and sat down to the study of the law with unremit- 
ting diligence. He had not been long in chambers, when 
his habits of study, diligence, and sobriety, were observed 
by an eminent attorney in the Temple, who wanted an 
abstract to be made of a voluminous body of papers, so as 
. to bring the matter clearly before counsel. The papers 
were so intricate, and of such various references, that they 
required a very clear bead, and a man not much taken up 
widi other business, to arrange them. He saw Fearne ain- 
swered this last description very well ; and told him, '^Tl&t 
having a great body of papers to arrange, he should be 
glad to employ him.*' Fearne accepted the offer, and 
performed bis task so ably, that bis employer not only re^ 
warded him handsomely for his trouble, but from tliat time 
gave him a considerable part of his business. 

He now began to be known as a young man of very con- 
siderable legal erudition, and a promising increase in busi- 
ness encouraged him to relinquish his chambers, and.ts^e 
ft house in Breams-buildings, Chancery -lane, where he 
becanie very sucpetsful as, what is called, a chamber counr 

F £ A K N & "tei 

9el^ Befioare he left the Temple, be h^d published bid ¥efy 
tiseful f ' Legigraphical Chart of Landed Property," apd be * 
now derived additional reputation from his oiore important 
treatise, entitled ^^ An Essay on. the Learning of Cootin-^ 
gent Remainders and Executory Devises," which, although 
pttblisbed without his name, was soon traced to its author* 
Fortane, as it is usually termed, was now before him, but 
be had no extraordinary ambition for her favoprs, and, very 
iktdfy, contracted his business within a certain cbmpas% 
by which ^t might yield him an annual sum which h6 
'tfaoueht sufficient for his wants. This, estimated by his 
biographer at 1 500/. a year, when he could with ease have 
^ct|uired 3000/. he spent on a town and country -house, a 
earriage, &;c. with an establishment on a genteel but mo- 
derate scale ; and th6 time he denied to increase of busi* 
uess^ he employed in his house at Hampstead oa mechani- 
cal and philosophical experiments. At this retreat he was 
irrapt up either in some philosophical experiment, or^some 
mechanical invention : the first of which he freely conrimu- 
iiicstted to men of similar pursuits^; and the latter,. wh'eli[ 
Gomfdeted, he as liberally gave away to poor artists', oe;^ 
dealers iathesb articles.; and here also he ifiade some op- 
ticar glassies upon a' new construction, which have 'been 
lieckohi^d improvements :. he likewise constVucted ^ 'misi-^ 
ehine for transposing the keys in music ; gave man^^ us^^ful 
hints iti the dyeing of cottons, and in a variety 6f oth^r ar« 
dcies, which equally shewed the enlarged state of bis mind, 
and ^e liberality of his heart. These be called hh'Uisst^ 
pMidfiSi and with some degree of truth, as they often brbke 
sN'ttpon his profession, and induced him to give up more 
lieiifs (t($ bring up for lost time) than was consistent with 
liidre benleficial pursuits, or the ti^iiral strength of his con- 

"Whilfethqs employed, aitioccasioiif jf^resented itself, wfaicb 
ctttkki forth his talents in a new Way. Lord Mtfusfield, 
n^B" solicitor-generat in 1747, facing given an opifnion in' 
tfa^'staHe of a dase on the will of William Williams (after- 
the subject of the celebrated case 'of Perrin v. Blnke),*' 
Mr. Feafire> ' on the authority of; his frfend**the Isltfe 
James Booth, esq. of Lincpln's-^inn, quoted in- the first- 
«di«i6a of his <« Essay on the Learning of Coftting'ent He- 
mauhders, &c.'' bis lordship afterwards disavowed that opi- 
irion on the bench, insinuating at the same time that Mr. 
Fearne was under some mistake in reporting it. B'earnej^' 
Vol. XIV. M *^ 

162 F E A R N E. 

all alive to the delicacy of bis character, and knowing the 
strong, ground he proceeded upon (which was a copy of 
that opinion given him by Mr. Booth, from a manuscript 
collection of cases, taken from the originals), took this 
opportunity to publish a letter, entitled ^^ Copies of Opi- 
nions ascribed to eminent counsel on the will which was 
the subject of the case of Perrin v. Blake, before the court 
of king's bench, 1769, addressed to the right hon. William 
earl of Mansfield.'' This appeared about 1780, and is said 
to have afforded lord Mansfield some uneasiness, who, bowr 
ever, took no notice of it. 

The remainder of Mr. Fearne's life appears to have pass- 
ed in a relaxation from professional cares, and to have been 
embittered by the difficulties by which such imprudence 
is generally followed. It would be painful to enter into a 
detail of this course, which terminated by his death, Jan. 
21, 1794, when he had reached only bis forty -fifth year, 
and was worn out both in mind and body. In order to 
contribute to the provision of his family, his friends col- 
lected his posthumous works, which were published in 
1797, consisting of " Observations on the Statute of Inroll- 
ments of Bargains and Sales, 27 Hen. VIII. delivered by 
the author in a reading at Lyon's-inn in 1778 ; Arguments 
in the singular case of general Stanwix} and a collection 
of Cases and Opinions." * 

. FEATLEY, or FAIRCLOUGH (Daniel), a learned 
(controversial divine of the church of England, was bom at 
Charlton upon Otmore, near Oxford, March 15, 1582. 
Faiuclough was the name of his ancestors, so spelt by his 
grandfather, father, and eldest brother, and it appears that 
he was ordained by the same. Why he afterwards pre*, 
ferred Featley, which is a corruption of Fairclough (or,^ 
FaircliflF, a place in Lancashire, where the family were ori-. 
ginally seated), we know not, nor is it perhaps of much 
consequence. That the family were reduced, appears from 
the occupation of his father, who was cook to Dr Laurence- 
Humphrey, president of Magdalen, and served Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford, in the same jpapacity. He had 
interest enough, however, with his eoiployers, to obtain 
a good education for the subject of this memoir, who' was 
hi9 second son, and whom we iind mentioned first as a 
chorister of Magda:len college. After having made consi- 

1 J^uropean Mag. for Ao^ast, September, and October, 1799. 

F E A T L E Y; 16S 

jerable progress in the school belonging to that college^ 
where, even at twelve years old, bis Latin and Greek exer- 
cises were noted for their excellence, he was admitted 
scholar of Corpus Christi college, Dec. 13, 1594, and 
Sept. 20, 1602, when B. A. was chosen probationer fellow* 
He comnienced M. A. at the usual time, and was always 
eminent for his academical exercises^ lior was he less noted 
is a disputant and preacher. In 1607 he delivered an ora- 
tion at the death of Dr. Reinold, president of Corpus, who 
had been one of his earliest patrons. 

In 1610, and the two following years, we find him in 
attendance upon sir Thomas Edmondes, the king's minister 
at the court of France. Several of the. sermons he preacbed,^ 
during this time, in the ambassador's chapel, are collected 
in bis ** Clavis Mystica," and those which were levelled at 
thfe errors of popery are said to have been v6ry successful 
both in converting some catholics, and in confirming the 
opinions of those who had before embraced the doctrines 
of the reformation. He had also very frequent conferences 
in the Cleremont with the Jesuits, and with the members 
of the Sorbonue, but especially with fathers Sirmund and 
Petau, who, although they at first ridiculed his figure, for 
he .was low of stature, yet afterwards were impressed with 
A regard for his controversial talents, and treated his me-* 
mory virith respect. His three disputations at Paris ^ are 
confessed by Holden, an eminent English catholic writer, 
to Have done more harm to the popish cause than thirty- 
three he had read of before. By most of the foreign uni-^ 
yersiiies he was held in such honour as a disputant, that iii 
the tables of the celebrated schoolmen, whom they ho- 
noured with the epithets of resolute, subtle, angelic, &c. 
he was called acutissimus el acerrimus. According to 
Weod, he commenced B; D. in 16 1 3, and was the preacher 
^t the act of that year. His sermon on this occasion is 
6'aid to have been No. 37. in the " Clavis Mystica j'* but, 
according to the evidence of bis nephew John Featley, he 
did hot take that degree until 1615, and the sermon he de- 
livered was a Latin concio ad clerumy dated March 25. In 
1610 he had preached the rehearsal sermon at Oxford, and 
by ;the bishop of Londoii^s appointment he discharged the 
same duty at St. Paul's crosii in 1618. By invitation from 
Mr. Ezekiel Ascot, who had been his pupil, he accepted 
the rectory. pf Northill in Cornwall, wbich he vacated on 
his institution to the rectory of Lambeth in 1618, a change 

M 2 

16* ? E A T t E Y. 

wbicb, if not more pro(itable> wa$ certainly highly agreer 
able to hioi, as be became pqw> by tiie recoiwneadsition 
of tbe university, domestic cbapl^dn to Abbot, arcbbisboii 
iof Canterbury. 

In 1619 he preached -at Lanxbetb church, or in the dia- 
pel of the palace, seven of the sermons in the ^^Clavis Mys- 
tica,'^ before tbe king^s commissioners in ecdeaiastical 
causes, and on other occasions, and delivered his sentiments 
,with uncoqimon freedom of spirit, which appears to have 
been habitual to him. By the direction of ^rchbiahop Abbot, 
.nvho was desirous ^bat De Diomiois, archbishop of Spatato, 
^bould be gratified with the hearing of a complete divinity* 
act, Mr. Featley, ii> 1617, kept his exerci$efQr the dei- 
gree of D. D. under Dr. Prideaux, the regius profeaaor ; 
.^nd fpauy other foreigners were present, with the flower of 
the English nobility and gentry. The Italian primate was 
so highly pleased with the performance, tbaJt be not only 
thanked his grace for the entertainment he had procured 
for him; but, being soon after appointed master of the 
Savoy, he gave Dr. Featley a brother's place in that hos- 
pital.. In the course of this exercise Dr. P(;i4ea^^> appre* 
^hensive for his reputation before such an auditory, felt the 
jsharpness and acuteness of Featley V replies, almost to a 
degree of resentment, but the archbishop eiFected a recon* 
ciliation between two men whose agreement in more im* 
portant points was of such copsequence in those days. 

In June 1625, was held k famous conference at siv 
Humphrey Lynde's, between Dr. Wilson, dean of Carlisle, 
pind Dr. Featley, with . the Jesuits Fisher and Sweet, and 
the result/ of it being published in lj624, by archbishop 
Abbot's command, under the title of ^^ The Romish Fisher 
caught and held in his own net,'' was dedicated to the 
archbishop by Featley. As chap bin to his grace, he was 
intrusted with the invidious office . of Hcensiag books;, and 
ipxamining clerks, which he is said to have discharged with 
much prudence, and in general to the entire satisfaction of 
his superiors. On one occasion, however^ he is said to 
have been censured for licensing Elton's CowBaentary on 
the Colossians, an author we are unacquainted with, but 
excused himself by pleading, that the sheets which had 
given offence were added after his imprimatur. His con- 
duct, as licenser, with respect to Gataker's treatise ** On 
Lots,'^ will occur to be mentioned in our acoount of that 
diviue; . . ' 

F E A T L fi f. 165 

Hitherto the archbishop had bestowed no preferment oti 
his chaplain ; but in 1627, as we are told, ** urged by hdar- 
iag the discontients of the court and city, because his chap- 
lain was kept behind the hangings^'' he bestowed on hinii 
the rectory of Alihallows, Bread -street, and afterwards the 
rectory of Acton. Much about the dame time, but the year 
not Jinown, he was appointed provost of Chelsea college^ 
an institution which did not last long. In 1622 he had 
married Mrs. Joyce HoUoWay, who was his parishioner^ 
and resided in Kennington-lane. This lady appears to 
have been considerably older than Dr. Featley, but was ia 
woman of great piety and accomplishments. He concealed 
his marriage for some time, lest it should interfere with his 
residence at Lambeth palace ; but in 1625 he ceased to bd 
chaplain to the archbishop, and concealment was no longer 
necessary. The cause of his quitting the archbishop's ser- 
vice has been represented as " the unfeeling treatment" of 
that prelate, fiul of this, his biographers have made too 
much. The story, in short, is, that Dr. Featley fell sick 
at Oxford, supposed of the plague, and was obliged td 
leave the plaoe and go to Lambeth ; and when he found* 
that the archbishop had removed to Croydon for fear of 
the plague, he followed him thither, and the archbishop 
refused him entrance, and was surely justifiable in every 
endeavour to prevent the disordei' from extending to the^ 
place he had chosen as a refuge. [The story is told with 
apme confusion of circumstances, but the above is probably 
the truth. . Dr. Featley, however, on recovering ftdm his 
disorder, which, after all, happened not to be the plague^ 
quitted the archbishop's service, and removed his books 
from the palace*^ — It was during the raging of the plague in 
1625, or 1^26, when the churches Were deserted, that he' 
wrote his ** Ancilla Pietatis^or Hand-maid to private devo- 
tion," which became very popukr ; and befbre 1676, had" 
passed through eight editions. Wood appears to be mis^ 
taken in paying, that in this work Dr. Featley makes the 
story of St. George, the tutelar saint of England, a iher^ 
fiction, and that archbishop Laud obliged him to apolo- 
' gijse for this on his knees. Dr. Featley's words 'b6ar no 
such meaning, but it is probable enough that there was a 
misunderstanding between Featley and the archbishop, as' 
tlie former refused to obey the latter in turning the com* 
xnunion-table of Lambeth church altar- wise; and we hno^v' 
that Featley was afterwards a witness against the arch« 

lee F E A T L E Y. 

bishop, upon the charge of his having made superstitious 
innovations in Lambeth church. 

While the ecclesiastical constitution stood, Dr. Featley 
ivas^ member of several of the convocations; and upon ad'i' 
count, as is supposed, of his being a Calvinist, he wHs in 
1642 appointed by the parliament one of the Assembly of 
Divines. He is said to have continued longer with them 
than any other member of the episcopal persuasion ; but 
this was no longer than he discovered the drift of their 
proceedings. That he was not acceptable to the ruling 
party, appears from his becoming in the same year, a vic-> 
tim to their revenge. In November, the soldiers sacked 
his church at Acton, and at Lambeth would have mur^ 
tiered him, had he not made his escape. These outrages 
were followed Sept. 30, 1643, by his imprisonment in 
Peter-house, in Aldersgate-street, the seizure of his library 
and goods, and the sequestration of his estate. Charges 
vvere preferred against him of the most absurd and con- 
tradictory kind, which it was to little purpose to answer. 
fie was voted out of his living. Among his pretended 
offences were, that be refused to assent tq every clause in 
the solehfin' league and covenant, and that he corresponded 
with a:rchbishop Usher, who was with the king at Oxford. 
During his imprisonment, he amused himself by writing 
bis celebrated treatise, entitled *^ The Dippers dipt, or th6 
Anabaptists ducked and plunged over head and ears, at a 
disputation in Southwark.'' It is, however, a striking 
proof of that anarchy of sentiment which disgraced the 
nation at this period, that he not only dedicates this book 
to the parliament which had imprisoned him, but exhortsi 
them to employ the sword of justice against ^' heretics and 
schismatics,'* although himself was now suffering under the 
latter description by that very parliament. He was better 
employed soon after in an able vindication of the church 
of England against the innovators who now bore rule ; but 
his long confinement of eighteen months impaired his 
health and shortened his days. His situation appears to 
have been represented to his persecutors, but it was not 
lentil six weeks before his death that he obtained leave 
from the parliament to remove to Chelsea for the benefit 
pf the air. Here he died April 17, 1645, On the very day 
that he was bound to have returned to his confinement at 
Peter-house. It was reported that a few houiv before his 
4eathj| he prayed for destruction to the enemies of the 

F E A T L E Y. 167 

church und state, in expressions which have been called 
** irascible and resentful." ,How far they were used by 
him seems doubtful ; but had he prayed only for the resto- 
ration of the constitution in church and state, it might haye 
still, in those times, been imputed to him that the destruc- 
tion of their enemies was a necessary preliminary and a 
fair innuendo. He was buried in the chancel of Lambeth 
church, where his funeral sermon was preached by Dr. 
Leo or Loe, who had been in habits of intimacy with him 
for thirty-seven years. Dr. Leo represents him as beiug 
*^ in his nature, meek, gracious, affable, and merciful ;*' as 
a writer he was esteemed in his time one of the ablest de- 
fenders of the doctrines of the reformation against the pa* 
pists, and one of the ablest opponents of the anabaptists. 
. Wood has given a long list of his controversial works, 
mosjt of which are now little known, and seldom inquired 
for. Among his writings of another description, however, 
we may mention, 1. The Lives of Jewell, prefixed to his 
works, and of Reinolds, Dr. Robert Abbot, &c. which are 
in Fuller's "Abel Redivivus.'* 2. "The Sum of saving 
Knowledge,*' a kind of catechism, London, 1626. 3* 
'^Clavis Mystica; a Key opening divers difficult and mys- 
terious texts of Holy Scripture, in seventy Sermons," ibid. 
1636, folio. Prynne says that Laud's chaplain obliterated 
many passages in them respecting the papists. 4. ^^ He^a^ 
texium ; or six Cordials to strengthen the heart of every 
faithful Christian against the terrors of death," ibid. 1637, 
folio. 5. " Several Funeral Sermons^ one preached at the 
funeral of sir. Humphrey Lynd,'* ibid. 1640, fplio. The 
proper title of this volume is " Gpmxo;, the . House pf 
Mourning furnished, delivered in forty-seven Sermohs,*' 
by Daniel Featley, Martin Day, Richard Sibbs, and Tho- 
mas Taylor, and other reverend divines ; but their respec- 
tive shares are not pointed out, nor, except in one or two 
instances, the persons at whose funerals the sermons were 
p;:eached. 6. " Dr. Daniel Featley revived, proving that 
the protestant church (and not the Romish) is the only ca- 
tholic and true church," ibid. 1660, 12mo, To this is pre- 
fixed an account of his life by his nephew John Featley, 
Dr. Featley also published king James's "Cygneja Cantio," 
ibid. J 629, 4to, which contains a scholastic duel between 
that monarch and our author. ^ 

1 Blog. Brit. Yol.VT. Parti, ef the new edition, unpnblished-^av article 
.•labor?tely prepared by the Rev. Sam. Denne, for bis Adileoda to Dr, X>iica- 
rel's History of Lauibeth Palace, aud Mr. Nichols's History of that Parish, 

l«fl TEA T L E Y. 

FE ATLEY (J6hn), sepbew to t^e preceding, mh of 
John Fairck>iigby was a native of Northamptonriiire, imd 
educated at AU Souls' college, Oxford, which he is said to 
have left after taking his first degree in arta^ probably to 
become his uncle's assktant at Lamheth or Acton. During 
the rebellion he went to St« Christopher's in the West In-^ 
dies, where he arrived in 1643, and had the booour of 
being the 6rst preacher of the gospel in the infancy of that 
colony. It appears that he returned about the time of the 
restoration, and was appointed chaplain to the king, who 
also in August 1660 presented him to. the precentorship of 
Lincoln, and in September following to the prebend of 
Milton Ross, in that cathedral. In 1662, he was created 
D. D. and had from the dean atid chapter of Lincoln the. 
vjcarage of Edwin ton in Nottinghamshire, worth about 
sixty pounds a year. He died at Lincoln in 1666, and was * 
interred in a chapel in the cathedral. He published one i 
or two of bis uncle's tracts, particularly " Dr. Featiey re-»':i 
vived, &c." in which, as already noticed, tl 'are is a life of ' 
bis uncle. Of his own were only published two occasional' ' 
sermons, and ^^ A divine antidote against the Plague, con«> ^ 
twined in Soliloquies and Prayers,'* London, 1660. ' * 

FECHT, or FECHTIUS (John), of Brisgaw, a celc-^ 
br^ted Lutheran divine and historian, author of several: > 
learned works in Latin and in German, v/ho was settled first ^ 
at Oourlacb, and afterwards at Rostock, was born in 1636, ' 
and di^d in 1716. Among his works are a *^ History of . 
# Cain and Abel,*' with notes critical, philological, historical, : 
and theological, published at Rostock, in 8vo ; a ^^ Trea« 
tise on the Religion of the modern Greeks;" another 
against the " Superstitions of the Mass," &c.* 

FECKENHAM (John de), so called, because he was . 
born of poor parents in a cottage, near the forest of Fee- 
kenhain in Worcestershire, his right name being HowmaM, 
was the last abbot of Westminster. Discovering in his 
youth very good parts, and a strong propensity to learning, 
the priest of the parish took him under his care, instructed 
him some years, and then procured him admission into 
Evesham monastery. At eighteen, he was sent by bis abbot 
to Gloucester-hall, Oxford; from whence, when he had . 
sufficiently improved himself in academical learning, he 
was recalled to his abbey ; which being dissolved Nov. 17, 

I Biog. Brk. rol. VI. Part I. of the new edition, unpublished. 
4 Moreii.-— Saxii OaomMt. 


ISS^f he had a jre^rly pension of an hundred florins al- « 
lotred him for his Ufe, Upon this he retorned to Glouces- 
ter-hall, where he pursued his studies some years ; and ill 
153^9, took the degree of bachelor of divinity, being then 
chaplain to Bell bishop of Worcester. That prelate re- 
signing his see in 1543, he became chaplain to Bonnet 
bishop of London ; but Bonner being deprived of his bi- 
shopric, in 1 549, by the reformers, Feckenbam was com-f 
znitted to the Tower of London, because, as some say, he 
refused to administer the sacraments after the protestant 
manti^r. Soon after, he was taken from thence, to dispute! 
on the chief points controverted between the protestants 
and papists, and disputed several times in public before 
and with some great personages. 

He was afterwards remanded to the Tower, where he 
continued till queen Mary^s accession to the crown in 1 553 ; 
J[>ut was then released, and made chaplain to the qoeen. 
He became also again chaplain to Bonner, prebendary of 
St. PauPs, dean of St. PauPs, rector of Finchley in Mid- 
dlesex, which he held only a f|ew months ; and then rector 
of Greenferd in the same county. In 1554, he was one of 
the disputants at Oxford against Cranmer, Ridley, and La- 
timer, before they suffered martyrdom, but said very little 
against them ; and during Mary*s reign, he was constantly 
employed in doing good offices to the afflicted protestants 
, from the highest to the lowest. Francis Russel earl of 
B^ford, Ambrose and Robert Dudley, afterwairds earls 
of Warwick and Leicester, were benefited by his kind- 
ness ; as was also sir John Cheke, whose life he and sir 
Thognas Pope, the founder, of Trinity college, Oxford, are 
said to have saved, by a joint application to queen Mary. 
Feekenham, was very intimate with sir Thomas, and often 
visited him at Tyttenbanger-bouse. Feckenham also inter- 
ceded with queen Mary for the lady Elizabeth^s enlarge- 
ment out of prison, and that so earnestly, that the queen 
was actually displeased with him for some time. In M^y 
1556, be was complimented by the university of Oxford 
mth the degree of doctor in divinity; being then in uni- 
versalesteem for his learning, piety, charity, moderation,^ 
humility, and other virtues. The September following, he 
was made abbot of Westminster', which was then restored 
by queen Mary ; and fotirteen Benedictine monks placed 
there under his government, with episcopal power. 

Upon the death of Mary, in 1558, her successor Eliia- 


170 F E C K E N H A M. 

beth, not unmindful of her obligations to Feckenham, sent 
for him before her coronation^ to consult and reward him ; 
andy as it is said, offered him the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury, provided be would conform to the laws ; but this he 
refused. He appeared, however, in her first parliament, 
taking the lowest place on the bishop's form ; and was the 
last mitred abbot that sat in the house of peers. During 
his attendance there he spoke and protested against every 
thing tending towards the reformation ; and the strong 
opposition which he could not be restrained from making, 
occasioned his commitment to the tower in 1560. After 
nearly three years confinement there, he was committed 
to the custody of Home bishop of Winchester : but having 
been old antagonists on the subject of the oath of supre- 
macy, their present connection was mutually irksome, and 
Feckenham was remanded to the Tower in 1564. After- 
wards he was removed to the Marshalsea, and then to 
a private bouse in Holborn. In 1571, he attended Dr. 
John Storie before his execution. In 1578 we find him in 
free custody with Cox bishop of Ely, whom the queen had 
requested to use his endeavours to induce Feckenham to 
acknowledge her supremacy, and come over to the church : 
s|nd he was at length prevailed on to allow her supremacy^ 
but could never be brought to a thorough conformity^ 
Soon after, the restless spirit of some Roman catholics^ 
and their frequent attempts upon the queen's life, obliged 
her to in)prison the most considerable among them : upon 
which Feckenham was sent to Wisbich-castle in the Isle of 
£ly, where he continued a prisoner to the time of hia 
death, which happened in 1585. As to his character, 
Camden calls him ^' a learned and good man, that lived 
long, did a great deal of good to the poor, and always 
solicited the minds of his adversaries to benevolence.? 
Fuller styles him, ** a man cruel to none ; courteous and 
charitable to ail who needed his help or liberality." Bur- 
net says, ^^ he was a charitable and generous man, who 
lived in great esteem in England.'^ . And Dart concludes 
bis account of him in these words : *^ though I cannot go 
so far as Reyner, to call him a martyr; yet I cannot gather 
but that he was a good, mild, modest, charitable man, and 
a devout Christian." 

Wood has given us the followingcatalogueof his works: 
1. ^^ A Conference dialogue- wise held between the lady 
J4ue Dudley and Mr. John Feckenhan]^;^ four days hefoxQ 

F E C K E N H A M, 171 

her death, touching her faith and belief of the sacrament, 
and her religion, 1554." In April 1554, he had been 
sent by the queen to this lady to commune with her, and 
to reduce her from the doctrine of Christ to queen Mary's 
religion, as Fox expresses it. The substance of this con- 
ference may be seen also in Fox's '* Acts and Monuments 
of Martyrs." 2. " Speech in the house of lords, 1553/* 
3. " Two. Homilies .on the first, second, and third articles 
of the Creed." 4. " Oratio funebris in exequiis ducbse 
Parroae," &c. that is, " A funeral oration on the Death of 
the duchess of Parma, daughter of Charles V. and gover- 
ness of the Netherlands." 5. *^ Sermon at the exequyof 
Joan queen of Spain, 1555." 6. The declaration of such 
scruples and staies of conscience, touching the Oath of 
Supremacy, delivered by writing to Dr. Home, bishop of 
Winchester, 1566." 7. "Objections or Assertions made 
against Mr. John Gough^s Sermon, preached in the Tower 
of London, Jan. 15, 1570." 8. " Caveat emptor:" which 
seems to have been a caution against buying abbey-lands. 
He had alsa written, ^^ Commentaries on the Psalms," and 
a " Treatise on the Eucharist,", which were lost among 
/ other things. Thus far Wood : but another author men- 
tions, 9. '^ A Sermon on the Funeral of queen . Mary, on 
** Ecclesiastes iv. 2." * 

. FEITHIUS (Everard), a learned German, was bora 
at Elburg in Guelderland, in the sixteenth centuty* He 
studied philosophy for some time, and afterwards applied 
himself entirely to polite Literature, in which he made a 
considerable progress, tie was a, master, of the Greek 
tongue, and even of the Hebrew ; of which the professors 
of the protestant university vof Bern gave him an ample 
testimonial. Being returned to his ownj country, from 
which he had been long absent, he was under great con^ 
sternation, on account of the expedition of the Spaniards 
commanded by Spinola. This determined him to leave hia 
native country ; and he went to settle in France, where he 
taught the Greek language, and was honoured with the 
friendship of Casaubon, of M.. Du Piiy, and of the pre^i-^ 
dentTbuanus. When he was walking one day at Rocbelle,) 
attended by a servant, he was desired to enter into the 

1 Biog. 6rit.^Dodd'8 Cb. Hist.— >Nash'8 Worcesterthire..— Tindal's Hist, of 
fvesham,— Strype's Crapmer, pp. 258, ^69, 3dd.^Atk Oju vol !• Warto«*a 
life of sir T. Pope, l(c. &c 

172 F. £ I T H 1 U S. 


boose of a citi2en : and after thstt day it ootfld never be 
discovered what became of hiiti, notwithstanding aft tfa6 
strictest inquiries of the magistrates. He was but young 
at the time of this most mysterious disappearing, ** whieh^-^ 
fKiys. Bayie, *^ is to be lamented ; for if he had lived to 
grow old, he would have wonderfully explained most of th^ 
subjects relating to {Oolite letters." This judgement is 
grounded upon his manuscript works^ one of which waS 
published at Leyden in 1677| by Henry Biruman, princi-^ 
pal of the college at Swoi, and the author's grand nephew^ 
entitled ^'Antiquitatum Homericarum Itbri quatuor^'^ ISftio^ 
It is very learned, and abounds with curious and instruct 
tive observations. An edition of it was published in 1743^ 
with notes, by Elias Stoeber, 8vo, at Strasburgh. There 
are other works of bis in being, as^ ** De Atheiriensitint 
republica, De autiquitatibus Atticis,*' &c. which the editor 
promised to collect and publish ; but we do not know that 
it was done.^ 

. FELIBIEN (Andrew), Sieur des Avaux et de Javerci^ 
counsellor and historiographer to the king of France, waii 
born at Chartres in 1619. He finished hi? first studies 
there at the age of fourteen, and then was sent to Paris t& 
improve himself in the sciences, and in the management 
of affairs: but his inclination soon niade hint devote him- 
self entirely to the muses, and he gained a great re|)utath)n 
by his knowledge in the fine arts. The marqtiis de Fon- 
t^nay-Mareuil, being chosen for the second time amfa«is4^ 
sador extraordinary to the court of Rome in 10'47, FeHbiei^ 
was made seeretary to the embassy, and perfectly answered' 
the hopes which that minister had* conceived of him. Du-' 
ring his stay at Rome, his fondness for the liberal 'arta^ 
made him spend all the time he could spare in visiting' 
those who excelled in them ; imd especially the celebrated^ 
Poussin, from whose conversation he learned to under<^' 
stand all that is most beautiful in statoes and pictores :« 
and it was according to the exalted notions he then formed 
to himself of the excellence and perfection of painting,' 
diat he wrote those valuable works which established hm 
reputation. On his return from Italy he went to Cbartres;. 
and, as he designed to settle himself, he married a lady of' 
considerable family. His friends introduced bim after^ 
wards to Fouquet, who would have done something for 

' Gen. Diet.*— Moreri*— *SaxiI Onomast, 

F E L I B I E N. 17S 

iim had be not soqq after lost the kiog^s faYOur : but Col- 
b^rty who loT^d tha arts and tei^ooesy did not suffer him to 
b^ uaeless. After he had desdrad him to make some 
drau^ts for bis majesty, in order to eagage bini to cooi^ 
plete the works he had begun^ bd procured him a commia- 
aioa of historiographer of the king's buildings, superin- 
ieodaiit of tbem^ and of the arts and manufax^tttres in 
France: this commission was delivered to him March 
10, lj666. The foyal academy of architecture having been 
in 1611, be was made secretary to it. The 
made him afterwards keeper of his. cabinet of antique 
In 1673» ai»d gave him all apartment in the palace of Brion. 
fie was also one of the first members of the academy of 
insoRiptiQCis a,nd medals, dnd became afterwards depiUy 
comptroller general of the bridges and dykes of the kio^ 
dom. He died June 11, 1695, aged seventy-six y and Idi^ 
five children. 

' Hia cy^ief works are, 1. ^' Eotretien^ ssir les Vies et auf 
les Ouvrages des plus excellens PeUitres anciens et mo«^ 
cbrnea :'' 1666 — l&^Sj 5 vols. 4to. 2. <^ Les Principea 
de ^Architecture, de la Sculpture, et de la Feinture, avee 
iftn dictionaire des termes propres de ces artes," 1676, and 
1691y 4to. Z. ^^ De Torigine de la Peinture, avec ptusieurs 
|»eces detacht^es," 1660. 4. ^ Several Descriptions, as 
that of Versailles, of Entertainmeuis given by the king> 
and of several Pictures,'' collected into one vol. lu 12mo.. 
5. '^ Tbe-Conferences df the royal academy of painting,'^ 
in one vol. 4tOk 6* ** The Description of the Abbey de la 
Trappe," in 12ma He also left some translations: viz. 
*^ Au Account of what passed in Spain, when the count 
duke of CMivases fell under, the king's displeasure," traas^ 
laied out of Italian ; <^ The Castle of the Soul," written 
by Si. Teresa, translated from Jthe Spanish ; ^^ The Life of 
l^ope Pius V." translated from the Italian. 

In all that he has written there appears sound judgment 
and good taste^ butthis ^^ Dialogues upon the Lives of the 
Patntevs" is the work which has done him the greatest 
kongwHtr. His only feult is, that he is sometimes prolix and 
immethodical. Voltaire* informs U3, that he was the first 
who gave Lewis XIV. the surname of Great, in the in- 
acriprions in the botel-de-ville. Felibien bad mauy good 
qualities, and, free from ambition, was moderate in his 
desires, and of a contented disposition. He was a man of 
probity, of honour, of piety* Though he was naturally 

174 F E L I B I E N. 

grave and serious, and of a liasty and sbmewfiat sererB 
temper, yet his comrersation was generally chearfcil and ' 
lively. He was a steady advocate for truth ; and he used 
to encourage himself in it by this motto, which he cansed 
to be engraved on his seal, ^' Bene facere, et vera dicere,^* 
that is, '^ To do good, and speak thp truths" Wn bicN. 
graphers seem agreed that he lived in a constant practice 
of these two duties. * - * .-. ; 

FELIBIEN (John Francis)^ son of the preceding, sucu 
ceeded. his father in ail his places, and seemed' to inherit 
bis' taste in the fine arts. He died in 1733. Some *wprks 
written by him must not be confounded with those of hia 
father: namely, 1. ^^ An historical Golleclion of theLiv^^n; 
and Works of the most celebrated Architects,'.' Paris, 1667, 
4to^ frequently subjoined to his fadier's account of- the 
J^nt^s. 2. ^* Description of Versailles, ancient andmo* 
dern," 12mo. 3. ^^ Description of the Church of the In* 
valids," 1706, foL reprinted in t756. There were also, 
two more Felibiens^ who were authors: Jam£S, brdtbei: 
of Andrew, a canon and archdeacon of Cbartres, whadied 
in 1716, and < had published, among other works, one.en«- 
titled ^* Pentateuchus HistcMricus," 1704, 4to, part of whifch 
be was obliged afterwards to suppress, and. consequently 
the nneastrated copies are inost valued ; and Michael; 
another t>f his sons, a Benedictine of the congregation of 
St. Maur, who was born in 1666, and died in 1719. The 
latter wrote a history of the abbey ^of St. Denys, in fo- 
lio, published 10 1706; and began the history of Parish 
which was afterwards continued and published by Lobineau»^ 
FELICIANUS (John BciRNARmNE), a native of Venice; 
who flourished about the middle of the sixteenth, century; 
established a great . reputation at that time by hia trans^^ 
lations from Greek authors, a task whioh few, compa»* 
ratively, were then able to perform. He translated, am<aig 
others, the sixth book, of Paul ^giueta, 1533 ; Ariatcftle's 
Ethics, Venice, 1 54 i , fol. ; ^^ Aiexandri Aphrodisienaia Ckxs^ 
mentarius in primum priorum Andyticorism Aristote&>'f 
ilnd. 1542j fol. ; ^'Ammonii Hermes Comment in Isagogeit 
Porphyrii," ibid. 1545, 8vo; ^^ Porphyrins de abstij^atia 
animalium^," ibid. 1547, 4to; and ^'Oecumenius inActaet 
, Epistoias Catholicas/' Basil, 1552, 8vo. V^e have no 

n . . . 
' Gen. Dtct;-^Moreri. — Nicerpn, vols. II. and X. * 

* Morerl.-«-BicU Hist.«-Saxii Onomasttcon. , 

F E L I C I A N U S. 175 

ftocrant of his life or death, but he appears to have been 
a priest of the Benedictine order, and esteemed for his 
learning. ' 


FELL (Samuel, D. D.) a learned divine, was bom in 
the parish of St Clement Danes, London, 1594; elected 
student of Christ Church from Westminster school in 
1601 ; took a master of arts degree in 1608, served the 
oflSce of proctor in 1614, and the year following was ad- 
mitted bachelor of divinity ; and about that time became 
mininer of Freshwatier in the Isle of Wight. In May 1619, 
he was . installed canon of Christ Church, and the same 
year proceeded doctor in divinity, being about that time 
domestic chaplain to James I. In 1626, he was made 
Margaret professor of divinity, and consequently had # 
prebend of Worcester, wbich was about that time annexed 
to the professorship. He was then a Calvinist, but at 
length, renouncing the opinions so called, he was, through 
Liu]d^» interest, made dean of Lichfield in 1637 ; and the 
year following, dean of Christ Church. In 1645, he was 
appointed vice*chancellor, which offic^ he served also in 
1647, in contempt of the parliamentary visitors, who at 
length ejected him from that and his deanery, and theif 
minions were so exasperated at him for his loyalty to the 
king, and zeal for the church, that they actually sought 
his life: and being threatened to be murdered, he was 
forced to abscond. He died broken*hearted, Feb. 1 , 1 648«9; 
that being the very day he was made acquainted with the 
murder of bis royal master king Charles. He was buried 
in the chancel of Sunning-well church, near Abingdon, in 
Beikshire (where he had been rector, and built the front 
of the parsonage-house) with only this short memorial, on a 
small lozenge of marble laid over his grave, '* Depositum 
S. F. February 1648/' He was a public -spirited man, and 
had the character of a scholar. Wood,- thougli he supposes 
there wore more, only mentions^ these two small produce 
tions of his ; viz. ** Primitis ; sive Oratio habita Oxonise in 
Scbola Tbeologiae, 9 Nov. 1626,'' and, <^ Concio Latina 
ad Baccalaureos die cinerum in Coloss. ii. 8." They were 
both printed at Oxford in 1 627. He contributed very largely 
toCbnst Church college, completing most of the improve-* 

I Moreri.— Baillet Jugeaeiits.^Saxii Oii03iast« 

116 t E L L. 

ments begun by his predecessor, Dr.. Duppa, md wcndi 
h>ve done more had not the rebellion prevented him. * 

FELL (Dr. John), an eminently learned divine, was Ae 
son of the preceding, by Margaret his wife, daughter of 
Thotnas Wyld, of Worcester, esq, and was born at Long- 
Worth in Berkshire, June 2.% 1625: He was educated 
iriostly at the free-school of Thame in Oxfordshire ; and 
in 1636, when lie was only eleven years of age, was ad«> 
mitted student of Christ Church in Oxford. In Oct. 16iO 
be took the degree of B. A. and that of M. A. in June 
1643; about which time he was in arms for Charles L 
within the garrison of Oxford, and afterwards becaaae an 
ensign. In 1648 he was turned out of his place by the 
parliamentarian visitors, being then in holy orders; and 
from that time till the rest6ration of Charles 11. lived in a re- 
tired and studious manner, partly in the lodgings, at Christ 
Church, of the famous physician Willis, who was his 
brother-in-law, and partly in his own house opposite Mer- 
lon college, wherein he and others kept up tba devotions 
and disaipline of the church of England. 

After the restojadon he was made prebendary of Chi« 
diester, and canon of Christ Chxtrch, in which last place 
he was installed July 27, 1660; and in Nov. following waa 
made dean/ being then D. D. and chaplain in ordinary tu 
the king. As soon as he was fixed, he earnestly applied 
lumself to purge the college of all remains of hypocrisy 
and nonsense, so prevalent in the late times of confusion, 
and to improve it in all sorts of learning as well as true 
religion. Nor was he more diligent in restoring its disci- 
pline, , than in adorning it with magnificent buildings, to- 
wards which he contributed very great sums. By bis own 
benefactions, and what he procured from others, he com- 
pleted the north side of .the great quadrangle, which had 
remained unfinished from Wolsey's time, and in which his 
father had made some progress when interrupted by the 
rebellion. He rebuilt also part of the lodgings of the 
canon of the second stall, the east side of the chaplain^s 
quadrangle, the buildings adjoining fronting the meadows, 
the lodgings belonging to the canon of the third stall, and 
the handsome tower over the principal gate of the college; 
into which, in 168S, he caused to be removed out of the 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. lL«^Lloyd^9 Memoir?^ P' d31.«— W4}od*s hsauit and CdU 
leget and Halls. 

FELL 177 

ifcfeple in the cathedral, the bell called " Great Tom of 
Christ Churcfc," said to have been brought thither with 
the other bells from Oseney-abbey, which he had re-cast 
with additional metal, so that it is now one of the largest 
bells in England. Round it is this inscription : '^ Magnns 
Thomas Clusius Oxoniensis, renatus April viii. mdclxxx. 
regnante Carolo Secundo, Decano Johanne Oxon. Epis- 
copo, Subdecano Gulielmo Jane S. S. Theol. Professore, 
Tbesaurario Henrico Smith S. 8. Theol. Professore, cura 
et arte Cbristopheri Hodson." Sixteen men are required 
to ring it; and it was first rung out on May 29, 1684. 
From that time to this it has been toHed every night, as a 
fignal to all scholars to repair to their respective colleges 
and halls; and so it used to be before its removal. 

In 1666^ 1667, 1668, and part of 1669, Dr. Fell was 
vice-chancellor of the university : during which time he 
used all possible means to restore the discipline and credit 
of the place ; and such was his indefatigable spirit, that he 
succeeded beyond all expectation. Among his other in- 
junctions was, that persons of all degrees should appear in 
their proper habits; he likewise looked narrowly to the 
due performance of the public exercises in the schools, 
and reformed several abuses that had crept in during a long 
period of relaxation. He frequently attended in person 
the disputations in the schools, the examinations for de- 
grees, and the public lectures, apd gave additional weight 
and stimulus to the due performance of these duties. In 
bis own college he kept up the exercises with great strict- 
ness, and, aware of the importance of the best education to 
those who w^ere destined for public life, it was his practice, 
several mornings in the week, to visit the chambers of the 
noblemen and gentlemen commoners, and examine their 
progress in study. No one in his time was more zealous 
in promoting learning in the university, or in raising its 
reputation by the noblest foundations. The Sheldonian 
dieatre was built chiefly by his solicitation ;■ and he like- 
wise advanqed the press and improving printing in Oxford, 
according to the public-spirited design of archbishop Laud. 
He was likewise an eager defender of the privileges of the 
university, especially while vice-chancellor. In 1675-6 he 
was advanced to the bishopric of Oxford, with leave to 
bold his deanery of Christ Church in commendam, that he 
might continue his services to his college and the univer- 
sity : and he was no sooner settled in his see, than he 
Vol. XIV. N 

^ 17S F EL L. 

' began to rebuild the episcopal palace of Cnddeadenin Ox* 
fordsbire. Holding also the mastership of St. Oswald*» 
hospital, at Worcester, he re-buitt that in a sumptooas 

. manner, bestowing all the profits of his income there in 
augmenting and recovering its estates : and, part of the 
revenues of his bishopric arising from the impropriation 
of the dissolved prebend of Banbury, he liberally gaire 
500/. to repair that church. .He likewise established daily 
.^prayers at St, Martin's, or Carfax church, in Oxford, both 
morning and evening. In a word, he devoted almost his 
whole substance to works of piety and charity. Among 
his other benefactions to bis college, it must not be for- 
got, that the best rectories belonging to it were bought 
' with his money : and as be had been so bountiful a patron 

. to it while he lived, andj in a manner, a second founder, 
so he left to it at bis death an estate, for ten or more exhibi- 
tiuns for ever. It is said that he brought his body to an ill 
habit, and wasted bis spirits, by too much zeal for the 
public, and by forming too many noble designs; and tbat 
all these things, together with the unhappy turn of religion 
which be dreaded under James II. contributed to shortcm 
his life. He died July 10, 1686, to the great loss of learn- 

. ing, of the whole university, and of the church of England r 

,for he was, as Wood has observed of bim^ ^^ the most 
zealpus man of his time for the church of England; a 
great encourager and promoter of learning in the univer- 

• sity, and of all public works belonging thereunto ; of great 
resolution and exemplary charity; of strict integrity ; a 

.learned divine; and excellently skilled in the Latin and 
Greek languages.** Wood relates one singularity of faitn, 
which is unquestionably a great and unaccountable failing, 

. that he was not at all well-affected to the royal society, and 
that the noted Stubbes attacked that body under his sanc- 

, tion and eooouragement. He was. buried in Christ Church 
cathedral ; and ov^r his t>>mb, wMcb is a plain marble, is 
an elegant inscription, composed by. Aldrich, his successor. 
He was never married. 

It may easily be imagined,^ that so active and zealous a 
man as fell had not much time to write books: yet we ^nd 
bina^tbe^author and editor of the following works : i« ^^>The 
Life of the most reverend, learned, and pio«s Dn Henry 

.Hammond, who died April 25, 1660,** 1660, reprinted 

, afterwards with additions at the bead of Hammond's works. 

.2. ^' AlcinoiinPlatonicamPhilosofibiam Introduction 1667»*' 


3; *< Ib IhihIms Musices Carmen Supphioum.'* Deffigned 
probably for some of the public exercises in the university, 
as it was set to music. 4. *^ Historia et Antiqoitates Uni* 
versitatis Oxoniensis," &c. 1674, 2 vols. foK This history 
and antiquities of tlie university of Oxford was written in 
English by Antony Wood, and translated into Latin, at 
Uie charge of Fell, by Mn Christopher Wase and Mr. 
Richard Peers, except what he did himself. He was also 
at the expence of printing it, with a good character, on a 
good paper ; but " taking to himself,'' says Wood, ** the 
liberty of putting in and out several things according to his 
own judgment, and those that he employed being n\)t 
careful enough to carry the whole design in their head, it 
is desired that the audbor may not be accountable for any 
thing which was inserted by him, or be censured for any 
useless repetitions or omissions of his agents under him." 
At the end of it, there is a Latin advertisenietit to the 
reader, containing an answer to a letter of Hofobes; in 
which that author bad complained of FeiPs having caused 
aev^al things to be omitted or altered^ which Wood bad 
written in^that book in his praise. More of this, however^ 
wiil occur to be noticed in our life of Wood. 5. " The 
Vanity oF Scoffing : in a letter to a gentleman^'^ 1674, 4to. 
6i ^^ SdL Clement's two epistles u> the Corinthians in Greek 
and Latin, with notes at the end," 1677. 7. *^ Account of 
Dr. Riefaard AUestree's life:" being the preface to tlie 
doctor^s sermons, published by our author. 8. ^^ Of <the 
Unity of the Church:" translated from the original of St. 
Cyprian^ 1681. 9. '^ A beautiful edition of St. Cyprian's 
Works, revised and illustrated with notes," 1682. 10. << Se« 
veral Sermons," on publio occasions*- 11. The following 
pieces written by the author of the ** Whole Duty of Man>" 
with prefaces, contents, and- miu'ginal abbreviations, by 
him, viz. ''The Lady's Calling ; the Government of the 
Tongue ; the Art of Contentment ; the Lively Ol'acles," 
&c. He also wrote the genfiral pr^ace before tlie folio 
edition of that unknown author's works. 12. '^ Artis Lo- 
gicfB Compendium." 13. <^ The Paraphrase of St: Paul's 
Epistles." There is another piec^ which was ascribed to 
him, with this tide; ^^The Interest of England stated : or, 
a faithful and just account of the aims of all parties noW^ 
prevailing; distinctly treating of the designments of the 
Roman Catholic, Royalist, Presbyterian, Anabaptist," &c. 
1659y 4to^ but it not being certainly knovrn whedier he 

N 3 

iS0 FELL. 

was the luthor or not^ we do not place it among his works. 
One thing in the mean time Wood mentions, relating to 
his literary character, which must not be omitted: that 
^* from 1661, to the time of his death, viz. while he was 
diean of Christ-church, he published or reprinted every 
year a book, commonly a classical author, against new- 
year^s tide, to distribute among the students oF his house ; 
to which books he either put an epistle, or running notes, 
or corrections. These," says Wood, ^* I have endeavoured 
to recover, that the titles mio^ht be known and set down, 
but in vain." But one of Dr. Fell's publications, unac- 
countably omitted in former editions of this work, still re- 
mains to be noticed ; his edition of the Greek Testament, 
of which Michaelis has given a particular account. Dr. Feli 
was the next after Walton, who published a critical edition 
of the New Testament, which, although eclipsed since by 
that of Mill, has at least the merit of giving birth to Mill's 
' edition. It was published in small octavo, at the Sheldon 
tlieatre, 1675. It appears from the preface, that the great 
number of various readings which are printed in the sixtb^ 
volume of the London Polyglot, apart from the text, had 
given alarm to many persons, who were ignorant of criti- 
cism, and had induced them to suspect, that the New Tes- 
tament was attended with so much uncertainty, as to be a 
very imperfect standard of faith. In order to convince 
such persons of their error, and to shew how little the sense 
of the New Testament was altered by them, Fell printed 
them under the text, that the reader might the more easily 
compare them. This edition was twice reprinted at i ^eipsic, 
in 1697 and 1702, and at Oxford in a splendid folio, by 
John Gregory, in 1703, but without any additions, whicli 
might have easily been procured from the bishop's papers ; 
nor are even those which Fell had been obliged to print in 
an appendix, transferred to their proper places, an instance 
of very gross neglect. — We learn also from Fabricius in his 
Bibl. Greeca that the excellent edition of Aratus, Oxford, 
1672, 8vo, was published by Dr. Fell.* 

FELL (John), a dissenting minister of considerable 
learning, was born; Aug. 22, 1735, at Cockermouth in 
Cumberland, of poor parents, and was at first brought up 
to the business of a taylor. He was pursuing this employ-^ 
ment in London, when some discerning friends perceived 

1 Biog. Brit.— Wood^s AtbeaSi toL II»— ^and CoU«g«s and Halb^ 

FELL. Ill 

in faim a taste for literature, and an avidity of kiiowl^ge, 
which they thought worthy of encouragement^ and finding- 
that his principal wish was directed to the meians of proctir* 
ing such education as might qualify him for the ministry 
among the dissenters, they stepped forward to his assist- 
ance, and placed him at the dissentinrg academy at Mile* ' 
end, then superintended by Dr. Conder, Dr. Gibbons, and » 
Dr. Walker. Mr. Fell was at this time in the nineteenth 
year of his age ; but, by abridging the hours usually allot-- 
ted to rest and amusement, and proportionably extending 
those of application to his studies, and by the assidnous 
exercise of a quick, vigorous, and comprehensive mind, he 
made rapid advances in learning, gave his tutors and pa- 
trons the utmost satisfaction ; and in due time, was ap- 
pointed to preach to a congregation at Beccles, near Yar- 
mouth. He was afterwards invited to take upon himself 
the pastoral office in a congregation of Protestant dissent- 
ers, at Thaxted, in Essex, where he was greatly beloved 
by his congregation, and his amiable deportment^ and dili-<! 
gence in all the duties of his station, attracted the regard 
even of his neighbours of the established church. At 
Thaxted, Mr. Fell boarded and educated a few young gen- 
tlemen, and it was also daring his residence there, that he 
distinguished himself by the rapid production of some well- 
written publications, which conduced to establish his cha- 
racter as a scholar. After he had thus happily resided se- 
veral years at Thaxted, he was unfortunately prevailed 
upon to be the resident tutor at the academy, formerly at 
Mile-end, when he wis educated there, but now removed 
to Homerton, near London. The trustees and supporters 
of this academy appear to have been at first vei'y happy 
that they had procured a tutor peculiarly calculated for 
the situation ; but he had not been there long before dif- 
ferences arose between him and the students, of What na- 
ture his biographers have not informed us; but they re- 
present that he was dismissed from his situation without a 
fair trial ; and complain that this severity was exerted in 
the case of ** a character of no common excellence ; a 
genius of no ordinary size ; a Christian minister, well fur- 
nished with gifts and graces for that office ; a tutor, who 
for biblical knowledge, general history, and classic taste, 
had no superior, perhaps no equal, among any class of 
dissenters." This affair happened in 1796, and Mr. FelPs 
friends lost no time in tet^tifying their unaltered regard for 

182 F E L L. 

hi$ character. An annuity of lOD/. was almost immediately 
procured for him, and he was invited to deliver a course 
of lectures on the evidences of Christianity, for which he 
was to be remunerated by a very liberal subscription. But 
these testimonies of affection came too late for his enjoy- 
ment of them. Four of his lectures had been delivered to 
crowded congregations at the Scotch church at London- 
wall, when sickness interrupted him, and on Wednesday 
Sept. 6, 1797, death put a period to his labours. The four 
lectures he delivered were published in 1798, with eight 
by Dr. Henry Hunter, who concluded the course, but who 
does not appear well qualified to fill up Mr. FelPs outline. 
Mr. FelPs previous publications, which show that the cha- 
racter given of him by his friends is not overcharged, were 
1. " Genuine Protestantism, or the unalienable Rights of 
Conscience defended : in opposition to the late and new 
mode t)f Subscription proposed by some dissenting minis- 
ters, in three Letters to Mr. Pickard," 1773, 8vo. 2. " A 
Fourth Letter to Mr. Pickard on genuine Protestantism; 
being a full Reply to the rev. Mr. Toulmin*s Defence of 
the Dissienters* new mode of Subscription,*' 1774, 8vo. 
3. *^ The justice and utility of Penal Laws for the Direc- 
tion of Conscience examined ; in reference to the Dis- 
senters* late application to parliament. Addressed to a 
member of the house of commons,** 1774, Svo. 4. " Dae- 
moniacs. An enquiry into the Heathen and the Scripture 
doctrine of Daemons, in which the hypothesis of the rev, 
Mr. Farmer and others on th6 subject are particularly con- 
sidered,*' 1779, SVO. (See Farmer). 5. ^* Remarks on 
the Appendix of the Editor of Rowley's Poems, printed at 
the end of Observations on the Poem attributed to Rowley 
by Rayner Hickford, esq." Svo, no date (1783). 6. •* An 
Essay towards an English Grammar, with a dissertation on 
the nature and peculiar use of certain hypothetical vei*bs 
itt the English language,** 1784, 12mo. 7. " The Idola- 
try of Greece and Rome distinguished from that of other 
Heathen Nations, in a Letter to the rev. Hugh Farmer," 
1785, Svo. Mr. Fell ranks among the orthodox, or caha- 
nistic dissenters ; but how far, or whether this had any 
share in the animosity exerted against him, we are unable 
to discover, from the obscure manner in which his biogra* 
phers advert, to the disputes in the Homerton academy, ^^ 

1 Protestant Dissenters' Magazine,, vols. IV. V. and VL 


FELLER (JoACHiM)y a licentiate in theology, and pro« ' 
fessor of poetry at Leipsic, was born at Zwickau in 1638, 
and distinguished from his infancy for unqommon talents. 
In his thirteenth year he wrote a poem on " The Passipn,'* 
which was much applauded. He was educated under the 
celebrated Daumius, who prided himself on the great pro* 
ficiency of his pupil, and when Feller went to Leipsic^ re* 
commend^ him to the principal literati of that city, who 
found him deserving of every encouragement. Thomasius, 
one of them, engaged him as tutor to his children, and 
enhanced the favour by giving him free access to his curi-' 
ous and valuable library. In 1660 Feller took his masters ' 
degree, and with such display of talents, that he was soon '• 
^fter made professor of poetry, and in 1676 was appointed 
librarian to the university. On this last preferment, he 
employed much of his time in arranging the library, pulh- 
lished a catalogue of the MSS. in 1686, i2mo, and pro- 
cured that the library should be open one day in every 
w^eek for the use of the public. . His Latin poetry, which 
b^ wrote with great facility, recommended him to the no* 
tice and esteem of the emperor, df the electors of Saxony 
jind Brandenburgb, the duke of Florence, and other primses. 
He also wrote many papers in the ^* Acta Lipsiensia,'* 
and the freedom of some of his criticisms in one or two inr 
stances involved him in a controversy with James Grono- 
vius, Eggelingen, Patin, and others. He was unfortunately 
killed by a fall from a window, which be had approached 
in bis sleep, being as this would imply^ a somnambulist. 
This happened April 4, 16^1. Besides the works already ' 
mentioned, he published, 1. ^^ Cygni quasimodo geniti^ ' 
sanctae vitae virorum celebrium Cygnee (Zwickau) na- 
tor^im." 2. ** Supplementum ad Rappoiti commenta- • 
rium in Horatium."' 3. '* Floras pkilosophici ex Virgilio 
QoUeciy^ Leipsic, 1681, 8vo. .4. >^ Notes in Lotichicii 
eclogam de.origine domiis Saxonicoe et Palatinee/' ' 

FELLER (Joachim Frjsderio),^ the son of the preced- 
ing,, was born at Leipsic, Dec. 26, 1673, and imbibed asimi* 
lar tast^ with his father for the belles lettres, bibliogra- 
,phy, and general literature. In 1.688 he. received his degree 
of doctor in philosophy, and two years after set out on what 
may be caHed his literary travels. He remained some 
time with Kirchm^iei; vat Wittemberg, and with |3ayer at : 

1 MorerL^*i»S9xii Oaomastioon. 


Friboiurgy whose library he carefully inspected. Goitig 
thence to Zwickau, the senate of that city appointed him 
to make a catalogue of the library of Daumius, which had 
come into their possession by the death of that scholar. 
Feller was very agreeably employed on this task, when the 
news of the death of his father obliged him to pay a visit 
to Leipsic, but as soon as he had settled his family attairs, 
he returned to Zwickau, and completed the catalogue. He 
then went again to Leip&ic^ and studied law, but in 1696 
set out a second time on his travels, and at Wolfenbuttel, 
became acquainted with Leibnitz, who conceiving a friend^ 
ship for him^ detained him here for three years, and as- 
sisted him in all his literary undertakings, especially his 
history of the house of Brunswick, for which Feller was 
enabled to collect a number of very curious documents of . 
the middle ages. At Francfort, we find him assisting Ludolf 
in his historical works, but Ludolf is thought to have 
availed himself too little of this assistance. After extend-* 
ing his acquaintance among learned men in various parts, 
in 1706 the duke of Weimar appointed him his secretary, 
and he appears to have died in his service Feb. 15, 1726^- 
His principal works were, 1. '' Monumenta varia inedita, 
variisque Unguis conscripta, nunc singulis trimestribus pror 
deuntia i e museo Joach. F. Felleri secretarii Wimariensis,'' 
Jena, 1714, 1715, 4to. This literary journal^ for such it 
is, is divided into twelve parts. 2. A Genealogical history 
of the house of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, in German, 
L.eipsic, 1717, 8vq. 3. ** Otium Hanoveranum, sive Mis-» 
cellaiiea ex ore et scbedis G. G. Leibnitii quondam notata 
et descripta/' ibid. 1718, Svo. He also enlarged and cor* 
rected, in 1713, an edition of 3irken^s History of the 
Saxon heroes. ' 


FELLER {Francis Xavier de), an ex-jesuit, was bom 
at Brussels Aug. 18, 1735, and became professor of rheto*- 
ric at Liege, Luxemburgh, and Turnau in Hungary, after 
which he travelled in haly, Poland, Austria, and Bohemia. 
After the suppression of the society of the Jesuits in 1773, 
he took the name of Fi«exi£RD£ Reval, which he exchanged 
afterwards for that of Feller, under which he published 
at Luxemburgh, from 1774 to 1794, a political and lite- 
rary journal, entitled ^^ Clef des cabinets,^' in which he is 
S9id to display considerable knowledge, not unmixed with 


bigotry. The profits of this work not being adequate tdf 
bis wants, he endeavoured to derive emolument from the 
less reputable employment of literary piracy. In this way 
he republished Vosgien's Geographical Dictionary ; and the 
^* Dictionnare Historiqae/' of which last he published three 
editions, with his name, the third a little before his death, 
in 8 vols. When be wished to steal the contents of a 
book, and make them pass for bis own, he generally began 
by an attack upon it in his journal, as a work good for no- 
tbing. He usually resided at Liege, but when the French 
revolution broke out, he went to Maestricht, and after-« 
wards to other places of safety ; in 1797 he went to Ratis^ 
bon, where he died May 23, 1802. Whatever troth there 
may be in this character of Feller as a compiler, his ori* 
ginal works are creditable to his talents. Among these 
are : 1. '^ Jugement d'un ecrivain protestant touohant le livre 
de Justinus Fabronius,'' Leipsic, 1771, 8vo. 2. " Lettro 
sur le diner du comte de Boulainvilliers.'' 3. '^ Examen 
critique de THistoire Naturdle de M. de Buffon,'* 1773. 
This is chiefly an attack on BufFon's theory of the earth. 
4. A translation of Soame Jenyns's " Internal evidence of 
the Cbristiait religion, with notes and observations, which 
he published in 1779, under his assumed name of Flexier^ 
de Reval. 5. << Observations philbsophiques sur le sys- 
teme de Newton, le mouvement de la terre, et la plurality 
des mondes,*' 1771 and 1788, in which he attempts' to 
prove that the motion of the earth has not been demon- 
strated, and that a plurality of worlds is impossible La 
Lande answered this work. 6. ^^ Examen impartial des 
epoques de la nature de M. de Buffon," Luxemburgh, 
1780, 12mo, and reprinted a fourth time at Maestricht in 
1792. 7. " Catechisme philosophique,'* a collection of 
remarks in favour of the Christian religion,'* Paris, 1777, 
^vo. 8. ** Discours sur divers sujets de religion, et de 
morale,*' 1778, l2mo. 9. "Observations sur les rapports 
pliysiques de I'huile avec les flots de la mer," 1778, 8vo. 
He left also a great many MSS. and upon the whole ap^ 
pears to have been a man of extensive knowledge, and; as' 
his biographer allows, of prodigious memory, but had the 
misfortune to make many enemies by the severity of his 
/criticisms, and the warmth of his temper. ^ 

FELTON (Henry), a learned divine, was born Feb. 3, 
1679, in the parish of St. Martin's-in-tbe«fields, Westmin- 

1 Diet. Hist. 

W6 E E L T O N. 

ster, aod was educated first at Cbene}*s in Buckingbaiii*^ 
sbire, then at Westminster school under Dr. Busby, an<t 
lastly at the Charter-house under Dr. Walker, .to whom be 
was a private pupil. At a proper age he was admitted of 
Edmund hall, Oxford, of which Dr. Mill, the celebrated 
qritic, was at that time principal, and his tutor was Mr* 
Thomas Mills, afterwards bishop of Waterford in Ireland* 
In June 1702, he took bis master's degree, and in Decem- 
ber following was ordained deacon, in the royal chapel al 
Whitehall, by Dr. Lloyd, bishop of Worcester. In Jane 
1704 he was admitted to priest's orders by Dr. Compton^ 
bishop of London. In 1705-6, be first appeared as an 
author, in a. piece entitled ^' Remarks on the Colebrook 
Letter,'' a subject the nature of which we have not been 
able to discaver. In 1703 he had the care of the English 
church at Amsterdam, but did not long continue in that 
situation, returning to England in 1709* Soon after hid 
return he was appointed domestic chaplain to the duke of 
Buttand, at Bdvoir castle, and sus^ined that relation^ |o 
three successive dukes, for which noble house he alwajts 
preserved the warmest: gratitude and affection. In tbo 
same year (July H, 1709) Mr. Felton was admitted to the 
degree of B< D. bedng tl^n a member of Queen's college* 
Having been employed as tutor to John lord Roos, after* 
warda third duke of Rutland, he wrote for that young nof- 
bledian's use, bis ^^ Dissertation on reading the Chissies^ 
and forming a just style," 1711, 12mo. A fourth editkm 
of this waa published in 1730, but the best is that of 1757. 
It was the most popular, and best known of all Dr. Fekon's 
works, although in the present improved state of criticisoi» 
it may appear with less advamage. 

In 1711, Mr. Felton wa^ presented by .the second duke 
of Rutland to the rectory of Whitewell in Derbyshire; 
and July 4, 1712, he proceded to the degree of doctor, in 
divinity. On the death of Dr; Pearson, in 1722, > be was 
admitted, by the ppovost and fellows of Queen's college, 
principal of Edmund halL In 1 725,. he prkued a sermon 
which he had preached before the university, and which 
went through three editions, and excited no common at<^ 
tention, entitled ^^ The Resurrection of the same nuoieri^ 
cal body, and its re^uirion to the same soul;. against Mr. 
I^ocke's notion of personality and identity." Hia next 
publication, in 1727, was a tract, written with much inge-A 
huity, entitled << The Common People taugfit to defend 

F E L T O N. 18T 

their Commiinion with the Church of England, Against the 
attempfts and insinuationa of Popish emissaries. In a dia- 
logue between a Popish priest, and a plain countryman.** 
In 1728 and 1729, Dr. Felton was empbyed in preaching 
eight sermons, at lady Meyer's lecture, at St. PauPs, 
which were published in 17 S2, under the title of ^ The 
Christian Faith asserted against Deists, Arians, and Soci- 
iiians.'* The sermons, when printed, were greatly aug- 
mented, and a large preface was given concerning the light 
and the law of nature, and the expediency and necessity 
of revelation. This elaborate work was dedicated to Dr. 
Gibson, bishop of London. In the title he is by some 
mi$take called late principal of Edmund hall, a situation 
which he never resigned. In 1736 the duke of Rutland, 
being chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, gave him the 
rectory of Berwick in Elmet, Yorkshire, which he did not 
long live to enjoy. In 1739 he was seised with a rheuma** 
tic disorder; from which, however, be was so far reco-^ 
vered, after a confinement of nearly three months, that he 
thought hin!kself able to officiate, in his church at Berwick, 
on Christmas-day, where he preached his last sermon, and 
with his usual fervour and affection. But having caught 
cold, which was followed by a defluxion, attended with a 
violent fever, he died March 1, 1739*40. During the 
whole of. his disorder, he behaved with a tesignation and 
piety becoming a Christian. He was interred in the chan-^ 
eel of the church of Berwick. He left behind him, in- 
tended for the press, a set of sermon^ on the creation, fall, 
and redemption of man; the sacrifices of Cain and Abel, 
and the rejection, and punishmeut of Cain, which were 
published by his son, the rev. WilHam Felton, in 1748, 
with a preface containing a sketch of his father's life and 
character. This work was the result of great attention. 
The sermons were first composed about 1730, and preached 
in the parbh church of Wbitwett m that and the following 
year; In 1733 he enlarged them, and delivered them again 
in the same church ; and in 1736 when reniioved to Ber* 
wick, he transcribed and preached them at that place. 
But though he had applied much labouir' to the subject of 
the resurre<^ion, he did not think^^ that his discourses on 
that bead, or any other of his university sermons^ were fit 
for ire-publication. ' - 

1 l^'iog, Brit vol. VI,, Part I, uopublished—^ife. hf bis aoD preaxe4 ^ hi» 
Posthumous SemKNifl. 

Its F E L T O N. 

- FELTON (Nicholas), an English prelate, was bom at 
Yarmouth in Norfolk, and admitted of Pembroke- ball, 
Csimbridge^ of which college he was chosen fellow Nov. 27, 
15H3. Archbishop Whitgift collated him to the rectory oJF 
St. Mary le Bow, Jan. 17, 1595-6, being then B. D. and 
he was some time also rector of St» Antbolin^s, London. 
He was elected master of Pembroke- hall, June 29, 1616 ; 
admitted rector of Easton- Magna in Essex, Oct. 23, the 
^ame year ; and collated to a prebend in St. Paul's, being 
then D. D. March 4 following. In 1617, he was promoted 
to the see of Bristol, to which he was consecrated, Dec. 14. 
The next year he resigned his mastership, and was nomi* 
nated to the bishopric of Coventry and Lichfield, but was 
ttaoslated to Ely, March 11, 1618-19. He died Oct. 5, 
1*26, in the sixty-third year of his age, and was buried 
under the commftinion-table in St. Antholin^s church, Lon- 
don ; but without any memorial or inscription. He was a 
very pious, learned, atid judicious man, and deserves some 
notice in this work, as one of those who was employed by 
khng James I. in the new translation of the Bible. There 
i^ an excellent picture of him in the gallery of the palace 
at Ely, which was presented for that purpose to the late 
btskop'Gooch, by Mr. Cole of Milton. ' 

FENELON (Francis de Salignac wl la Motte), 
arebbishop of Cambray, and author of Telemacbud, was of 
an ancient and illustrious family, and botn at the castle of 
Fenelon, in the province of Perigord, August 6, 1651* At 
tM^elve years of age, he was sent to the university of Ca- 
hors ; ami afterwards went to finish his studies at Paris, 
under the care of his oncle Anthony marquis of Fenelon, 
li^ut^nant general of the king's armies. He tfoon made 
himself known at Paris, and at nineteen preached there 
with general applause : but the mai'quis, who was a very 
viise and ^ood man, fearing that the good disposition of ' 
bis nephew might be Corrupted by this early applause, per- 
suaded him to be silent for some years. At twenty-lbur 
he entered into holy orders, and commenced the functions 
of his ministry in the parish of St. Sulpice, under the abbiS 
Tron9on, the superior of that district, to whose care he had 
been committed by his uncle. Three years after, be was 
chosen by the archbishop of Paris, to be superior to the 
newly-converted women in that city. Ih 1686, which was 

* Bfntham's Hist of Ely.— 'Fuller's Worthies ia art Roger Fenton^ P. D. 

F E N E L O N. 180 


the year after the edict of Nantes was revoked, the king 
named him to be at the head of those missionaries, who 
were sent along the coast of Saintonge, and the Pais de 
Aunisy to convert the protestants. These conversions had 
been hitherto carried on by the terrors of the sword, but 
Fenelon declared against this mode, but said, that if 
allowed to proceed by more rational and gentle means, he 
would cheerfully become a missionary ; and after some 
hesitation, his request was granted, but his success was 
not remarkable. 

Having finished his mission, he returned to Paris, and 
was presented to the king : but lived two years afterwards 
without going to court, being again entirely occupied in 
the instruction of the new female converts. That he might 
forward this good work by writings as well as lectures, he 
published, in 1688, a little treatise, entitled ^^ Education 
de Filles ;*' which the author of the Bibliotheque Univej^- 
selle, calls the best and most useful book written upon the 
subject, in the French language. Jn 1688, he published a 
tvork *' Concerning the functions of the Pastors of the 
Church 'y^ written chiefly against the protestants, with a 
view of shewing, that the first promoters of the reforma- 
tion had no lawful call, and therefore were not true pas* 
tors. In 1689, be was made tutor to the dukes of Bur- 
gundy, Anjou, andBerri; and in 1693, was chosen mem-*- 
ber of the French academy, in the room of Pelisson de- 
ceased. In this situation, he was in favour with all. His 
pupils, pfirticularly the duke of Burgundy, improved ra- 
pidly under his care. The divines admired the sublimity 
of his talents ; the courtiers the brilliancy of his wit. The 
duke, to the end of his life, felt the warmest regard for his 
illustrious preceptor. At the same time, Fenelon pre- 
served the disinterestedness of an hermit, and never re- 
ceived or asked any thing either for himself or friends. At 
last the king gave him the abbey of St. Valery, and, soitie 
months after, the ardibisbopric of Cambray, to which be 
was consecrated by Bossuet bishop of Meaux, in 1695. 

But a storm now arose against him, which obliged him 
to leave the court for ever ; and was occasioned by his 
book, entitled ^' An Explication of the Maxims of the 
Saints concerning the interior life." This book was pub- 
lished in 1697, and was occasioned by the writings of 
madam Guyon, who pretended to a very high and exalted 
devQtioo* Sbe e^plai^ied this devotion in some books which 

1$0 F E N E L O N. 

sbe poUisbedy and wrole |>articQ)arly a mystical eirpositi&n 
of Solomon's Song. Fenelon, whose gentle disposition is 
said to have been strongly actuated by the love of God, 
became a friend of madam Guyon, *in whom be fancied he 
saw only a pure soul animated with feelings similar to his 
own. I'his occasioned several conferences between the 
bishop of Meaux, the bishop of Chalons, afterwards cardi* 
nal de Noailles, and Mr. Tronfon, superior-general to the 
congregation of St. Solpicius. Into these conferences, in 
which madam Guyon's books were examined, Fenelon was 
admitted ; but in the mean time began to write very se- 
;Cretiy upon- the subject under examination, and bis writ- 
ings tended to maintain or excuse madam Guyon's books 
without naming her. This examination tasted seven or 
eight months, during which he wrote several letters to the 
examiners, which abounded with so many testimonies of 
submission, that they said they could not think God wodld 
deliver him over to a spirit of error. While the confer- 
jences lasted, the secret was inviolably kept with regard to 
J'enelon ; the two bishops being as tender of his reputation, 
as they were zealous to reclaim him. He was soon after 
named archbishop of Cambray, and yet continued with 
the same humility to press the two prelates to give a final 
sentence. They drew up thirty-four articles at Issi, and 
{M'eaented them to the new archbishops who offered to sign 
ibem immediately ; but they thought it more proper to 
.leave them with him for a time, that he might examine 
(hem leisurely. He did so, and added to every one of the 
articles such limitations as enervated them entirely : how- 
ever, he yielded at last, and signed the articles March 
.10, 1695. Bossuet wrote soon after an instruction de- 
signed to. explain the articles of Issi, and desired Fenelon 
to approve it; but he refused, and let Bossuet know by a 
friend, that he could not approve a book which condemned 
madam Guyon, because he himself did not condemn her. 
It was in order to explain the system of the mystics that 
he wrote his book already mentioned. There was a sud- 
den and general outcry against it, and the clamours coming 
to the king's ear, his majesty expostulated with the pre- 
lates for having kept secret from him what they alone 
knew. The controversy was for som^ time carried on 
between the archbishop of Cambray and the bishop of 
Meaux. But as the latter insisted upon a positive recanta- 
tion^ Fenelon applied to the king, and represented to hii 

F E N E L O N. rifi 

majesty^ that there were bo other means to remove the 
offence .which this controversy occasioned, than by ap- 
pealing to the pope. Innocent XII. and therefore he 
begged leave to go himself to Rome. But the king sent 
him word, that it was sufficient to carry his cause thither, 
without going himself, and sent him to his diocese in Au- 
gust, 1697. When the question was brought before tbe 
consultators of the inquisition to be examined, they were 
divided in their opinions : but at la&t the pope condemned 
the book, with twenty-three propositions extracted from 
it, by a brief dated March 12,.16^9« Yet, notwithstand- 
ing this, censure. Innocent seems-to have disapproved tbe 
violent proceedings against the author. He wrote thus to 
the prelates who distinguished themselves as. adv^ensaurieN «o 
. Fenelon : ^* Peccavit excessu amoris divini, sed.vos peo- 
castis defectu amoris proximi." Some of Feaeloa's fciends 
have pretended, that there was .ia this affair more^coiirt- 
policy than zeal for religion. They have observed^ that 
this storm was raised against him at fi time when the king 
thought of choosing; an almoner for the duchess of Bur- 
gundy; and that there, was no way of preventing him, who 
had been' tutor tQ the, duke her husband, and who had 
:acquitted himse^{'*per£eet^y well in . the functtooa of that 
post, froo) bei^gt made. lijQr almoner, but. by raisiDg suss- 
picions of herf^iy against him. They think themselves 
sufficiently ju^ti^ed in this ppiniois, by Bossuet's bang 
mctde almoner after Fenelou was disgraced and removed. 
.Be this as it tj^i^L, he submitted patiently to the pope's 
determination^ and read his sentence, with his own:recan«> 
latioLi, publicly in bis diocese of <:Uimbray, where he led a 
most exemplary life^ acquitting, himself punctually in all 
the duties of his station. Yet be was not so much taken 
,up with them, nor so deeply engaged in his contemplative 
devotion, but he found time to enter into the control 
versy with the Jansejiists. He laboured not only to con- 
fute them by his. writings, but al$o to oppress them, by 
procuring a bull from Rome against a: book which: the cair- 
dinaL de Noailles, their chief support, had approved : 
namely, father Quesners ^^ Reflectiona upon die New Tes- 
tament.^' Thejfe^uits, who were resolved to humble that 
prelate, bad fqrm^d a,, great party i^iost him^ and pre«> 
vailed with the archbishop of Cambray to assist them in 
the affair. He accordingly engaged himself : wrote many 
pieces agains^t the , J^nsei^i$ts^ the chief of which is, the 

IM F E N E L O N: 

** Four Pastoral Letters," printed in 1704, at Vatencienn^S; 
and spared no pains to get the cardinal disgraced, and the 
book condemned, both which were at length effected. 

But the work that has gained him the greatest repu- 
tation, and will render his name immortal, is bis ** Tele- 
machus," written, according to some, at court ; accord- 
ing to others, in his retreat at Cambray. A servant whom 
Fenelon employed to transcribe it, took a copy for himself, 
and had proceeded in having it printed, to about 200 pages, 
vhen the king, Louis XIV. who was prejudiced against 
the author, ordered the work to be stopped, nor was^it 
allowed to be printed in France while be lived. It was 
published, however, by Moetjons, a bookseller, in 1699, 
though prohibited at Paris; but the first correct edition 
appeared at the Hague in 1701. This elegant work com- 
pletely rained the credit of Fenelon at the court of France: 
The king considered it as a satire against his government; 
the malignant found in it allusions which the author pro- * 
bably had never intended. Calypso, they said, was ma^- 
daoi de Montespan ; Eucharis, mademoiselle de Font- 
anges ; Antiope, the duchess of Burgundy ; Protesilaus, 
Louvois; Idomeneus, king James II. ; Sesostris, Louis XIV. 
The world, however, admired the flowing elegance of th^ 
style, the sublimity of the moral, and the happy adoption 
and embellishments of ancient sjtories ; and critics were 
long divided, whether it might not be allowed the title of 
an epic poem, though written in prose. It is certain that 
few works have ever had a greater reputation. Editions ' 
have been multiplied in every country of Europe ; but the 
most esteemed for correctness is that published from hh 
papers by his family in 1717, 2 vols. 12mo. Splendid 
editions have been published in various places, and trans- 
lations in all modern languages of Europe, modern Greek 
not excepted. 

Fenelon passed the last years of his life in his Aioces^, 
in a manner worthy of a good archbishop, a man of letters, 
and a- Christian philosopher. The amiableness of his man- 
ners and character obtained for him a respect, which was 
paid even by the enemies of his country ; for in the last 
war with Louis XIV. the duke of Marlborough expressly 
ordered the lands of Fenelon to be spared. He died in ' 
January 1715, at the age of sixty- three. 

He was a man of great learning, great genius, fine taster, 
and exemplary manners : ye^ many hav^ suspected that fa^ 


^a& not entirely sincere in his recantation o£ bia ** Ma^iais. 
o^ tbe Saints;'' a work composed by Jiim witb^greatcare^' 
and consisting, in great part, of extracts frcxn the fathers*. 
Yet, if, we consider the .profound veneration of a pipuss 
catholic bishop for tbe decisions of the chnrcb, tbe iB,pdesty. 
and candour of his character, and even his precepts, to ,tW 
xnysticsi we shall be inclined to acquit him of the charge. 
He had said to these persons in that very bgokif. ^^ipat, 
those who. . had err^d in fundamental doctrines,, shouidnoti 
be. contented to condemn their (error, but shoule^ confess 
it, and give glory to God ; that they should have no sba^Koa 
at having erred,, which is the common lot of humanity, 
but should humbly acknowledge their .errors,, which ^.QU^ 
be no longer suqh when they had been hu«^Jy confess^^.'.* 
He has also been ac cuffed of ambition ifor^bis .conduet in» 
the controversy with tjhe Jan^enists^ but the* charge i*est^ 
only on presumptive evidence > and is. equally ref ^tefl. biy; 
his general character, lo bis theology, he seems tagiy^ 
greater scope to feeling, , than to reason; but if he iuc^in^^ 
to mysticism, and th^s. seemed to deyiat^ fipm thc^.esta;^ 
blished system pf his church, he does not appear to j^avei 
ma^e.the ,le^.t« approach to protestantism. < Qn (he .coiw 
trarj, no one ha^ more^. forcibly inculcated the danger of 
putting, "^l^e^scriptures ^nto the hs^nds oif the people (afun*f 
damental jtepet of popery), thap f^enelon has. dp^e in his 
'^Letter tOfithe archbisl^p .of Arras." i Submission to the 
decisions of the holy see is. likewise' exemph^ed in hip 
wbol^ .cpodjuctas well, as i^ bis waitings. - Indeed, F^ne:^ 
Ion 3^^A:,t9i,hj5tve been on^ of those, who, .either fron 
early prepossessions, or from false reasonings upon hu^i^i^ 
iiature?. or,fro/i^ an observation' of the powerful impres^ns 
mafle .byjt^J^tboirity on^t^^ and. a pomppuajri^i^ 

on t^ ^^nsf^ 9rf the multitude^ imagi{)^ that Christianity^ 
in its naJt^y|e/orm, is too pure aud elevated for vulgar squU^ 
and, tbiC^fore^ countenance, and. maintain 'the absurdities 
of popeji^y^jfrpip a notion of their utility. ^ . , ,. . ^ 

Fenfcipn. ipublif bed several works besides \^}s ** f ele- 
roachtf9^':;?ffd(^hie^ ,'^ Explanation gf the Ma^^ims of . the 

Saints/\>]^^^^y '^^^^^^'^^^y which first appfared in 1697« 
These were,- 1. ** Dialogues of the Dead,'// i« tjyo vpluf«j^i^ 
12mo, composed for the use of the duke of Burgundy, ana 
-intended in" 'general to cure bini of iSoma. iavAt, Or teafch 
himsome^vH'tiie. "^They were produced as the occasion^ 
arose, and not laboured. ^./^ Dialogue 00. j£l&%»UQO^eia 
Vol. XIV. O 

fH Ffi'NEL'bN. 

Ksb'ed in ins, ^fteV 'his death. Hb ih^re disciiss^ kbe 
qiicstioh, Whether it h better to preach ^y iwinory, 'br 
e?x!tebijk)riih^ttd^ly Wlt!h mbi'e dr l^s pteptttsiiidn. Hie 
Ales '6f etequetlde aVfe aiho deUverfefl in a neat and «^ 
nftihfier. S. ♦< Abrrd^metft of i!he ljiV<lis of the Mcietit 
Philoso^hets,-* 12ta6, Written Yor the ditke of 'Burgundy^ 
df 'Which an ekcfeUdnt trtitisWtibn, with ndtes, .^nras lately 
I^ttbltehed by tfhe I'ev. John €6rttradk, 1«C*, iS'voh. l«mo. 
4c '<* A Treatise on the EdttdAti'on of Uafaghtcfrs/* ISIiKo, 
ah excellfent vs^oA. 5. « Philo*6phical WdAs, or a demoD- 
stration of the ^Jiisiience of God, by proofs draiwn ffom 
l^tutfe,'* la^nw:); th6 best 'editidn is of TParb, 1726. 5. 
<^ Letfers 6n diffefcrit'snbgects off Religion «nd M^taj^by- 
iflts,** iVl^, V2mb. 6. « Spfrttoal Wiirks,*' ^iwAs. Ijzmo. 
7.^« Sertabhs/**pHiited in 1744, l2mo r the thttmcterdf these 
jTi^cbtitses 'is 'rather' ffathetic i;ifriting'fhan sttong reasoning; 
flie 'c^ceUent dtspdsition bf Fenelon appears tbroughoot; 
btft' ttifey are ufiequal^rid hegHgent. -He pi'eaehed ^teti^ 
pbi^iieonsly with facility, ami 'his ptimed sertnons ^e in 
the ^aihe style. 8. Scleral -^brks iii 'fiAVbur of 'the bttH 
««^Uhigi6hitus,'* agalHsfJ^rtStoiato. 9. <*.Dfrectidfi forthe 
(?ohs<jibnce bf a kil1§,'* dbinpbrfed fbr the diAe ^ Bur- 
^Tidy> a strtall ^ract, but ^ubh bsteetned, 'paMitiiied -fe 
17^8, and i^-pifbllshed in 1774. There is a ^jilettdtd 
tVeiidi 'edition idf his worfcsin 9 Tols. 4to, Taris, ITM— 
179i ; -and brie bf Ws ** CEilvries choices,'* 1^90, e Tbb. 
l^ino. In 1*SI07 appeared it'Parisa 'new Tbltrtttb '^rflA 
•»'S*rAibtis^chbij4ies,^*'l2rtb,Which'is said tb'do^ett^it'to 
bi^estattlfshed yepUtatioh. * 

^FENESTELLA JLvCitrs), aHbitian hlstt>riah, 'wlio'diea 
ih'the yetr'^by at the age bf severity, is^txtelitioned % 
PJi'ny,'©eUius,^and'ttiany other ancient aodrots. He^frrdte 
iWriais'iii many -boots, the twcrifcy>-secottd- hobk fteittg^eitett 
ty Nonitfe ; also-Arclrilibs, ^ind other Wdrki. '^A b^ok llh 
the magisti^tes of Home, fsttsely 'attribtited 'tb Ufh, b noW 
Ithbwn to%e the proidifctibn of ^Dt)tainic'Floedfcis;^a'«bren-^ 
^Itte, in the 'fiftte^nth cfefntdry,: It w*i pAHfsbei! •ihWft 
•1480, •4tto. *Feiiestella's '"'f nagtnenta^'* with liotes, 'WWre 
|>aMished with Wasse's ^llust, Gambrtdge, l4»l&:' 

Mttooki de 4uc de St. 6imoo; — 6«d. Diet, in SalinMie.— >£nce pai: La liarpe/ 

'1771. ^. ^. . ^ 

> »^?i«iMr 4«^ife^ &ilj^uf flbde^ BOii; Ut« 


t' E K M. .19(5 

FE!W (JoRN^i an emifiettt sckoha )»>d tramlatot, was 
bora at Moiitaccrte^ in Somersetsbire ; in 1ms yooth he waes 
fer seme time a «faomter, which gave him an opportunity 
of 1>eing HistrHCted in Latin as w€41 as music. Being 
aftervfairds isent to Winchester school for academical eda** 
nation, he \^as adaxitted of New collie, Oxford, and 
<AtDi?en fellow k) 1552, stntlying chie% the cirii lair. Ito 
-qneen Mary*s reign he was made chief master of a noted 
free-school at St. Edmundsbury, ih Sufiblk, where he ac^ 
quired -great reprutation as a teacber. This station be re« 
tained for some part of queen Elizabeth^s reign, but an 
information ha^ng been laid against him, as iinquairfi^ 
by the laws of the refor^fiation, he was obliged to quit it. 
Some time aifter be went to Flanders, and afterwards to 
Rome, where he was admitted into the English coUegey 
.studied tiieology for four jeari^, and took orders. Re- 
turning irfterwards to Flanders, he became confessor to 
.the Engltsfa nuns at Louvain, where he lived forty years, 
employinjg-Ms leisure hours in translating several boo^s fa-^ 
Tourable to tiie Roman catholic religion. He died art: an 
^advanced a^, Dec. 27, 1615, with an excellent character 
^rom 'those of his persuasion, for learning and piety. Hia 
puUicatiotils are, 51.*" Vitaequorundam martyrumin Anglia,'* 
?whiidh is inserted -in Bridgwater's " Concertatio Ecclesi« Ca- 
tAdlicse in AngKa." 2. Seversfcl of bisdiop Fisher -s EngH^ 
^works, traiwdated into 'Latin. 3. *' Catechismus Tridentinus,*' 
translated into English. 4. Osorius's treatise against Wig^I- 
ter Haddpn^ translated into English, Louvain, 156^, 8v6« 
•5. ^ The Life of St. <3atherine of Sienna," from the Italian, 
1.609, 8vo. 6. •" A Treatise on Tribulation," from the 
ftaliaii of (3accia 'Guerra. 7. " Mysteries of the Rosary,** 
'ironx^sparCoartes. IPuller says that he proceeded Ba« 
chelor of Laws at New college, till (in 1562) for bis popish 
^tivity, he was qected by the queen's commissioners* 
Wood^ who mentions this in his Annals, although not in 
^is ^ Athens," leaves it doubtful whether he did not re- 
sign it of his own accord.'^ ' 

FENN ('8lE John), knt an English antiquary, jwas bom 

^t Norwich, Nov. 26, 1739, and educated pardy at Scar- 

ning, in Norfolk, and partly at Bor^sdale^ in Sum:llk, after 

which be was admitted of Gonville and Caius college, 

''Cambridge, where he proceeded B. A. 1761, M. A. 1764, 

^ 2 

196 F E N N. 

.|^nd was ao honorary fellow till Jan. 1^ 1766, when he 
tnarried Ellenor, daughter of Sheppard Frere, esq. of 
•Roydooj in Suffolk, by whom he had no issue. He wai 
■ afterwards in the comtnission of the peace, and a deputy- 
lieutenant, and served the office of sheriff for the county of 
Norfolk in 1791, with that propriety and decorum thai 
distinguished all his actions ; and he left a history of the 
duties, of the office of sheriff, which might be serviceable 
to, his successors. Among other things, he revived the 
painful duty of attending in person the execution of cri- 
minals, as adding to the. solemnity and impressive awe of 
the scene; and he was the first to. admit Roman catholic^ 
on juries, under the new statute for that purpose enacted. 
. He died at East Dereham, Norfolk, Feb. 14, 1794. 

Sir John Fenn distinguished himself early by his appli*' 
cation to the study of our national history and antiquities, 
for which he had formed great collections, particularly 
that of Peter Le Neve, for the contiguous counties of Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, from the wreck of that of Thomas Mar* 
tin, to erect a monument to whose memory in the church 
where he. was buried, he left a large sum of money. Amon^ 
the rest was a large collection of original letters, writted 
during the reigns of Henry VI. Edward IV. Richard JII. 
and H^nry VII. by such of the Paston family and otheifs, 
who were personally present in court and qamp, and werep 
in those times, persons of great consequence in the county 
of Norfolk. These letters contain many curious and au- 
thentic state anecdotes, relating not only to Norfolk, but 
to the kingdom in general. Two volumes of them were 
published in 1787, 4to, and dedicated by permission to 
his majesty, who rewarded th^ merit of the editor with th^ 
honour of knighthood. Two more volumes appeared in 
1789, with notes and illustrations by sir John ; and a fifth 
was left nearly ready for the presis, which, however, if we 
mistake not, has not yet been published. Though be 
contributed nothing to the ^^ Archoeologia^' of the Society 
of Antiquaries, of which he was a fellow, he was a bene- 
factor to them, by draining up " Three Chronological 
Tables'* of their members, which were printed in a 4tp 
pamphlet, 1784, for the use of the society. His biogra- 
pher concludes his chai^cter with observing, that ''if the 
inquisitive antiquary, the clear, faithful, and accurate 
writer, be justly valued by literary characters ; the intel- 
ligent imd uj^right magistrate, by the iohabitantsi of the 

F E N N. HI 

coaiity in which he resided ; the informing and pleasing 
companion, the warm and steady friend, the honest and 
worthy n^an, the good and exemplary Christian, by those 
with whom be was connected ; the death of few individuals 
will' be more sensibly felt, more generally regretted, or 
iDore sincerely lamented/'^ 

FENNER (William), an eminent puritan divine, was 
born in 1660, and educated at Pembroke-hall-, Cambridge, 
where he took his degree of M. A. and in 1622 was ad- 
ipitted to the sanie at Oxford. He afterwards took his 
degree of B. D. and became a preacher at Sedgeley, in 
StaiFordshir^. Here he continued for four years, and then 
for some time appears to have officiated frooh- place to 
place, without any promotion, until the earl of Warwick, 
who was his great friend and patron, presented him to the 
rJectory of Rochford, in Essex, in 1629, which he held 
until his death, about 1640. Besides his popularity as a 
preacher, and as a casuist, which was very great, he de* 
rived no small posthumous reputation from the sermons 
su)d pious tracts which he wrote, none of which appear. to 
l^ave been published in his life-time. They were collected 
in 1658, in 1 vol. fol.* 

FENTON (Edward), an English navigator in the reigti 
of Elizabeth, was descended from an ancient family in 
Nottipghamshire, where he had some property. This he 
sold, as did also his brother Geoffrey, being, it is said^ 
nipre inclined to trust to their abilities, than the slender 
patrimony descended to them from their ancestors; and 
they were among the very few of those who take such 
dariog resolutions in their youth, without living to repent 
of them in their old age. The inclination of Edward lead- 
ing; him to the choice of a military Jife, he served some 
time with reputation in Ireland ;. but upon sir Martin' Froi- 
fiisher^s report of the probability of discovering a north<» 
.west passage into the South seas, be resolved to embark 
with him. in his second voyage, and was accordingly ap« 
pointed captain of the Gabriel, ^ bark of twenty-five tons^ 
ia which he accompanied sir Martin in the summer of 
1577^ to the straits that now bear his name, but in their 
return he was separated from him in a storm, and ar^ 
rived safely at JBristoi. In a third expedition, which proved 

1 Gent Mag. Vol. tXtV.— Several of his letters are in Malcolm's « Granf er*« 
le^n^ ftom ^ t$^1 14. * Ath, Ox. vol, l|»--»Brook's Uvei of tb« ?untai^^ 

Wa F E N T ON. 

Hntfuee^sfiil^ be coiniiianded the Judiib^ one of fifteen 
sail, and had tbe jbttle of rear-admiral. The miscarriage of 
thi» Toyaige bad not convinced Fenton of tbe impractica* 
bility of the project ; be solicited another trial, and it was^ 
after much application, granted him, though the parti-^ 
cular object of this voyage is not easily dbcorered ; bii 
IRftlructions from the privy-coungil, which are still pre- 
served, say, that he should endeavour the diiooveiy ef a 
nbrth-west passage, and yet he is told to go by the Cape 
of Good Hope to the East Indies, thence to the Soutbseas, 
und to attempt bis return by the supposed north-west pas* 
sage, and not by any means to think of passing tbe Straits: 
of Magellan, except in case of absolute necessity. The 
truth appears to be, he had interest enough to be allowed 
to try bis fbrtune in the South-seas. He sailed in tbe 
spring 1582, with four vessels, and was making to Africa; 
thence be intended to sail to Brazil, in his course to the 
straits of Magellan, but having learnt that there was already 
a strong Spanish fleet there, be put into a Portuguese 
settlentent, where be met with three of tbe Spanish squad- 
noD, gave tbem battle, and after a severe engagement, 
sunk their vice-admiral, and returned home in May 1583. 
Here be was well received, and appointed to tbe command 
of a ship sent out against the famous armada in \5W. In 
some accounts of this action he is said to have commanded 
the Antelope, in others, the Mary Rose ; but bis toleots 
and bravery in the action are universally acknowledged, 
and it is certata he had a very distinguished share lo those 
actions, tbe fime of which can never be forgotten. Little 
niore is recorded of him, than that be spent the remainder 
of bis days at or near Deptford, wbere he died in 1603. 
A flftonument was erected to his memory in tbe parish 
phurch of Deptford, at the expence of Richard earl of 
' Cork, who had married his niece. According to Fuller, 
te died within a few days of his mistress^ queen Elizabeth, 
and be remarks, ^< Observe how God set up a generation 
of militar}'' men both by sea and land, which began and 
expired with the re^n of queen Elizabeth, like a suit of 
clothes made for her, and worn out with her 9 for provi- 
dence designing a peaceable prince to succeed her, in 
whose time martial men would be rendered useless, so or* 
dered the matter, that they all, almost, attended their 
mistress, before or after, within some short distance, unto 
b'er grave.** This, however, was hot strictly true, for the 

IV E, N T: O: Nj^ 1^ 

(^bft^ ^dL of Nottii|ghan(^ sjr Chaflfif $te««»$». W 

«v Stobe^ MaDse^A a^di other gi;^^ oifipe^. by, 0««^ sma 
land, survived queen ElizfibeiW 

^£NTOK ($19$ G]^OF«a£Y),. ao eoiiqqnt wrii^ and 
fltotesa\aj» diuri^g tb^; r^igos qf ^Uzi^etb a^d. J^m^s L wait 
Iwqther V>. tb^ Rreqf dipg^,. b^ul; tj^ tftpie of bi^ bif tb dp^s. not; 
^pear*. He wa« oert^ii^jy cduf^^fl. bb(^r4ly» tbougb w? 
cahoot tiell wb^re; since^ ^biJn ^ yowg QW9> be g^K9 
m^)) J proofi^ of hi^ susqqa^i^ikance with, s^nc^^nt ao/d mpdenQ 
ifiiaf aiDg^ aod. qf his b^ing pei^fectly versed ifij th^ Fc^gQby 
Spanish, and Italiaa If^ngu4g9s» Uq i^ w^. l^nowni Ian a 
ti;j|nslation fiiotm. tb^. It^l)3.i> of " Tbe Histqiy ojf tb^ Wai*« 
of Ita\y, by Guicd^rdinV' ^^ dediaa^iqn of wb^^b tQ 
qpeen Elizabeth b^ars d^te Jan. 7\ hoi 9., Tbi^.was^ hpwr 
e^er, bis la^st work. Ke. ha^d published b^foi^ 1 . <^ Cejh 
t;^ne Tr^ical Di^coursee^ written, outo of f renph s^pd L^ 
tin/* 1567, 4to, reprinted 1 579, Neither Ai9^^ nor Tann^ 
ai^pear to. ba^ve s^en the fircit edition. Tb^ work i^ ^aj^a 
WaiTtoQ, ill pointi qf seleptii^n and si^i ^erbaps^ tbg moat 
capital miscellany of the kind, a. e* of tri^gical npv.eU« 
Aoaongr the KQcoBiiiieadatory poems pce&xed is oi)e from 
Ti^berviUe* Host of th^ stories ^re on Italian. s.ubjf9ct]^ 
ijiud m?^y ftQvx Baiadellp. ^. ^^ An Account of a Pispute 
at Parisi, between two Doptors of tb^ Sorbo^ne, and two 
Ministers, ol Qod's Word/* 1571., a translation. 3. ^^ An 
Epistle, or GodijC Admonition, sent tp the Pa^tprs of tb^ 
Flemjish. Church in. Antvirerp, exhprting them tp concord 
wi;;b othei? Minist^^rs: written by Antony de Carro, 1578,!* 
1^ tcaqslatipn. 4> ^^ Golden Epistles ; containing v^iety 
qf di^coursefi, both mpral, philosophical, and d^yioey.g^r 
tidied 94 well out of th^ remainder of Guj9;Var/a*s v^corks, 
<^^ o|;b^ autbpvs,, huifif French, and Italian. N^\>;ly corr 
rec|;ed aad aiahei»4ed. Mon heur> vi^ndra, 15.77.'' Tbp 
£^ilisur efiii^tJbes of GiM^vara bad been pjubUsb^ in; Epg- 
lisb, by on^ EdvWard Uellowes, in 1574 % but tbi^ cojilec* 
tion oi F^nlP9's consists of su/oh pieces as were not cont^ 
tained in that work. The epistle dedicatory is. to the right 
honpuicable 99^ v^tuous lady Ann^, countetis of 0?(eniprd ; 
^x^ i^ d^ted: from the author's chamber in the BJackfriars, 
^oodpOi, Feb. 4> 1575. This lady was the duug titer pf 
William Cecil lord Burleigh ; and it appears irom tbQ 

60b F E N T O N. 

oedicatioiiy that her noble father was our atuthor^n best 
patron. Perhaps his chief purpose in translating and pub^ 
lishing this work, was to testify his warm zeal and abspluto 
llttachment to that great minister. 

What the inducements were, which engaged him to 
leave his own country, in order to serve the queen in Ire- 
land, cannot easily be discovered; it is, however, certain 
that he went thither well recommended, and that being ill 
particular favour with Arthur lord Grey, then lord deputy 
in that kingdom, he was sworn of the privy-council about 
1581, It is more than probable that his interest might be 
considerably strengthened by his marriage with Alice, the 
daughter of Dr. Robert Weston, some time lord chancellor 
of Ireland, and dean of the arches in England, a man of 
f;reat parts, and who had no small credit with the earl of 
Leicester, and other statesmen in the court of Elizabeth ; 
and when he was once fixed in the office of secretary, bis 
own great abilities and superior understanding made him 
so useful to succeeding governors, that none of the changes 
to which that government was too much subject in those 
days, wrought any alteration in his fortune* Qne thing, 
indeed, might greatly contribute to this, which was the 
' strong interest he found means to raise, and never was at 
a loss to maintain, in England ; so that whoever was lord 
lieutenant in Ireland, sir Geoffrey Fen ton continued the 
queen^s counsellor there, as a man upon whom she de* 
pended, from whom she took her notions of state affairs in 
that island, and whose credit with her was not to be shaken 
by the artifices of any faction whatever. He took every 
opportunity of persuading the queen that the Irish were to 
be governed only by the rules of strict justice, and that 
the safety and glory of her government in that island de- 
pended on her subjects enjoying equal laws and protection 
pf their property. The queen frequently sent for her secre- 
t;ary Fenton, to consult with him oii her Irish affairs, which 
shews the high opinion she entertained of his understanding, 
though it often happened that when he was returned to his 
duty, the advisers of Elizabeth persuaded her to adopt 
ineasure$ the reverse of what Fenton had recommended. 
He was the means of extinguishing more than one rebel- 
lion) and of totally reducing the kingdom to submit tO: 
English government. 

In 1603, sir Geoffrey married his only daughter Kathcr 
riue to Mr. Boyle^ afterwards the great earl of Corke; and! 

F E N T O N; sol 

died at bis house in Dublin, Oct. 19, 160S. He was m-^ 
terred wiifa oiuch funeral solemnity attbe catbedral church 
of 8t Patrick, -in the same tomb with his wife's father, th<$ 
lord chancellor Weston ; leaving behind him the character 
of a polite writer, an accomplished courtier, an able states^ 
Bian, and a true friend to the English nation, and pro^* 
testant interest in Ireland. His translation of Guicoiardiniy 
and bis Guevara's Epistles, have lately risen in price^ since 
the language of the Elizabethan period has been more 
Btudied ; and the style of Fenton, like that of most of his 
contemporaries, is far superior to that of the authors of the 
ftucceeding reign, if we except Raleigh and Knowlles. * 

FENTON (Eujah), an ingenious English poet, was 
born at Shelton, near Newcastle-under-Line, in StafFordf 
shire, May 1^0, 1683. His father, who was possessed of 
A competent estate, was of an ancient family in that county, 
an attorney at law, and one of the coroners for the county 
of Stafford. He died in 1694, aged fifty-six. His mother 
is said to have descended in a direct line from one Mare^ 
an officer in the^army of William the Conqueror. Being 
the youngest of .twelve children, he wa» necessarily des-^ 
tined to some lucrative employment, and the church was 
fixed upon for his future profession. Accordingly,, afte^ 
going through a proper course of grammatical educd.tion^ 
be was, July 1, 1700, admitted a pei^ioner of Jesus col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he prosecuted his studies With 
remarkable diligence and assiduity ; but after taking his 
bachelor's degree, in 1704, he inclined to the sentiments 
of the nonjurors of that time, and consequently refu^in^ 
to take the oaths to government, was obliged to quit the 
university, which, however, he is said to have done with« 
out separating from the church. 

He was now induced to trust to his abilities for a sub- 
sistence, but whatever his difficulties or discouragements^ 
he kept his name unsullied, and never descended to any 
mean or dishonourable shifts. Indeed, whoever nlentibni^d 
him, mentioned him with honour, in every period of his 
life. His first employ he o\ved to It recomnlendatiott to 
Charles earl of Orrery, whom he accompanied to Fianderi^ 
in quality of secretary, and returned with his lordship to 
England in 1705. Being then out of employment, he be« 

1 Biog. Brit— Lloyd's WortbiC8.-^Fi;Lller'8 Wo.rtiiies«<*-Waft09's £[i«t qf 
foetry, vol. III. p. 479—48.^. 

9M f KN TOH, 

c»me^ assifitant in the school of Mr. 'B^^vmk^ (^eot Bjfmr 
wici(£)> '41 Ueadley, near Leatberb^y in S^nrey ^ alt» 
which bt3 w^as iivrued to the mstf fcer^Up, odf iHe freei gtaowar 
icboql at SovQnoakjs, in Kent^ aind in a fmv yeans btiougbt 
that s/efittiAary into oitich r.eputatioflb^ wbi)« be enjoyed tk^ 
advantage ot making easy and feequ&oi e]|cersipt)» to, ymi 
jiifk frieodfi in I^ondon* In 1710 Wwas pffeviHlAdi ufMk bj 
Air. St John (lord Bolitigbroke) to. giw up wbi^. was called 
^e drudgery of a »cboo^ for ^e* woroie drudigeFy of de.« 
pendente on a political patron^ fiiosa wfaenir ^^^ ^K be 
deritved no atdyaotage. When Siietrie iiesigMd.hi$i ftlme of 
commissioner in the siaoip^^ottce^ Fei^oA sq^plied tm ]m 
pAtrroni who ^Id? bim tbaA it wa^ booe^ith hia oieKt». and ' 
promised bim a superior appoiMaei^ ^ buA lt^«^ thua'sttkr 
sequent change of admieistration. preheated kioft from. fiiAr 
^Ui9g, and left Fenton dieappoinied/ and in cbbt Not 
long after, however, his old frieiMltbe ea«i of Onevy apr 
pointied him tutor to ]m squ, lord BrpghiU^ a hmf of seveA 
years o4d, wbasa he taught Eiaglish an^ Latisi. imtA be waa 
thirteen.. About the tiooie this engagement vas. about t# 
expire, Craggs,* secretary of statey feeling bi^. ewn wajB 
of literature, desired Pope to procure him* aft instmefcef]^ 
by whose help be might supply the deBcieneies el his edur 
i^tidn. Pope recommended Feoto% bat Ciaggs!a sudden 
death disappoiAted the pleasing e^peocatio^s forme$L from 
ftbi« connectioto. 

His> next engagement was with Pope himsirif^ who after 
the great success of bia translation of the Iliad, undertiMOik 
that of the Odyssey, and detenmned to engage auxiliariea. 
Twelve books he took to bimseU, and twehre be dbtrihated 
between Broome and Fenton. According lo Jgbnsoo and 
Warton, Fenton translated the firatt, fourth^, nineteenth 
aod twentieth. Biu John^ earl of Qroeny, in a lettev ta 
Mr. Duncombe> asserts that Fentoa teeaalated dguUe the 
niunher of books in the Odyssey thaa Pope has owned 
<^ His rewjard,^' adds the noble writer, *^ wm a tfiAe^ aua 
arrant trifle. He baa even told me, tha* he thoiAght ^ope 
ieaired him more tbaa be loved him. He had na opiQioD 
of Pope^s heart, and fleclared him, in the wordii of bishop 
Atterbnry, Mens curva in corp&re curvoy It is, howiever,. 
no small pnuse to both Fenton and Broome^ that the rendeis 
of poetry have never been able to distinguish their books 
from those of Pope. In 1 723, Fenton's tragedy of ^^ M^r 
diamine'' wa,s brought on the $tage in LincoTn*s-ijQai-fipeldjb» 

PEN T ON. 5ie» 

and was perf^rined wit^ «aeh success^ t\M the profite^ of 
the author are said ^i have ainiouMed to nearly 9k t3ekoma»A 
paurids^ wkk wbicb he veiiy honQiHiably discharged thti 
debts contracted by his frulfelei& aAtendance on Mr« St. 
John. The poetical merit of tbis tragedy is confeasedlj^ 
great, bcit the diction is too figurative and ornamenlaL 
Colley Cibber bos been termed insolent for advisiji^ Fe«H 
ton to Beliacjuish. poetry, by which we presuoie be meaM 
dramatic poetry ; but Gibber, if insolent^ was not* ippk* 
dieions, fioc Mariamne has not held its piece ob the stage* 
In 171S7, Fenton revised a new edition of Militon's PoeoiSy 
and prefixed to it a short but elegant and impartial life iA 
ibe aiUbor. In 1729 he publisbed a very splendid editiein 
oi WaUer, with notes> which is still a book of c^Masiderable 
Talue, I 

The latter part of Mr. Fenton*s life was passed in a man^ 
nee agteeable to his wishes. By the recommendation of 
Pope to the widow of sir William Trvkmbull, that lady in*- 
vJted him to be tutor to her son, first at home, and after-»< 
wards .at Cambridge; and when disengaged from this lit^ 
tendance on her son, lady Trumbull retained Fen tan ia 
her family, as auditiw of her accounts, an offiee which waa 
probably easy, as he had leisure to make frequent excar« 
sions t<^ visit bis literary friends in London. He died July 
13, 1730, at East-Hamp&kead, in Berkshire, lady Trum-* 
buirs seat, and was interred in the parish-church, and his 
tomb was honoured with an epitaph by Pope. In peraoo^ 
Fenton was tall and bulky, inclined to coi*puIence, which 
he did not lessen by much exercise, »3 he was skiggisk 
and sedentary, rose late, and when he had risen, sat dowa 
tp his book or papers. By a woman who once wait^ on 
him in a lodging, he was told, that he would ** lie a^hed^ 
and be fed with ai spoon." Pope says in one of his letters, 
that be died of indolence and inactivity ; others attributef 
bis death to the gout ; to which lord Orrery adds^ ^^ a great 
diair, and two bottle^ of port in a dtxyJ^ Dr. Johnsoa 
observes, that " Of his morals and his conversation, the 
account is uniform. He was never named but with praiaft 
ai]d fondness, as a man in the highest degree amiable and 
excellent. Such was tbe character given him by the earl 
of Orrery, his pupil ; such is the testimony of Pope ; and 
such were the suflrages of all who could boast of his ac- 
quaintance.** There is a story relating to him, which re» 
fleets too much honour upon his memory to beomUl^d^ 


i04 F E N T O N. 

It WAS his custom in the latter part of his life, to pay a 
yearly visit to his relations in the country. An entertain* 
ment being made for the family by his elder brother, ho 
observed that one of his sisters, who had been unfortunate 
in her marriage, was absent ; and, upon inquiry, he found 
that distress had made her thought unworthy of an invita-^ 
tion ; but he refused to sit at the table until she was sent 
for ; and, when she had taken her place, he was careful to 
shew her particular attention. 

< Fenton's principal reputation as a poet rests on his '^ Ma^ 
Ttamne,'^ and his share in the Odyssey ; but his^^ MisceU 
laneous Poems," printed in 1717, have procured him a 
place among the English Poets in Dr. Johnson's collection, 
who has, ' upon the whole, a less favourable opinion of them 
than Dr. Warton, yet he allows him the praise of an ex-* 
eellent versifier and a good poet^ 

FERDINAND of Cordoua, a learned Spaniard, con^ 
atdered as a prodigy in the fifteenth century, may be termed 
the Crichton of Spain, whom he resembl^ in the marvel* 
lous and universal knowledge attributed to him. He was 
well skilled in languages and the sciences ; understood the 
Bible, the works of Nicholas Lyranus, St. Thomas, St^ 
Bonaventura, Alexander Ales, and Scotus ; with those of 
Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, and several law 
authors. He was also a brave soldier, played on several 
instruments, was admired for his singing and dancing, and 
equalled any artist of Paris in painting. It is said that he 
&retDld the death of Charles the Rash) duke of Burgundy, 
and in 1445, was the admiration of all the learned at Paris. 
Commentaries on*Ptolemy^s Almagest, and on the Apoca- 
lypse, . are ascribed to him, and a treatise ^^ De Artificio 
Qilinis scibilis," and other works.' 

/ FERDINANDI (Epiphanius), a physician of Messagna^ 
in the* territory of Otranto, where he was born, October^ 
or according to Nic^on, Nov. 2, 1569, cultivated the 
study of the Latin and Greek poeUi at an early age, and 
wrote elegant verses in both these languages. In 1583 he 
went to Naples with the intention of going through the 
courses of philosophy and medicine; but in 1591, all 
atrangeni were compelled to leave the place. Ferdinandi, 

» 1 Biog. BriL new edit vol. VI. UBpnblisbed.-^KicboU'fl Po«ms.— ^Gevt. Maf « 
vol. LXI. and LXIV. — Bowles's editioo of Pope ;- see Index. — Jobmon uii 
Cbahners's Poets, 21 vols. 1 8 iO.—^uff head's Pope, p. 883, 4t«fdit, 

.* Morcri* 


retumidg to his own country, taught geometry and philo- 

Bophy until 1594, when the viceroy's edict being rev »ked| 

he returned tb Naples, pursued a course of medical stu*« 

dies, and received the degree of doctor in medicine and 

philosophy. He then repaired to his native place, where 

be settled himself in practice, and remained to the end of 

bis life, notwithstanding the tempting offers he received 

from several seats of learning. The duke of Parmaf in 

particular, pressed him to uke the professorship of me* 

dicine in the university of his city ; aiid the same invitatioa 

was given from the university of Padua. In 1605, he was 

chosen syndic- general of his country, and acquitted hiQi« 

self with great credit in that office. He died Dec. 6, 1638^ 

in de sixty-ninth year of his age. 

. This physician composed a considerable number of trea^ 

:tises, but only the four following are known, as having 

been printed : 1. '^ Theoremata Medica et Philosophica/* 

Venice, 1611. 2. ** De vita proroganda, seu juventuta 

conservanda et senectute retardands," Naples, 16] 2. 3» 

" Centum Historise, seu Observationes et Casus Medici,'* 

Venice, 1621 ; a treatise which relates to most of the dis«- 

eases of the body, and is distinguished by considerable 

eruditioQ. It has been several times reprinted in Germany 

and Holland. 4. ^' Aureus de Peste Libellus," Naple% 
1631. V 

FERDUSI, a celebrated Persian poet, and, according* 
to sir William Jones, at the head of all Persian poets, was 
^ native of Tus or Meshed. He was originally a peasant^ 
but his talents procuring him distinction, he was. admitted 
to the court of the sultan Mahmud, who reigned in the 
«city of Gazna, at the close of the tenth and the beginning 
of the eleventh centuries, and entertained several poets in 
his palace. Ferdusi, happening to find a copy of an old 
Persiian history, read it with great eagerness, and found it 
involved in fhbles, but bearing the marks of high antiquity. 
Th« most ancient part of it, and principally the war of 
.Afrasiah and Kosru, or Cyrus, seemed to afford an excel- 
lent subject for an heroic poem, which he accordingly be« 
.gan to compose. Some of his episodes and descriptions 
were shewn to the sultan, who commended them exceed- 
ingly, and ordered him to comprize the whole history of 
J^eriia in a series of epic poems. The poet obeyed, and 

! Woreri.— Niceron, fol. XXI. 


F £ R D tr S L 

after ithe 4iapptest jexeitMn of hk fancy aii^ ^t £>r *iieat 
t^i^i^ y^si^) "finif bed 4)15 work, ^i<*h conutmed eix%y tfaou^ 
Bamd coapi^ts in k^yme, all higMy peiti^lved, ^with nhe Bpkit 
of out Oryden, and the sweetne«B of iPope. He presetted 
fimekgaiit transcript «tf 4ns4bdok te Mahnwid, iriv9 toldli^T 
applauded bis diliffence, and disaiist^ed him. M«ny Hionl^ 
elapsed, and ferdusi heavd no mope ef Vis woi^k : he theft 
took oucasion to i>emmd the Icing of it by «onye lit^epi* 
grains, which be eontrived to let faM in the. palace; bnt^ 
aays sir William Jones, *^ where an epic poem had bailed, 
^^Amt efiect -coald be expected from an epigram ?** At 
kngth the reward came, wfaidh consiatfed oniy ^ as liiany 
amall pieces of money, as there were coaplete in the-voj* 
lume. — The high-minded poet -eofiPld not -broe^ ibis insak; 
iie retired to bis closet with bitterness in bk heart, where 
he wrote a most noble and animated invective against the 
stfltan, which be sealed up, and delivered to a cQavtier, 
who, as he had reason to suspect, was hie greatest eaemy^ 
assunng him that it was '^ a diverting -tale,*' and refjaesttng 
him to give it to Mahmud, " when any affair of ^tate ot 
liad success in war sbonld make -him more uneasy and 
splenetic than usual.*' Having thus given vent to his in^ 
dignation, he left Gazna in the night, and took refuge in 
£agdad, where the calif protected bim from €be sultan 
Mahmud, who demanded him in a furious and menacing 
Seliter. Ferdusi is supposed to have died in the 41 1th year- 
trf the Hegtra, or A. D. 1020. 

< The ^vork of Ferdusi remains entire, a glorious monu<* 
ttent of eastern ^nins and learning ; which, if ever it 
vboiild be understood in its original language, will contest 
;ibe merit of invention with Homer himself, whatever be 
thought of its subject, or the arrangement of the incidents. 
•The whole collection of his works is.eeilled ** Shahn6ma^^* 
«nd contains the history of Persia, from the earliest times 
^o the invasion of the Arabs, in a series of very noble 
^oems ; the longest and most regular of which is an beroic 
poem of one great and interesting action, namely the de- 
iivery of Persia by Cyrus from the oppressions of Afirasiab, 
king of the Transoxan Tartary, who, being aseisted by the 
emperors of India and China, had carried his conquests 
very far, and had become exceeding formidable to the 
Persians. The poem is longer than the Iliad ; the cha- 
racters in it are various and striking ; the figures bold and 
animated ; and the diction every where sonorous, yet noble ; 

^lAeb, yet^tiM t)f fire.--Of f^cnrdosi^s ndse Jigain^t ^die 
•ukan, didreas a transkuon in a ^* Treatise on Orie&tal 
i^decrjs" added to the Life of Nader-Shah in Fceiich. Sir 
W'iUiaai Jones said it is not nnltke die Xufinn of Theocri*- 
tffs, (tvilo, Miie the impetuoiis Ferdiisi, had dared to eaB»- 
|>ose fbe vic6» of a )ow««iinded king. ^ 

FBftG, or FER&UE (Francis Paujl), a German aetigf^ 
h^mi nt Vietma ni 16^9, had different inastera. He quit-' 
ted Vienna in 1718, and exercised his art with sucoeis 
^tfianfberg, went iVom thence to Dresden, in conofiany 
with Alexander Thiele, in whose landscapes he inserted 
%he 'fig^Hres and animala. ^He also 'passed over to Englomd^ 
where be tnarried, became involred in 4iis circtKoastanaep^ 
'a«d, aceoi^ing to report, was foimd dead at dve door of his 
^odgiffgs, apparently exhausted hfy coid, want, and aisety, 
in 1740. The style ssnd subjects of this painter resemlrie 
'those <ef Serghem and Wouwermans. The niins which 
Hadorfi'hislandscapesaie selected in a-gvaod taste, and often 
exeetrted^with a finish that discriminates the rougbertsar- 
"fece^hewn stone frotn^the polished one of oiarble* He 
^otdbltied with great force of colour gr^t truth of isnita- 
^tion~. Me 'etched well in aqua fortis, «nd his prints aoe 
-eagerly 'sowght for by die curious. * 

^F&RGCSON (Jam Bs)^ ^sa eminent experimental philo* 
'Mfpber, mectmnWt, and astronomer, was bom in Bamff- 
^^re, 4n S^dfland, 17 10, of very poor parents. At the 
^ery -es^lie^t age his estiraor-diaary genius vbegan to onfoU 
4tsetf. He'^first learned to read, by overhearing his:iatber 
^4iea(di^his '^der brother : and be bad made this aoquisifeieB 
before any one suspected it. fie soon discovered a pecat- 
^larr 'fdste ibr ^inechantes, which fimt arose on seeing his 
^•ftlfber'use 'a tever. He 'pursued this study a consideiable 
4etoglb, '^hWe ^he was yet very young; andimadea watoh 
in ^Wt)od-^W((i4c, irom haviivg once seen one. As he had at 
ifittt; *)io ify!ltk»u<5tor, nor any help from books, every thing 
*l7e ieilftvedU>ad'air4he'i)Eierit>cif an original discovery^ «iid 
^iMh'y 'With inei^presslble joy, he believed it to be; . 

'As'Mefon'as'his^age would permit, he went to service.; ^in 
iprhicb'lie'ni^t with hardships, 'which rendered his constibii- 
tmn^ftl^le through life. While he was servant to ^a 
'farmer (wtirose goodness be acknowledges in the modest 

.}S\r W*41i9in Jones's History of the LiCe of Nader Shah. 
'^ I Pilkingtort an4 Struit,— Walpole*s Anecdotes. 


fiM F E R (> U SON. 

and humble account of himself which he prefixed to litf 

>^ Mechanical Exercises''), he contemplated and learned to 

know the stars, while he tended the sheep ; and began the 

study of astronomy, by laying down, from his own obser« 

vations only, a celestial globe. His kind master, observing 

these marks of his ingenuity, procured him the counte- 

.nance and assistance of some neighbouring gentlemen. By 

their help and instructions he went on gaining farther 

•knowledge, having by their means been taught arithmetic, 

with some algebra, and practical geometry. He had got 

some notion of drawing, and being sent to. Edinburgh, he 

•there began to take portraits in miniature, at a small price; 

,an employment by which he supported himself and family 

for severar years, both in Scotland and England, while he 

« was ; pursuing more serious studies. In London he. first 

tpiiblished some curious astronomical tables and , calcula- 

i tions ; and afterwards gave public lectures in experimental 

( philosophy, both in London and most of the country towns 

•in England, with the highest marks of general approbation. 

t He was elected a fellow of the royal society, and was ex- 

< cused the payment of the admission fee, and the usual an« 

'nual contributions.. He enjoyed from the king a. pension 

of fifty pounds a year> besides other occasional presents, 

• which he privately accepted and received from, different 

quarters, till the time of his death; by which, and the 

fruits of his own labours, he left behind htm a sum to the 

> amount of about six thousand pounds, although all his 

frienda had always entertained an idea of his great poverty. 

i He died in 1776, at sixty-si^ic years of age, though be had 

- the appearance of many more years. 

Mr. Ferguson must be allowed to have been a very un- 
common genius, especially in mechanical contrivances and 
executions, for he executed many machines himself in a 
very neat manner. He had also a good taste in astronomy, 
. with natural and experimental philosophy, and was pos- 
sessed of a happy manner of explaining himself in an easy, 
clear, and familiar way. His general niathematical know- 
ledge, however, was little or nothing. Of algebra he un- 
derstood but little more than. the notation ; and he has often 
told Dr. Hutton be could never demonstrate one proposi- 
tion in .Euclid's Elements ; his constant method being to 
satisfy himself, as to the truth of any problem, with a mea- 
surement by scale and compasses. He was a man of a 
very clear judgment in any thing that he profes&ed, and of 


tinwearied application to study i benevolent, meek, and 
innocent in bis manners as a child : bumble, courteous, and 
communicative : instead of pedantry, philosophy seemed 
to produce in him only diffidence and urbanity. 

The list of Mr. Ferguson's public works, is as follows : 
1. '^ Astronomical Tables and Precepts, for calculating the 
trii^ times of New and Full Moons, &c.'' 1763. 2. << Ta^ 
bl^s «md Tracts, relative to several arts and sciences,'' 
1767. 3. ^^ An easy Introduction to Astronomy, for 
young gentlemen and ladies," second edit. 1769« 4. ^^ As* 
tronomy explained upon sir Isaac Newton's principles," 
fifth edit. 1772. 5. '^ Lectures on select subjects in Me* 
chanicsy Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, and Optics," fourth 
edit. 1772, 6. ^^ Select Mechanical Exercises, with a 
short; account of the life of the author, by himself," 1773, 
a imrrative highly interesting and amusing. 7. ** The Art 
of Drawing in Perspective made easy," 1775. 8. ** An 
Introduction to Electricity," 1775. 9. " Two Letters to 
the Rev. Mr. John Kennedy," 1775. 10. "A Third Letter 
to the Bev» Mrv John Kennedy," 1775. He communicated 
also several papers to the Royal Society, which were printed 
in theii: Transactions. In 1805, a very valuable edition of 
his. Lectures was published at Edinburgh by Dr. Brewster, 
in^2 voU. Svo, with notes and an appendix, the whole 
adapted to the present state of the arts and sciences. ^ 

yERGUSSON (Robert), who at an early period of 
life obtained a considerable degree of celebrity as a Scotch 
poet^ Hsas b<M*n at Edinburgh Sept. 5, 1750, or 1751, and 
was educated partly in his native city, and partly at Dun- 
dee, from whence he was sent to the university of St. An- 
drj^w's, where his diligent application, and probably his 
tusn for poetry, obtained him the patronage of Dr. Wiikie, 
hipiself a poet, and author of the ^^ Epigoniad," but soofe 
grosa ircegularilies having procured him to be expelled, he 
Te|\jfrned to Edinburgh, without resolving on any perma- 
nenit employment. Having an opulent relation, he visited 
him' in faopes^ by his interest, to procure some sinecure 
plaiiey but at the end of six months, this relation ordered 
him abruptly to leave bis house, and Fergusson returned tb - 
Edinburgh, stung with indignation; and as soon as he re- 
covered, from a severe illness, brought on by disappoint- 
inent and the fatigue of his journey, be composed two ele- 

\ Life by hims«If. — HttttOD'f Dictionary.— Nichols's Bowyer. 

Vou XIV. P 

21© F E R G U S S O N. 

gies, one on "The Decay of Friendship," and the.^tber 
*' Against repining at Fortune.'* He was now so destitute, 
that he submitted to copy papers in a public office, but 
not liking the employment, and quarrelling with bis em- 
ployer, he soon left the office in disgust. 
. Hitherto he had lived rather in obscurity ; and happy 
had it been for him, if he had been suffered to remain in 
that obscurity; but, possessing an inexhaustibly fund of 
\vit and good nature, he was viewed with affection by all 
to whom he wag known ; .and his powers of song, and al- 
most unrivalled talent for mimicry, led him oftener into 
the company of thqse who wished for him merely to enliven 
4 social hour, than of such as by their virtue were ioclined^ 
or by their influence were able, to procure him a competent 
settlement for life. The consequence of this was great 
Ifixity of manners, and much of his life was disgraced by 
actions which, in his cooler moments, he reflected on with 
abhorrence. His conscience indeed was frequently roused, 
and once so powerfully that all his vivacity forsook him. 
From this state of gloom, however, he gradually recovered, 
and, except that a settled melancholy was visible in his 
countenance, had apparently recovered his health, whea 
one evening befell, and received a violent contusion on the 
bead, which, was followed by a delirium that rendered it 
necessary for his friends to remove him to the lunatic hos- 
pital of Fdinburgh, where, after two months* confinement, 
be died Oct. 16, 1774. He was interred in the Canongate 
church-yard, where his friends erected a monument to his 
memory that was afterwards removed to make way for a 
more elegant monument, by his enthusiastic admirer Ro- 
bert Burns, who resembled him in too many features. Most 
of Fergusson's poems were originally published in the 
^^ Weekly Magazine,'* but have since been collected in a 
volume, and often printed. The subjects of them are 
sometimes uncommon, and generally local or temporaiy. 
They are of course very unequal. Those in the Englidi 
language are scarcely above mediocrity ; but tho^e in Ihc 
Scottish dialect have been universally admired by his coun- 
trymen ; aqd when it is considered that they were com- 
posed amidst a round of dissipation, they may be allowed 
to furnish complete evidence of his genius and taste« \ 

* Life by IrTifig.— Suppl. to the Encyclop. firitannica. 

F E R M A T. 211 


FERMAT (Peter), a very celebrated French mathe- 
matician, though by profession a lawyer, was considered' 
by the vfriters of his own country as having rendered no 
less service to mathematical science than Descartes, and 
as having even prepared the way for the doctrine of in- 
finites, afterwards discovered by Newton and Leibnitz. He 
was not only the restorer of the ancient geometry, but the 
introducer of the new. He was born at Toulouse in 1590, 
educated to the law, and advanced to the dignity of coun- 
sellor to the parliament of Toulouse. As a magistrate, hb 
knowledge and integrity were highly esteemed. As a man 
of science he was connected with Descartes, Huygens, 
I^iscal, and matiy others. He is said also to have culti- 
vated poetry. He died in 1664^ His mathematical works 
were published at Toulouse in 1679, in two volumes, folio. 
The first volume contains the treatise of arithmetic of Dio- 
phantus, with a commentary, and several analytical inven- 
tions. The second comprises his mathematical discoveries, 
and his correspondence with the most celebrated geome* 
tricians of his age. His son, Samuel FerMat, was atso 
eminent as a literary man, and wrote some learned dis- 
sertations. ' 

FERNE (Sir John), an English antiquary, was the soa 
of William Feme, of Temple Belwood, in the isle of Ax* 
holme, in Lincolnshire, esq. by Anne his wife, daughter 
and heir of John Sheffield, of Beltoft ^ and was sent to Ox-r 
ford when about seventeen years of age. Here he was 
placed, as Wood conceives, either in St. Mary's-hall, or 
University college : but leaving the university without % 
degree, he went to the Inner Temple, and studied for some 
time the municipal law. In the beginning of the reign of 
James I. he received the honour of knighthood, being about 
that time secretary, and keeper of the king's signet of the 
<x>ancil established at York for the north parts of England. 
He probably died about 16 10, leaving several sons behind 
him, of whom Henry, the youngest, was afterwards bishop 
of Chester, the subject of our next article. In 1586 sir 
Johti publidhed ** The Blazon of Gentiy, divided into two 
parts^ &c.*' 4t0, This is written in dialogues, and, though, 
in a language uncommonly quaint and tedious, contains 
critical accounts of arms, principles of precedence, re- 
marks upon the times, &c. which are altogether curious* 

> Mowri.— Huttoa'8 I>ict. , 

F 2 

212 ) F E R N E^ 

The nobility of the Lacys, earls of Lincoln, which forms a 
part of it, was written in consequence of Albert a Lasco, a 
noble German, coming to England in 1583^ and claiming 
affinity to this family of Lacy, and from this, Feme says, .^ 
he was induced to open their descents, their arms, mar* 
riages, and lives. The discourse is curious, and during 
the century that elapsed after its publication, before the 
appearance of Dugdale^s Baronage, mast have been pecu- 
liarly valuable. ^ 

FERNE (Henry), D. D. bishop of Chester, the youngest 
son of the preceding sir John Feme, was born at York in 
1602, an4 educated at the free-school of Uppingham in 
Rutlandshire, to which he was sent by sir Thomas Nevill 
of Holt in Lancashire, who had married his mother. He 
was afterwards, in 1618, admitted commoner of St. Mary« 
hall, Oxford, but after two years' ^residence there, was re- 
moved to Trinity college, Cambridge, of which he became 
fellow ; and when he had taken his degree of bachelor of 
divinity, was domestic chaplain to Dr. Morton, bishop pf 
Durham. The year after he was presented to the college 
living of Masham in Yorkshire, and his brother-in-law Mr. 
Nevill gave him that of Medborn in Leicestershire. The 
bishop of Lincoln afterwards preferred him to the arch- 
deaconry of Leicester. In 1642 he took his doctor's de- 
gree, and kept the act at .the commencement. Thence 
he went into Leicestershire, where he had an opportunity 
of waiting on the king, and preaching before him as be 
was going to Nottingham to set up his standard. The king 
made him his chaplain extraordinary, and he preached 
before his majesty again at Nottingham. In 1542 he pub- 
lished his ^^ Case of Conscience touching rebellion," and 
is said to have been the first that wrote openly in his ma- 
jesty's cause, but this probably obliged him to leave ^ed- 
born, and 'take shelter in Oxford, where he -preached, 
without any emolument, at St. Aldate's church. Here he 
was incorporated doctor in divinity, and was onade chap- 
lain in ordinary to the king, who at the same time sent him 
a message, that he was sorry he could confer nothing else 
with it. He was afterwards appointed chaplain to one of 
the lords commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, where • 
at the request of some of them, be stated the case between 
episcopacy and presbytery, and was not answered by the 


1 Atb. Ox. vol I.— CfDt. Mag. vol. LXH, 

r E R N E. 213 

parHainentary cominissioners, although one of them, the 
earl of Loudon, lord chancellor of Scotland, declared that 
he should. Dr. Feme attended the king at Oxford until 
be had taken Leicester, and was present at the unfortunate 
battle of Naseby, after which he went to Newark, and con- 
tinued preaching until the king ordered the garrison to sur- 
render. His next retreat was to Yorkshire, where he re- 
mained with his relations, until his majesty sent for him to 
the treaty of the Isle of Wight. His majesty had so much 
respect for him, as to desire a copy of the last sermon he 
preached there. 

During the usurpation, Dr. Feme appears to have lived 
in privacy, but, as the only privilege now left to him, 
as a clergyman, he carried on disputes with the Roman 
catholics, which occasioned some of his publications. On 
the restoration, Charles II. as his royal father had promised 
Dr. Feme the reversion of the mastership of Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, nov^r conferred that office upon him, 
which he kept a year and a half, and was twice chosen vice- 
chancellor. He was also prompted to the deanery of Ely ; 
and upon Dr. Walton's death, he was made bishop of Ghes<^ 
ter, and consecrated at Ely bouse chapel, Feb. 9, 1661,, 
but held it only about iive weeks, dying March 16, 1661, 
at his relation Mr. Nevill's house, in St. Paul's churchyard, 
London, and was buried in Westminster-abbey. He was 
a man of great learning, piety, and loyalty, and of singu- 
lar candour and modesty. The character given of him by 
one who knew him from his youth, was, that if he had any 
fault, it was that he could not be angry. 

He is said to have afforded some assistance to Dr. Wal- 
ton in his celebrated Polyglot, besides wbicb he published, 
1. " The Resolving of Conscience," &c. on the question 
of taking up arms against the king, printed at Cambridge 
in 1642, and Oxford in 1643, and two other tracts in ans- 
wer to his opponents on the same subject. 2. ^' Episcopacy 
and Presbytery considered," Lond. 1647. 3. "Certain 
considerations of present concernment touching the re- 
formed church of England, against Ant. Champney, doctor 
of the Sorbonne," ibid. 1653. 4. " On the case as it 
stands between the church of flngland and of Rome on the 
one hand, and those congregations which hftve divided 
from it on the other," ibid. 1655. 5. "On the division 
between the English and Romish church upon the reforma-r 
tion,*' ibid. 1655. 6. " Answer to Mr, Spencer's book, 

214 F £ R N E U 

entitled '^Scripture mistaken/' 1660. H<^ published ^so 

several sermons. * / 

FERNEL (John Francis), or Fernelius, physician to 
Henry 11. of France, was born at Mont-^Didier in Picardy, 
in 1506, or as some say in 1497. He was not very young 
when be was sent to Paris, to study rhetoric and philoso-^ 
phy ; but made so quick a progress, that, having been ad- 
mitted master.. of arts after two years^ time, the principals 
of the colleges strove who should have him to teach logic^ 
and offered him a considerable stipend. Hje would not ac- 
cept their offers ; but chose to render himself worthy of a 
public professor^s chair by private studies and lectures. 
He applied himself therefore in a most intense manner, all 
other pleasure being insipid to him. He cared neither for 
play, nor for walking, nor for entertainment, nor even for 
conversation. He read Cicero, Plato, and Aristotle, and 
the perus&l of Cicero procured him this advantage, that the 
lectures he read'on philosophical subjects were as eloquent; 
as those of the other masters of that time were barbarous. 
He also applied himself very earnestly to the mathematics.^ 

This continual study drew upon him a long fit of sick- 
ness, which obliged him to leave Paris. On his recovery 
he returned thither with a design to study physic ; but be- 
fore he applied himself entirely to it, be taught philosophy 
in the college of St. Barbara. After this, he spent four 
years in the study of physic ; and taking a doctor's degree, 
confined himself to his closet, in order to read the best 
authors, and to improve himself in mathematics,, as far as 
the business of his profession would suffer him ; and to 
gain time, he used to rise at four o'clock in the morning, 
and studied until the hour when he was obliged either to 
read lectures or to visit patients. Coming home to dine, 
he shut himself up among his books, until called down to 
table ; and after dinner, he returned to his study, which he 
did not leave without necessary occasions. Coming home 
at night, he followed the same course $ he remained among 
his books until called to supper ; returned to them the mo- 
ment be had supped ; and did not leave them till eleven 
o'clock, when be went to bed. 

In the course of these studies, he contrived mathemati- 
cal instruments, and was at great expence in having them 

> Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Walker's Sufferings. of the Clergy.— Lloyd's Memoirs, 
folio, p. 604. 

r E R N E L. 215 

made. His wife, however, was alarmed at those expence^, 
by which even a part of her fortune was wasted. She mur- 
mured, cried, and complained to her father, who was a 
counsellor at Paris. Fernet submitted at last, sent all his 
instrument-makers away, and applied himself seriously to 
the practice of physic. But, as visiting patients did not 
employ his whole time, he resumed the same office in 
which he had been engaged already, of reading public lec- 
tures upon Hippocrates and Galen. This soon gained him 
a great reputation through France, and in foreign coun- 
tries. His business increasing, he left off reading lectures ; 
but as nothing could make him cease to study in private, 
he spent all the hours he could spare in composing a work 
of physic, entitled " Pbysiologia," which was soon after 
published. He was prevailed upon to read lectures on this 
new work, .which he did for three years ; and undertaking 
another work, which he publtshea, ** De venassectione,** 
he laid himself under a necessity of reading lectures some 
years longer ; for it was passionately desired that he would 
also explain this new book to the young students. 

While he was thus employed, he was sent for to courts 
in order to try whether be could cure a lady, whose reco- 
very was despaired of; and having succeeded, this was the 
iSrst cause of that esteem which Henry H. who was then 
dauphin, and was in love with that lady,^*onceived for him. 
This prince offered him even then the pAace of first phy- 
sician to him ; but Fernel, who infinitely preferred his 
studies teethe hurry of a court, would not^ accept the em- 
ployment, and had even recourse to artifice, in order to 
obtain the liberty of returning to Paris. He represented 
first, that he was not learned- enough to deserve to be en- 
trusted with the health of the princes ; but that, if he were 
permitted to return to Paris, he would zealously employ, 
all means to become more learned, and more capable of 
serving the dauphin. This excuse not being admitted, he 
pretended, in the next place, to be sick, and sent to^ the 
prince a surgeon, who was accustomed to speak familiarly 
to him, and who told him, that Fernel had a pleurisy, which 
grief would certainly render mortal ; and that his grief was 
occasioned by being absent from his books and from his 
family, and by being obliged to discontinue his lectures, 
end lead a tumultuous life. The prince, giving credit to 
this story, permitted Fernel to retire. A man, Bayle ob- 
serves, must be excessively in love with his studies, and a 

216 KERNEL. 

philosophical life, when he employs such tricks to avoid 
what all others are desirous to obtain. 

When Ilenry came to the throne, he renewed his offer ; 
but Fernel represented, that the' honour was due, for seve- 
ral reasons, and as an hereditary right, to the late king's 
physician ; ^nd that, as for himself, he wanted some time 
for experiments concerning several discoveries he had 
made relating to physic. The king admitted this : but as 
soon as Francis the First's physician died, Fernel was ob- 
liged to fill his place at Henry the Second's court. Here 
just the contrary to what he dreaded came to pass : for he 
enjoyed more rest and more leisure at court than he had 
done at Paris ; and he might have considered the court as 
in agreeable retirement, had it not been for the journeys 
ivhich the new civil war obliged the king to take. Being 
returned from the expedition of Calais, be made his wife 
come to Fontainbleau : but this good woman was so afBicted 
at being obliged to leave her relations, that she fell sick 
soon after, and died delirious ; and her death grieved Fer- 
nel to such a degree, that he died within a month after she 
was buried, in 1558. Fernel acquired a vast estate by his 
business. Plantius, his disciple and biographer, tells us, 
that while he was with him, his gains amounted .often to 
^bove 12,000 livres a year, and seldom under 10,000. He 
is considered as one of the great restorers of medicine, and 
the first after Galen' who wrote •ably on the nature and 
cause of diseases. His posterity were long respected on 
his account. 

His works are, 1. ^^ Monalosphserium partibus constans 
quatuor, &c." Paris, 1526. 2. ^' De Proportionibus, libri 
duo,'* ibid. 1528. 3. " Cosmo-theoria libros duos com- 
plexa," ibid. 1528. 4. " Pe naturali parte Medicinas, libri 
se^tem," ibid. 1532. 5. " De vacuandi ratipne, liber," 
ibid. 1545. 6. " De abditis rerum causis, libri duo," ibid. 
1548. This work underwent nearly thirty subsequent edi- 
tions. 7. " Medicina, ad Henricum II. &c." 1554. This 
collection has been still more frequently reprinted, with 
some changes pf the title. 8. '^ Therapeiitices universalis, 
sen m^dendi r3.tionis libri septem," Lugduni, 1659. 6. 
*^ Consilioruip Medicinalium liber," Paris, 1^82; many 
times reprinted. 10. " Febrium curandarum methodus 
generalis," Francfort, 1577 ; a posthumous work. 1 1, " De. 
Luis venereae curatione perfectissima liber," Antwerp, 1 579. 
(»dited by Gisselin, a physician of Bruges. Some other 

F E R N E L. 21? 

parts of his works, have been translated, or edited sepa* 
rately since his death. £loy remarks, that as many things 
taken from the Arabian writers are found in the works of 
Fernel, and as the elegant Latinity in which he has re- 
peated them is generally admired, the following bon mot 
has been applied to him : ^^ Faeces Arabum melle Latini- 
tatis condidit" * 

FERRACINO (Bartolomeo), a celebrated self- taught 
mechanic, was born at Bassano, in the territory of Padua, 
in 1692. His first occupation being that of a sawyer, for 
bis parent; were very poor, he invented a saw which worked 
by the wind, and went on progressively to several more 
curious inventions, such as making clocks in iron, hydraulic 
machines, &c. till he was noticed by the great men of 
Italy. In his native town of Bassano, he constructed a 
famous bridge over the Brenta, remarkable for the bold- 
ness of its design, and the solidity of its construction. Ho 
died soon after the completion of this work. An history of 
his life and inventions *was published at Venice in 1764^ by 
a writer whose name was Memo, 4to.' 

FERRAND^Lo.uis), a French lawyer, born at Toulon, 
in 1645, became an advocate in the parliament of Paris, 
and died in that city, in 1699. Though a layman, he 
lived with' the rigour of a strict ecclesiastic ; and though a 
lawyer, his works turn chiefly upon subjects of sacred 
learning. They are full of erudition, but not remarkable 
for brilliancy or clearness. They are, 1. " A large Com- 
mentary on the Psalms," in Latin, 1683, 4to. 2, " Re- 
flections on the Christian Religion," 167P, 2 vols. 12mo. 
3. " A Psalter," in French and Latin. 4. Some contro- 
versial writings against the Calvinists, and others. 5. '^ A 
Letter and Discourse to prove that St. Augustin was a 
Monk," an opinion which several learned men have re- 

FERRANDUS, siirnamed Fulgentius, who flourished 
in the sixth century, was an African by birth, and a dis- 
ciple of St. Fulgentius. When that prelate was banished 
by the Arians to Sardinia, Ferrandus accompanied him; 
but on his return he was chosen deacon of the church of 
Carthage, and entered with much zeal into the question 
which was the subject of warm discussion at that day, 

1 Bayle in Gen. Diet. — Moreri/— Haller in all his Bibiiothecas. — BIount*s 
Censura. — Uces's Cyclopaedia from Eloy. — Saxii Onoma^t. 
* Diet. BisU 3 KiceroAy toI. I. and to). X.— Moreri. — Dupini 

218 F £ R R A N D U S- 

** whether it could be said that one of the persons of the 
Trinity suffered on the cross." Ferrandus died about the 
year 530, leaving behind him many works that were highly 
esteemed by his contemporaries.^ The most considerable, 
** A Collection of Ecclesiastical Canons," for restoring 
discipline in the churches of Africa, is one of the most an- 
cient collections of canons among the Latins. It consists 
of between two and three hundred abridged from the coun- 
cils of Africa, Ancyra, Laodicea, Nice, Antiocb, &c. A 
life of Fulgentius has also been ascribed to Ferrandus, but 
by some authors it has been ascribed to another of the pre- 
late^s pupils.^ 

FERRAR (Nicholas), an English gentleman of con-, 
siderable learning and ingenuity, of great personal worth, 
and at the same time an enthusiast of a singular descrip- 
tion, was the third son of Nicholas Ferrar, a merchant in 
London, and was bom Feb. 22, 1592, in the parish of St. 
Mary Stayning, in Mark-lane, London. His father traded 
very extensively to the East and West Indies, and to all 
the celebrated seats of commerce. He lived in his^h re- 
pute in the city, where he joined in commercial matters 
with sir Thomas and sir Hugh Middleton, and Mr. Bate- 
man. He was a man of liberal hospitality, but governed 
his house with great order. He kept a good table, at which 
he frequently received persons of the greatest eminence, 
sir John Hawkins, sir Francis Drake, sir Walter Raleigh, 
and others with whom he was an adventurer ; and in all 
their expeditions he was ever in the highest degree atten- 
tive to the planting the Christian Religion in the New- 
World. At home also he was a zealous friend to the es- 
tablished church, and always ready to supply his prince 
with what was required of him. He lent 300/. at once 
upon a privy-seal ; a sum at that time not inconsiderable. 
He had the honour of being written Esq. by queen Eli- 
zabeth. ' • 

His wife was Mary, daughter of Laurence Wodenoth, ' 
esq. of an ancient family ni Cheshire. By her he had a 
numerous family, to whom he gave a pious education. 
Their daily practice was to read, and to speak by memory, 
some portion of the Scriptures, and parts of the Book of 
Martyrs; they were also made acquainted with such pas- 
sages of history as were suited to their tender years. They 


^ Care.— Morefi.—J)upiQ.— Fabric. BibL LaL Med. £tat,— Saxii OnomasL 

F E R R A R, 2il> 

were all histnicted in music ; in j^erforming on the organ, 
viol, and lute, and in tb^ the$>ry and practice of singing ; 
in the learned and modern languages ; in curious needle- 
works, and all the accomplishments of that time. Th^ 
young men, when arrived at years of discretion j had per- 
mission each to choose his profession, and then no expence 
was spared to bring him to a distinguished excellence in 
it. For, this was an invariable maxim with the parents, 
that, having laid a firm foundation in religion and virtue, 
they woul^ rather give them- a good education without 
wealth, than wealth without a good education. 

Of Nicholas, the subject of this article, we are told that 
he was a beautiful child, of a fair complexion, and light- 
coloured hair. At four years of age he was sent to school, 
and at five he could read perfectly, or repeat with pro- 
priety and grace, a chapter in the Bible, which the pa- 
rents made the daily exercise of their children. By the 
brightness of his parts, and the uncommon strength of his 
memory, he attained with great ease and quickness what- 
ever be set himself to learn ; yet was he also remarkably 
studious. From the early possession of his mind with ideas 
of piety and virtue, and a love for historical information, 
the Bible in his very early years became to him the book 
above all others most dear and estimable ; and next to this 
in his esteem was Fox's Book of Martyrs, from which he 
could repeat perfectly the history of his near kinsman, 
bishop Ferrar. And, when in his riper years he undertook 
the instruction of the family, he constantly exercised them 
also in the reading and in the study of these two books. 
He was particularly fond of all historical relations ; and, 
when engaged in this sort of reading, the day did not sa-* 
tisfy him, but he would borrow from the night ; insomuch 
that his mother would frequently seek him out, and force 
him to partake of some proper recreation. Hence, even 
in his childhood, his mind was so furnished with historical 
anecdotes, that he could at any time draw off his school- 
fellows, from their play, who would eagerly surround him, 
and with the utmost attention listen to his little tales, al- 
ways calculated to inspire them with a love of piety and 
goodness, and excite in them a virtuous, imitation. 

When he was very young he was taught Latin, at Lon- 
don, at the desire of his master, though others thought it 
too soon : but he was so eager and diligent in his appli- 
cation, that he soon surpassed all his companions^ though 

220 F E R R A H, 

his seniors. He was of a grave disposition, and very earljr 
shewed a great dislike of every thing that savoured of 
worldly vanity. In bis apparel be wished to be neat, but 
refused all tbat was not simple and plain. When bands 
were making for the children, be earnestly entreated his 
mother tbat bis might not have any lace upon them, like 
those of bis brothers, but be made little and plain, like 
those of Mr. Wotton (a clergyman whom be knew), " for 
I wifish to be a preacher as he is." 

Young Ferrar was good-natured and tender-hearted ta 
the highest degree ; so fearful of offending any one, tbat, 
upon the least apprehension of having given displeasure, 
he would suddenly weep in the most submissive manner, 
and appear extremely sorry. His temper was lovely, his 
countenance pleasing; hi3 constitution was not robust, but 
he was active, lively, and cheerful. Whatsoever he went 
about, he did it with great spirit, and with a diligence and 
discretion above his years. When it was time to send him 
to some greater school, where he might have a better op« 
portunity to improve himself in the Latin tongue, his pa- 
rents sent him and bis brother William to Euborn, near 
Newbery, in Berkshire, the bouse of Mr. Brooks, an old 
friend, who had many other pupils, who was a religious 
and good man, but a strict disciplinarian. While prepa- 
rations were making for this journey, an event took place 
which made the deepest and mest lively impression upon 
the mind of young Nicholas, and strongly marks his cha- 
racter^ and the bent of his disposition. He was but six 
years of age, and being one night unable to sleep, a 6t 
' of scepticism seized bis mind, and gave him the greatest 
perplexity and uneasiness. He doubted whether there 
was a God ? and, if there was, what was the most accepts 
able mode of serving him? In extreme grief be rose at 
midnight, cold and frosty ; and went down to a grass-plat 
in the garden, where he stood a long time, sad and pen- 
sive, musing and thinking seriously upon the great doubt 
which thus extremely perplexed him. At length, throwing 
himself on his face upon the ground, and spreading out his 
hands, he cried aloud, " Yes, there is, there must be a 
God ; and he, no question, if I duly and earnestly seek it 
of him, will teach me not only how to know, but how to 
serve him acceptably. He will be with me all my life 
here, and at the end will hereafter make me happy.'' His 
doubts now vanished, bis mind became easy, and he r«t 

F E R R A It 221 

turned to his apartment ; bat the remembrance of what be 
felt on this occasion made him ever after strongly com- 
miserate all who laboured under any religious doubt or de- 
spair of mind. And, in the future course of his life, be 
had repeated opportunities to exert his beiievolence to 
those who experienced similar unhappiness. 

In 1598 he was sent to Euborn school, where in Latin, 
Greek, and logic, he soon became the first scholar of his 
years. He strengthened his memory by daily exercise ; 
he was a great proficient in writing and arithmetic, and 
attained such excellence in short-hand as to be able to * 
take accurately a sermon or speech on any occasion. He 
was also well skilled both in the theory and practice of 
vocal and instrumental music. Thus accomplished, in his 
fourteenth year, his master, Mr. Brooks, prevailed with 
his parents to send him to Cambridge, whither he himself 
attended him, and admitted him of Clare-hall, presenting, 
him, with due commendation of his uncommon abilities, to 
Mr. Augustin Lindsell, the tutor, and Dr. William Smithy 
then master of the college. His parents thought proper, 
notwithstanding the remonstrance of some friends against , 
it, to admit him a pensioner for the first year, as they 
conceived it more for his grood to rise by merit gradually^, 
to honour. In this situation, by excellent demeanour and 
diligent application to his studies, he gained the afi^ections 
and applause of all who knew him, performing all his exer- 
cises with distinguished approbation. His attention and 
diligence were such, that it was observed his chamber might 
be known by the candle that was last put out at night, and 
the first lighted in the morning. Nor was he less diligent 
in his attendance at chapel, so that his piety and learning 
went on baud in hand together. In his second year be 
became fellow-commoner. In 1610 he took his degree 
of B. A. At this time he was appointed to make the speech 
on the king's coronation day, (July 25) in the college hall; 
and the same year he was elected fellow of that society. 
His constitution was of a feminine delicacy, and he was 
very subject to aguish disorders ; yet he bore them out in 
a great measure by his tempei^nce, and by a peculiar 
courageousness of spirit which was natural to him. His 
favourite sister, married to Mr. Collet, lived at Bourn 
Bridge, near Cambridge, and as the air of Cambridge w^ 
found not well to agree with him, he made frequent ex- 
cursions to her house, where he passed his time in the 

2d2 F £ R R A R. 

pursuit of his studies, and in the instruction of his sister^s 
children. But his tutor, Mr. Lindsell, Mr. Ruggle (au^ 
thor of the Latin comedy called Ignoramus), and others of 
the fellows, having now apprehension of his health, carried 
him to Dr. Butler, the celebrated physician of Cambridge, 
who conceived a great affection for him, but finding th6 
disorder baffled all bis skill, could only recommend a spare 
diet and great temperance; and upon his relapsing, in 
llie autumn of 1612, the doctor prescribed as the last re-^ 
medy, that in the spring he should 1;raTeI. 

He was now almost of seven years* standing in the uni;^ 
versity, and Was to take his master^s degree at the ensuing 
Midsummer, 1613, and he had already performed with 
credit all his previous exercises. It being made knowp to 
die heads of tlie university that he Was to travel, and to 
have the opportunity of going with that noble company 
which then went with the lady Elizabeth to conduct her to 
the Palatinate^ with the Palsgrave her husband, his de- 
gree was immediately granted ; and bavii^g set out in the 
retinue of the lady Elizabeth, he accompanied her to Hol- 
land. But inclining to pursue a different route, betook 
le^ave of her royal highness there, and visited most of the 
German universities, at some of which he studied a eon- 
siderable time, and at them and other parts of Europe, he 
spent five years, returning home in 1618, being then 
twenty *six years of age, and highly improved and accom* 
plished by his travels. During this long residence abroad 
be had purchased many rare articles of curiosity, scarce 
and valuable books, and learned treatises in the language 
of those different countries ; in collecting which he cer- 
tainly had a principal eye to those which treated the sub- 
jects of a spiritual life, devotion, and religious retirement 
He bought also a great number of prints, engraved by 
the best masters of that time, relative to historical pas- 
sages of the Old and N'ew Testament ; all which, upon his 
return home, he had the satisfaction to find were safely 
arrived there before him, but very little of this treasure is 
now remaining. The Ferrar family being firm in their 
loyalty to the king, their house at Gidding was plundered 
in the civil wdrs ; and, in a wanton devastation, all these 
things perished, except some of the prints, not of great 
value, which were in the possession of the editor of Mr. 
Ferrar's life, the late Dr. Peckard. . 

f £ R R A R. ass 

r Soon after Mr. Ferraris return, sir Edwya Sandys, who 
Bad heard a high character of him from many who ha4 
known him in Italy, sought his acquaintance ; and, being 
exceedingly taken with his great abiUties, took the first 
opportunity to make him known to the earl of Southampton^ 
and the other principal members of the Virginia company. 
In a very little time he was made one of a particular com- 
mittee in some business of great importance ; whereby thd 
company having sufficient proof of hb extraordinary abi- 
Uties, at general court it was proposed and agreed 
that he should be king's counsel for the Virginia plantation 
in the room of his brother John, who was thQo made the 
deputy governor, And when his name, according to cus- 
tom, was entered in the lord chamberlain's book, sir £d« 
wyn Sandys took care to acquaint that lord with his yn- 
common worth ; which, indeed, daily more and more ap*- 
peared ia every thing he undertook : and as he wanted no 
ability, so he spared no diligence in ordering all their af- 
fairs of consequenceji and thus becan^ deeply engaged in 
cares of a public nat^re• Yet his own inclinatiops at his 
return led him rather to think of settling himself agahi at 
Cambridge, to which he was the more induced as he still 
held the physic fellowship in Clare*hall. But this he now 
saw could not be done ; and besides, bis parents, no|r 
grown old, requested their beloved son to remain with 
tbem. Therefore all he could obtain in this respect from 
them> and from his business, was the liberty now and then 
to pass a few days with his old acquaintance and friends 
still remaininor in Cambridge. 

His transactions while connected with the Virginia com- 
pany,, occupy a very large portion of his life published bj 
Dr. Peckard, but will not now be thought tlie most interest- 
ing part of it. The'reputation, however, vvrhich he had ac- 
quired, as a man of business, was such, that after the Vir- 
ginia company had been dissolved, he was in 1624, chosen 
member of parliament. He must, however, have sat a 
very short time, ' as he began soon to put in execution his 
scheme of retiring from the world, and leading a monastic 
life in the heart of a projtestant country. For this purpose, 
in the last mentioned year, he purchased, the lordship of 
Little- Gidding, in the county of Huntingdon, where, his 
mother, his sister Mrs. Collet, with all her family, and 
other relations to the amount of forty persons, came to 
Reside as soon as it could be prepared for their reception. 

f24 F E R R A R, 

The better to carry on this plan, by his persoifal assistance, 
Mr. Ferrar applied to Dr. Laud, then bishop of St. David's, 
and was ordained deacon. On this, some of his noble 
friends, not knowing his intention, offered him prefer- 
ments in the church, but these he declined, as being un« 
worthy to receive them, and informed his friends that .he 
had taken deacon's orders only that he might be legally 
authorised to give spiritual assistance to those with whom 
be might be concerned. 

In the establishment he now formed, one useful branch 
was a school for the education of the children of the neigh- 
bourhood, free of expence. In this part of his plan there 
was nothing remarkably different from the exercises that 
were customary in those days in other schools, except, 
perhaps, a higher degree of strictness and ceremony. In 
other respects the reader will perhaps think there was 
ceremony enough, from perusing the following specimens 
of Mr. Ferrar's domestic plan. 

On the first Sunday of every month they always had a 
communion, which was administered by the clergyman of 
the adjoining parish ; Mr. Nicholas Ferrar assisting as 
deacon. All the servants who then received the commu* 
nion, when dinner was brought iip, remained in the room, 
. and on that day dined at the same table with Mrs. Ferrar 
and the rest of the family. When their early devotions 
in the oratory were finished, they proceeded to church in 
the following order : First, the three school-masters, in 
4>lack gowns and Monmouth caps. Then, Mrs. Ferrar's 
grandsons, clad in the same manner, two and two. Then, 
her son Mr. John Ferrar, and her son-in-law Mr. Collet, 
in the same dress. Then, Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, in surplice, 
hood, and square cap, sometimes leading his mother. Then 
Mrs. Collet, and all her daughters, two and two. Then all th& 
servants, two and two. The dress of all was uniform. Then, 
on Sundays, all the Psalm children, two and two, or chil- 
dren who were taught to repeat the Psalms from memory. 

As they, came inco the church, every person made a lo^** 
obeisance, and all took their appointed places. The mas- 
ters and gentlemen in the chancel; the youths knelt on 
the upper step of the half-pace ; Mrs. Ferrar, her daughters, 
and all her .grand-daughters, in a fair island se&t. Mr. 
Nicholas Ferrar at coming in made a low obeisance ; a few 
paces farther, a lower ; and at the half-pace a lower still'; 
then. went into the reading;-desk, and re^d thQ morning * 

t* £ li R A ft. Qi$ 

fti^vlce aecordimg to the book of Comnum Prayer. Thld 
service over, they returned in the same order^ and with 
the saitie solemnity. This ceremooiad was r^utarty ob-^ 
served every Sunday, and that on every common day was 
nearly the same* They rose at four ; at five went to the 
oratory to prayers ; hi six, said tke Psalms of the hour | 
for every hour had its appointed Psalms, with some poftiotf 
of the Gospel, till Mr. Ferrar had finished bis Coneordanoe^ 
when a chapter of that work was substituted in place of 
the pottion of the Gospel Then they sang a short ^ymti, 
repeated some passages of scripture, and at half past six 
went to church to mattins. At seven said the Psalms of 
the hour, sang the short hymn, and went to breakfast. 
Then th^ young people repaii*ed to their tespeciive places 
of instruction. At ten, to church to the Litany. At 
eleven to dinner. At which season were regular readingd 
in rotation from scripture, from the Bo(kk of Martyrs, and 
from short histories .drawn up by Mr. Ferrar, and adapted 
to the purpose of moral instruction. Recreation was per-^ 
mitted till one ; instruction was Continued till three ; church 
at four, for evensong ; supper at five, or sometimes six ; 
diversions till eight. Than prayers in the oratory : and 
afterwards all retired to their respective apartments. To 
preserve regularity in point of time, Mr. Ferrar invented 
dials in pjainted glass in every room : he bad also sun^-dialsy 
elegantly painted with proper mottos, on every side of the 
churchy and he provided an excellent clock to a sonorous 

Four of Mr. Collet's eldest daughters being grown up tci 

woman's estate, to perfect them in the practice of good 

housewifery, Mr. Ferrar appointed them, in rotation, to 

take the whole charge of the domestic cfeconomy. JEach 

bad this care for a month, when her accounts were regu* 

larly passed, allowed, and delivered over to the next in 

succession. There was also the same care and regularity 

required with respect to the surgeon's chest, and the due 

provision of medicines, and all things necessary for those 

who were sick, or hurt by any misfortune. A convenient 

apartment was provided for those of the fam^ily who chanced 

to be indisposed, called the infirmary, where they might 

be attended, and properly taken care of, without distur* 

banco from any part of the numerous family. A large 

room was also set apart for the reception of the medicines^ 

and of those who were brought in sick or hurt, and wantsad 

vo^. XIV- a 

2J4 F E R R A R. 

imq^^diate assistance. The yodug liidies were requifred to 
dress the wounds of those who were hurt, in order to give 
them readiness and skill in this employment, and to ha- 
bituate them to the rirtues of humility and tenderness of 
heart* The office relative to pharmacy, the weekly 
inspection, the prescription, and administration of medi-' 
cines, Mr. Ferrar reserved to himself, being an excellent 
physician ; as he had for many years attentively studied 
the theory and practice of medicine, both when physic 
fellow at Clare Hall, and under the celebrated profesrsors at' 
Padua. In this way was a considerable part of their in- 
eorpe disposed of. 

In f}rder to give some variety to this system of education, 
he formed the ^family into a sort of collegiate institution, 
of which one was considered as the founder, another guar- 
dian, a third as ^moderator, and himself as visitor of this 
little academy: The seven virgin daughters, his nieces, 
formed the junior part of this society, were called the 
sist&rs, and assumed the names of, 1st, the chief; 2d. the 
patient ; 3d, the cbearful ; 4th, the affectionate ; 5th, the 
8u);)miss ; 6ih, the obedient; 7th, the moderate. These 
all h^d their respective characters t^o sustain, and exercises 
to perform suited to those characters. For the Christmas 
season of 1631 he composed twelve excellent discourses, 
five suited to the festivals. within the twelve days, and 
seven to the assumed name and character of the sisters. 
These weri^ enlivened by hymns and odes composed by Mr. 
Ferrar, and set to music by the music-master of the family, 
who accompanied the voices. with the viol or the lute* 

We shall notice only one other part of this strange sys-' 
tern, which was their nightly watcbings. It was agreed that 
there should be a constant double night.-^ watch, of men at 
one end of the house, and of women at the other. That 
each v\^.tch should consist of two or more persons. That 
the watcbings should begin at nine o'clock at night, and 
end. at one in the. morning. I'hat each watch should,* in 
those fovr hours, carefully aud distinctly «ay over the 
whole book of Psalms, in the way of Aiitiphony, one re- 
peating one verse, and the rest the other. That they 
should then pray for the life'of the kiug and.his sons. The 
time of their watch being, ended, they went to Mr. Ferraris 
door, ba,de him ,good*morrow, and left a lighted candle 
for him. At one he constantly rose, and betodk himself lo 
religipus meditatipOy founding this practice <ou the passage, 

JF RE E A R. 22* 

^^ At ,nyidnight will I rise and give thanks*/' and sonfe 
^ther passages of similar import. Several religious per* 
sons, both ia the neigbbourhaod^ and from distaiyt places^ 
attended these watchings ; and . amongst these the oele* 
bratecl Mr. Richard Crasbaw^ fellow of Peterhouse, who. 
was very intimate in the family, and frequently came from 
Cambridge for this purpose, and at his return often watched 
in Little St. Mary's church, near Peterhouse. It is some- 
whac more singular that a late worthy prelate. Dr. Horhe; 
has given bis sanction^ if not to the severity, at least to a 
moderate observation^ of this mode of psalmody^ in the 
following words^ on a part of his commentary on the I34th 
Psaim : 

. ** Bless ye the Lord, all y^ servants of the Lord, who 
bi/ night stand in the house of the Lord. Bless him in the 
diearful and busy hours of the day : bless him in the so* 
lemn and f^aceful watches of the night.'* 

" The pious Mr, Nicholas Ferrar exhibited in the last 
century an inst|ince of a Protestant family, in which' a con- 
stant, course of Psalmody was appointed, and so strictly 
kept up, that, through, the whole four and twenty hours of 
day and night, tliere was no portion of time when some of 
the chembers were not employed in the performing that 
most pleasant part of duty ancl devotion." 

This extraordinary course of life pursued at Gidding^' 
the {Strictness of their rules, their prriyers, literally with- 
out ceusing, their abstinence, qnortiflcations, nightly watch-^- 
ings, and various other peculiarities^ gave birth to censure 
in sooae, and inflamed the inalevolence of others, but ex^ 
cited the wonder and curiosity of alL So that they were 
frequently visited with different views by persons of all 
denominations, and of opposite opinions. They received 
3^\ who came with courteous civility ; and from^ those whd 
were inquisitive. they concealed nothing, as indeed there 
was' not any thing either in their opinions^ or their prac* 
tice, in the least degree necessary to be concealed. Not- 
withstanding this, they were by some abused as Papists^ 
by others as Puritans. Mr. Ferrar himself, though pos- 
sessed of Mncomn>on patience and resignation, yet in an^ 
guisb of spirit complained to his friends, that the perpetual 
obloquy he endured wa& a sort of unceasing marty)*dom« 
Added to.all.this^ vicflent inve<^tives and inflammatory pam^ 
phlets were published, against them. Amongst others, not 
lopg after Mr. Ferrar's deaths a treatise was addressed to 

* Q 2 ' . ; 

iii F £ R It Ar R 

the parlmment, entitled, '^ The ^ Arnliiiian Nunnery, <ir jkv 
brief description and relation of the late erected monasticat 
place, called the Arminian Nunnery at LHtW Gidding iti 
Huntingdottsbire : humbly addressed to the vri^e consider^ 
ation of the present parliament. The foundation is by a 
company of Ferrars at Gidding/* printed by Thomas Un^ 
derhill, 1641. 

- Among other articles of instruction and amusement in 
this monastery, Mr. Ferrar engaged a bookbinder who 
taught his art to the whole ftimify, females as well as males, 
and what they called pksting- printing, by the use of the 
rolling-press. By this assistance be composed afult har- 
mony or concordance of the evangelists, adorned with 
many beiautiful pictures, which required more than a year 
)br the composition, and was divided into 150 heads or 
chapters. This book was so neatly done by pi^des pasted 
tosether from different copies of tbe same type, as to 
have the appearahce'of having been printed in the ordinary 
way. The employment of the monks, in transcribing 
books; before the »ra of printing, muftt h^e surely gi^ren 
rise ta such a waste of time, as any printing-press could 
have executed in a month, what cost a year's labour in this 
patch-work way. The book, however, was so much ad« 
mired that tbe king desired to see it, and bad another 
made like it, which, we are told, was bound by Mary Col^ 
lett, one of Ferraris nieces, ** all wrought in gold, io a 
new and most elegant fashion." 

How long this strange institution might have lasted, if 
left to itself, cannot be as<iertained. In 1 635 old Mrs. Fer- 
rar, who was a sort of lady abbess, died, and her son, the 
IFounder, on Dec. 2, 1637. The third dny before his death^ 
he ordered a place to be marked out for his grave, and 
being tpid that the place was accordingly marked, he re-* 
quested bis brother, before all the family, to take out of 
his study three large hampers full of hooks, which bad 
been there locked up many years; and &aid, " They wc 
comedies, tragedies, heroic poems, and romances ; let them 
be immediately burnt upon tbe plaee marked out for my 
grave, *and when you shall have so done, come back and 
isform me.'' When information was brought him that they 
were all consumed, he desired that this act might be con-« 
sidered as the testinlony of his disapprobation of all soeh 
productions, as tending to corrapt the mind 9f man, «itid 
improper for the pem$ai of every good. and sincere Chris-^ 

F E R R A R. Q2fi 

-. ikxin after bis death, c(»rlain soldierg of the porUaiqent 
feaaired lo plmider the house at Giddiug. The family 
being uifbn»ed of their hasty approach, thought it prudent 
tErfly; while these fmlitary zealotSf ia the rage of wl^t 
the3r::caUed reformtttioDy ransacked both the church snd 
the house ; in doisg orbicfa, they expressed a particular 
SfMte against the organ. This they broke in pieces, of 
wbidi tiiey made a large lire, and at it roasted several of 
Mr. Ferrar's sheep, which they had kilted, in his grounds. 
This .done, ithey seised ail the plate, fumittire, and provi* 
sion, wfasob they could conveniently carry away. And ia 
this general devastation perished the works which Mr. Fer- 
rar bad compiled for the use of his household, in the way 
we ha!^ alre«ly described, coDsasting chiefly of harmonies 
of Abe Old and New Testament. 

The life of this extraordinary, and in most respects, 
amsabfeman, will be considered in di£Seren,t lights accord- 
ing to the views and objects of tbe reader. His ear)y 
abilities, his travels, and the attention deservedly paid to 
his very mignlltr talents and acquisitions at a period when 
the powers of tbe mind ate scarcely matured, will excite 
our respect and admiration. .His very active and ableeon- 
duct in support <^ the Virginia tompany, realizes tbe ex- 
pectations which his earlier aUlities bad raised, and dis^ 
>plays a scene in wliicb we must equally admire his spirit, 
temper, and judgment. To see openings so brilliant, ta« 
lents so varied and useful, knowledge of such importance, 
buried in a cloisier, disappoints the eager hopes, and leads 
us to indulge a spirit of invecti^ against iastitutions, once 
perhaps defensible, but in a better aura of reiinemeat at 
least '^ useless," and often unjust to society; His biogra- 
pher. Dr. Peckard, seemed indignant at the appellation of 
*' useless enthusiast," which Mr. Gougb applied in b|s 
British Topography; and that eaMuent antiquary afterwards 
allowed that it was certainly unjust so fyx as regarded 
|lie institution at Uttle Gidding ; for to assist their neigh- 
bours in medicine, in advice, and in every thing in their^ 
power, was one of their objects. Bat he asks if the 
charge of enthusiasm was not well founded, and if in a 
aomparative view ** useless,** was a term wholly improper? 
To give medicine oocaaionally^ to advise, or bestow alms, 
within a limited circle, were not the sufficient employ- 
ments of a mind equally able and comprebeusive, stored 
with the wisdom of antiquity, experienced in business. 

230 F E R R A R. 

and matured by travel and exefeito.- In the tray in which 
tib devotional exercises were conduot^d, we mutt perhaps 
find something to blame. His too literal interpretation of 
some passages in scripture^ which Mi him to rise at on^ 
in the morning, mast not only hav^ been ultimately inju-' 
rious to his own constitution^ but^.by deprivihg.tfaecbnsti^ 
tution of repbse at the time best and most naturaj^iy adapted 
to it, must have rendered the body >and mind less fit for 
tliose social. duties which ace the great objects of oar 63^- 
i^tence/ The frequent watchings of the rest of the family 
were equally exceptionable, and the cerensonies which be 
used only as marks of reverence iDight be interpreted by bis 
weaker dependents as sigps of adoration* Iti is the broken 
and the contrite heart, not the frequentiy^bentlraiee, that 
God seems to require : it is the bowing downrof the spkife, 
rather than the body, that he will tiot despise, lifwe 
look at the result of this retirement, the works fooolpcised 
b^.Mr. Ferrar, we shall find notbingf. very advantagedus to 
jtbe. credit of this i^istitution. , . < c ■ 

. The only publication by Mr. Ferrar, bit without' bis 
<liame> .was a translation from Valdesso, eiltitled ^-^ The 
l^umked; and ten Considerations, >&c. written in Spanish, 
i>^ ought out of Italy by Verg^rius, and first set foircbin 
J^^li^n,'. at Basil by Ca&lius Secundiis -Curio, -1^50. After* 
wards translated into Srencb, and printed at Lyons, . 1563, 
and again at Paris, \5l^5. ^nd how translated out of the 
Italian into English, with notes. < Whereunto is? added a 
preface of the author's to his Commentary- on fhadR,6mans, 
Oxford, printed by Litchfield, 1638."* .* • - -' ; 

FERRAR (Robert), the martyred bisiiop of St;r^David's 
in the sixteenth century,* Was an ancestor of the 'preceding, 
^nd bom in UalifaK parish, Yoikshire, probabl^ at Ewood, 
He beclime, when a young man, a paiion regular of the 
order of St, Austin^ but in what priory or abbey is urtc^r*^ 
tain. Having parUy received his academical education* tn 
Cambridge, he retired to a nursery^ for the canoiSs of St. 
Austin, at Oxford, called St. Mary VcoHege (where .Eras^ 
mus had before studied), and here we fit^.*him in 1526, 
find also in Oct. 153$, when as a member of the said cot-r 
lege, he was admitted to th6 reading of the sentences^ 
having a little before been opponent- in divinity. About 

. '. . 

^ Life by Packard, 1790, 8vp.— Life . compUjed by Mr* Goii^b for t(te si3(t^ 
volume of ^be Biograpbia Britaunica. 

F £ R R A R. ^3i 

the same time he became chaj^lain to arohbisbop Cran* 
aier, after whose example be married, a practice at that 
time disallowed among the popish clergy, and in the time 
oi queen Mary, made the ground of a criminal charge. 
Dodd, who treats him with more respect tllan some pro« 
testant biographers, adof)ts from Wood the account, thiai 
he was among the first iof the university of Oxford that re<^ 
cetTeda tincture of Luflheranism, in which he was coti^ 
firmed by Thomas Garret, curate of Honey-lane in Lon^ 
don, who provided hirii vMth books for that purpose, and 
that in the year above'-mentioned he was chosen prior of d 
monastery of his order, called Nostel, or St. Oswald^s, in 
Yorkshire, which be surrendered to the commissioners upoii^ 
the dissolution in 1 540^ being gratified with a pension of 
lOOL per annum. 

This pension he enjoyed until his promotion tp the see 
of St. David^s, to which he was consecrated Sept. ^, 1548.'* 
He was tbe first bishop consecrated upon the bare noinina-^ 
lion of the king, according to the statute which for that 
purpose was published in the first year of his (Edward VI J 
reign. He bad just before been one of the king's visitors 
in a royal visitation, and was atthejsame time appointed 
one of the preachers for bis great ability in that faculty. 
As a bishop, Browne Willis says, he became a most miser- 
able dilapidator, yielding up every. thing to craving cottr«^ 
tiers^ and Wood speaks of him with all the rancour of a 
disciple of Gardiner. The fact, however, seems to be that 
when he first visited bis diocese, he found, among other 
corruptions and dilapidations,* that Thomas Young, the 
chaunter (afterwards archbishop of York), had pulled down 
the great ball in (the palace for the sake of the lead, which he 
Aold, and that he and Rowland Merick, one of the canons, and' 
afterwards bishop of St David's, bad stripped the cathedral 
of plate and ornaments, which they likewise sold for their 
own benefit. On this Dr. Ferrar issued out his commission 
to hi9 chancellor for visiting the chapter, as well as the 
riest of the diocese, and a mistake in the drawing up of this 
commission appears to have given the bishop's enemies the 
first advantage they had over him. The chancellor, to 
whom he left the form of it, drew it up in the old popish 
words, in. which the king's supremacy was not sufficiently 
acknowledged, although the bishop professed to Visit in 
the king's name and authority. This, Young and Merick, 
with the bishop's register^ George Constantine, whotti he 

A^ ; E K R A It. 

Jiad promotecl^ availed tbemsel^^'ofy loot only to resist die 
4Cioinniissioii, but to accuse the biftbop of a pnemumreu 
The prosecution coo^equeut on this, prerentiDg bim from 
paying, the tenths and first-fruita, aflbrded tbein another 
advantage, a#d be was imprisoned. They also exhibited 
^fty-six articles and in£(>ra)ations ag^uinst him» of the most 
frivolous ipnd, all which be fully anaiwered; but ihe debt 
to the crowffi remaining unpaid, be :w&s de/taiiied iotprisoa 
tJMiitil queen Mary^s reign, wbeq he was atlacked on the 
^pre of l;^*e$y, md on Feb* 4y 155^^ was brought, ia 
<pompany with Hooper^ Bradford, and other martyrs, be^* 
fore Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, who» .after treating 
)iim with brutal contempt, sient. him on the 14th of the 
sanie month to bis. diocese, where be \ms to be tiied by 
his successor, Morgan, whose interest it was that he should 
be condemned. I'he principal charges against htm were, 
his allowing the marriage of priests, denying the corporal 
presence in the sacrament, affirming that the mass is not 
a sacrifice propitiatory for the quick and dead, declaring 
that the ho^t ought not to be elevated or adored, and asasrt^ 
ing that man is justified by faith alone. All these Morgan 

{pronounced to be damnable heresies, degraded Dr. Ferrar 
rom his ecclesiastical functions,/ aod delivered biin to the 
secular powen In consequence of this seatence, he waa 
burned at Carmarthen, on the south side of the market*" 
cross, March 30; 1555. It was remarkable, that one Jones 
coming to the bishop a little before his execution, lamented 
the painfulnes$ of the death he had to suffer; but was an- 
swered, that if be once saw bim stir in the pains, of his 
bmning, be should th^n give no credit to his dofCtrioe, 
And what be said he. fully performed, forsibe stood pa** 
Uently, and never moved, till he was beat down with a^ 
^itafF. • . 

. His character, as we have already intimated,, has beeiv 
differiently represented, bishop Godwin asserting that his 
ruin was owing to his own rigjd, rough behaviour; but 
FoK seems clearly of opinion that the fii*^ prosecution 
against him was unnecessary and malicious, and that iha 
second was commenced because he was aprotestant. It is 
certain that many of the fifty^six articles which he was put 
to answer in the reign of Edward YI. were to the last de« 
gre^ frivolous, and showed themselves to be the offspring 
of a revengeful mind ; such as riding a Scotch pad, with a 
bridle «^ith white studs and aoa^e, white ^cotoh stirrups^ 

F ERR ah; sift 

ind white spurs — wearing a hat instead of a cap-^whistlipff 
to bis child — laying the blame of the scarcity of herrings 
to the covetousne^s of fishers, who in time of plenty, took 
•o many that they destroyed the breeders ; an^^ lastly wisb- 
ii^, that at the alteration of the coin, whatever metal it 
watj made of, the pennj^ should be in wei|;ht worth a penriy 
of the same metal, ft is also to be noticed that the fall of 
the doke of Somerset, then lord protector, to whom he 
was chaplain, seems to haf e exposed him to the resent- 
ment of his enemies. 

According to Burnetj bishop Ferrarwas one of the com- 
mittee nominated to compile the English liturgy, but his 
name does not bccur among tliose who compiled the new 
liturgy in 1547, and therefore Burnet probably means that 
he was otie of those appointed to correct the liturgy in the 
time of Henry VIII. in 1540. It is more certain that he 
acqaiesCi^d in the brief confession of faith, in conjunction 
with othei* protestant bishops ai^d martyrs imprisoned in 
London,^ which was signed May S, 1554/ by Feri*ar, Tay- 
lor, Philpot, Bradford, Hooper, &c. &c. Mr. Butler, in 
his eaccellent life of bishop Hildesley, enumerates our ptel 
late among the bishops of Sodor and Mann, to which, acr 
cording to that account, he must have been preferred- in 
154% and resigned it some time before Jan. 1546. ' 

FERRARI (Octavian), an Italian author, was bom of i 
noble femfly at Milan in 1518. After he had studied po- 
lite leatntng, philosophy, and physic, in the universities 
of Italy, he was chosen professor of ethics and politics, in 
the college founded by Paul Canobio at his instigation } 
and' held this place eighteen years. The senate of Venice 
engaged him afterwards to remove to Padua, where he e3f- 
plained the philosophy of Aristotle, with so much skill and 
elegance, that Vimerat, who was professor at Paris under 
Francis I. returning to Italy upon the death of that king, 
fixed upon him, preferably to all others, for the publica- 
tion of his works. He continued at Padua four years, and 
then rietnrned to Milan ; where he continued to teach phi-t 
losophy till his death, which happened in 1586. Thougl^ 
be was excellently skilled in polite literature, yet he was 
principally famous for philosopbyi being esteemed a^ 

1 Fox's Acts and MonumentF-— Harleian MSS. Ko. 420> where there are seve- 
ml p^p^cs reflating to Ferrar's trial, not printed m Fos^-^WMtson't HaclsfaK.— > 
Strype*8 Life of Cranmer, pp. 131, 147, 183, 309, HI, 345, 3^«<RAfth. 0«» 
vol. I.<-*-|>oad*s Chqrch l|i^.^aiktr Mag. vol, UCI. p, 605. 


second Aristot;te, nor was he less illustrioas for bis probt(|' 
than for his learning: 

He was the author of several works; as, 1« ^* De Ser* 
„mouibus Exot^ricis, Venet. 1575/' in which he treats of 
that part of Aristotle's doctrine, which was intended for all 
$o^ts of people, without meddling with the Acroamatics, 
which were only for the use of his scbolare. This book was 
reprinted at Francfort, 1606, with a new dissertation of 
^' De disciplina Encyclica,'' under the genetal title of 
** Clavis Philosophias PeripateticsB Aristotelicse." 2. " D,e 
Origine Romanoruin," Milan, 1607, Though death pre- 
vented Ferrari from putting the last hand to tins work, 
Graevius thought proper to insert it in the first volume of 
his ^^ Roman Antiquities/' and added fais^ own corrections 
to it 3. He tjcanslated Athensus into Latin, and wrote 
some notes upon Aristotle. ^ 

FERRAHI (Francis Bernardine), of the same family 
with the foirmer, was born at Milan about! 577. He ap- 
plied with grea^ success to philosophy 'and divinity, as well 
a,s to the I^tin, Greek, Spanish, and French languages, 
ai^4 was admitted a doctor of the Ambrosian college. . His 
vast knowledge. of books, and abilities in all kinds of learu- 
ipg, induped Frederic Borronoeo, archbishop of Milan, to 
appoint him to travel into divers parts of Europe, in order 
%o purchase the best books and manuscripts, to form a li- 
brary at Milan. Ferrari accordingly went over part of Italy 
and Spain, and collected a great number of books, which 
.laid the foundation of the celebrated Ambrosian library. 
About 1638, h|B was appointed director of tlje college of 
the nobles, lately erected at Padua; which. pffice he dis*- 
charged two years, a,nd then, on account of indispo^tion^ 
returned to Milan. He died in 1669, aged 92. 

He wrote, l. ^^ De Antique Ecclesiasticarum Epistola- 
rum Genere, libri tres," Milan, 1613. 2. •• De Ritu Sa- 
crarum Ecclesiae Catholioas concionum libri tres," Milan, 
)620, a curious work, which was afterwards printed at 
Utrecht, 1692, with a preface by Jcflin Gr^vius. 3. " De 
Yeterum acclamationibus et plausu libri septem," Mil^n, 
1627, likewise reprinted in the sixth volume of Grsevius's 
** Roman Antiquities." Ferrari began several other works 
upon various points of antiquity, both ecclesiastical and 

1 Gen. Dict.—MorerJ.-^KicerOD| toIs, V. •fid X»— Clmnent Bibl. Carieuse.-* 



'^profatie, but though he lived forty*two years after the pub« 
iication of the last^meutioned book^ he did not publish any 
more. All his writings are full of learning and curious re«- 
searcbas into antiquity^ and he wrote- with great clearness 
and 'method, judgoient andiaccuracy, ^ . 

F£R>RARI (OcTAVius)> of the same family with the fur^ 
mery ^^s born at Milan <in 16&7. He went dirougb Jiiis 
studies in theAmbrosian Qc^Uege, and, after be had oqque 
pleted a course of philosophy and. diviiyty, applied himself 
entirely to polite Uierature, inf which he made so great 
progmss, that cardinal Frederic Borrpi^ieQ pi;ocured him 
n ppbfessdrsbip of rhetoric in that college, when he wa$ 
but one ^nd twenty years old« Si^ years aftejr^the re*- 
pubiic of Yenice invited him to Padua, to teach eloquence^ 
poiHiQSjiand the. Greek language, in that iHiiversity, which 
w^ then extnem^ly la its decline ; but Ferrari restored it 
|S6:it9 fprmei? flourishing state. ThQ repubiic rewardefJ hioi 
h^y enlarging, his. pepsion every six years, which from fivQ 
hundred ducats was at last raised to two* thqusand. Aftei» 
thib -death of Ripamoote, 'bis};oriographer of the city of 
•Milan, Fenrnrirwas appojinted .to write the history of that 
city } and a^pen^ion of two hui$drfd crowns was settled on 
^im' for.<tli9A. ptijrpQ^^t H^ begaa^ and cpmpo;^ed eight 
books ; but.An^ing b^ ^puld.tujit have access. to, the neces^ 
sary materiak in the archiyesof Milan, he desisted, ^n4 
]ieft what he bad done to bis heir, on condition that be 
should not publish it. H^s ifepiitation procured him pre* 
seots' and' pensions from foreign princes. Christina of 
Sweden, in whose hoiMKir Ue bad made a public discourse 
npon her mounting the ithrone, presented him with a golden 
jL'hainv s(,Qd honoured bjim with her letters ; and Louis XIV. 
of France gave him a pension of five hundred crowns for 
«even years. He, died .in 1682, aged seventy-five* He 
was remarkable for the sweetness, sincerity, and affability 
of bis temper ; and had so happy a way of mitigating per^ 
ftonsnexisfpier^^d against.^acb.Qther, that he acquired the 
title i0f -' the Reconciler, or^Pacificiitor." 

Hiswork^ are, I. ^^ De re vestiaria libri tres,^* Padua, 
1^49. In 16>4<he itdded four books more to a second 
edition. 2.' ^^ Analecta de re vestiaria, sive exercitationes 
^d Albetti'^Rubenii Cotnmentariumv* de .re vestiaria et lato 
clavo. Ajcoe^sit Dis^rtat^o de veterumlucernis sepulchral 
libus,*' Padua, 1670. This was aftervrards, in 1685, sub- 

^ Geo. I>ict-->Nfceron, voU^XXyilJi.-^^Ieaieiit Bibl. Carieuse.««-Saxii OoomL 

fiSS t EJtR A R f. 

joined to his book ^' De re yestiaria/^ and both are ii% 
serted in the sixth and twelfth books of GrsBvios's ^^ Rdmaii 
Antiquities.^' 3. ^Pallas Sueeica ; Panegyricus Soeco* 
rufld RegidsB unperium auspicanti dictas.'' 4. *^ De lau« 
dibus Francisci Putei.** 5. " Prolusiones xxvi. — Epiatola. 
' — Formulas ad capienda Doctoris insigilia.^^ — Iniscriptiones. 
- — Panegyricus Lodovico Magno Francorilm Regi dictiis.** 
AJl these little piecasy and several others which had been 
printed separately, were collected and disposed into propef* 
order by John Fabric^ius, wht published tbenv nt Heltnstud^ 
1710, in 2 vols. Sro. 6. **^Vene(?a Si^pientia, seu de op* 
time civhatis statuprolusiow" 7. ** Electorom Hbri dtio." 
ih this work our author treats of severa) points of Antiquity* 
8. Origiiies ' LinguoB Italicae,'* Padusi, 1676, folio. Thia 
author of the *• Journal des S^vans, for April 1677^*^ 
gives the following judgment of this work : ^* Scaliger hkA 
before treated of this subject, in twenty-four books^ which 
are unfortunately lo^t Though Ferrari has not taken si> 

f' reat an extent, yet we'find a grefat deal 6f learning ia 
iniw But he appears so jealous of the language or his 
country, that he tbkiks every bther 'origin, but what be 
gives it, as well as tfa^ French and i^ani^h fpptti the Lfttin 
tongne, would be injurious to h^ Tbi^ bindert him from 
assenting to ^the opinion of cardinal Mmbo, who supposes 
that the Italian owes many of its words to the jftrgoki of 
Languedocand Provence.^* Meiiage has written a book 
upon the same subject, to oorrcfct the errors of Ferrari. 
$. ** De Pantomimis et Mimis Dissertatio.'* 10. "Dis- 
sertationes dute; altera de balrteis, de gladiatbfibusr akera.^ 
These two laist are posthumous, and were pufotiabed by 
John Fabricius, the former at WoMc*ibuttel, !714,io 8vo; 
the latter at Heimstad, 1720, inSvo.* 

FERRARI (John Ba1>tist), a Jesuit of Sienna, was the 
author of a Syriac Dictionary, i^ublished in 1622, in' 4to, 
under the name of " Nomenclator Svriacus/* The chief 
object of the author is to explain thO Syriac words in the 
Bible^ in which he was assisted by some leik'fied Miird* 
nites, tie wrote also, ** De Malorum aureorum cultura,*^ 
1646, aiki <* De Floriim cultora,*'' 1683, both published vk 
Rome. He died in 1 655.* 

FERRARI (Gaudenzio), an eminent artist of Valdugfa,, 
was born in 1484. He is by Vasari called ^Gaudenzio 

\ Cleir. Diet.— Bibl. Andemie ei Moderne, ▼•!.* VI.«--Mor«ri.— ^ioerooi taKV^ 

jr £ }l R A R ^ fi37 

Mitatiese.*' Some b«^e sMpposed him a scholar of Peru-^ 
gino, but LQiBa;szq, who was a nurseling of his school, 
names Scotto and Luini as his masters. His juvenile works 
prove what Vasari says, that he had profited by those of 
Lionardo da Vinci. He went young to Rome, and is said 
to have been employed in the Vatican by Raffaelb ; and 
there, it is probable, that he acquired that style of design 
and tone of colour which eclipsed what before him had 
been done in Lombardy* He possessed a portentous fe- 
rac;ty of ideas, e^jual to that of Giulio, but far different ; 
instead of licentious excursions over the wilds of mytho- 
logy* he attached himself to sacred lore, to represent the 
majes^ .of Divine Being, tlie mysteries of religion, and 
emotions of piety, and succeeded to a degree which ac- 
quired him the name of ^^ e^cimie pius^* from a Novarese 
synod. Strength was his 'element, which he expressed less 
by muscles' forcibly marked, than by fierce and terrible 
attitudes, as in the Passion of Christ, at the grazie of Mi- 
Jano, where he had Titian for a competitor ; and in th|^ 
FalL of Paul, at the conventuals of Vercelli, which ap- 
proaches th^t of M. Angelo, at the Paolina; in the expres- 
sion of character and mind, he is inferior perhaps only to 
Raffaelo ; and at St. Cristpforo of Vercelli has shewn him* 
'^If master of angelic grace. With a full and genial vein 
of colour, Gaudenzio unites an evidence which admits of no 
hesitation, and attracts the eye in the midst of other works. 
His tone is determined by the subject, as his carnations by 
chs^racter ; but his draperies and parerga are commended 
more, by caprice anid .novelty, than simplicity and gran- 
deur. Whether it were modesty, situation, ignorance, or 
envy, that defrauded powers so eminent, of the celebrity 
often lavished orl minor talents, is not now to be deter- 
mined. Ferrari was little known, and less favoured by 
VasarJi whom the blind herd of dilettanti on either side*of 
the Alps geoefally follow in their search of excellence ib 
.art He is supposed to liave died in 15^0. There was 
another of the name John An;dR£W Ferrari, or De Fev* 
vara, who was born at Geno^, in 1599, and was a disciple 
of Bernard Castjeili ;. b)il, in order to obtain a more ex- 
tensive knowledge in his profession, he studied afterwards 
f^i* aoone time under Bernardo Strozzi. His appli<;ation 
was attended with success, for h<^ at last attained to such 
a degree of e^^ellence, that he was equally expert in 
<paiiitiii|p i^story, landscape^ fruit, animals^ and flowei:s i 

238 , fc' £ k » A & t. 

and those subjects he finished in a small sizej but with eit-^ 
traordinary beauty and extictriess, so that few of the prince* 
or nobility of his time were satisfied without possessing 
some of his compositions. Benedetto Gastigltone tvas his 
disciple. He died in 1669.* 

FERRARI (Lewis), inventor of the first method of re* 
solving biquadratic equations, was born at Bologna about 
1520. He studied mathematics under the celebrated Ciir-^ 
dan, who, having had a problem given him for sohftion^ 
gave it his pupil as an exercise of his ingenuity ; and this 
led to the discovery of a new method of analysis, which is 
precisely that of biquadratics. Cardan published this me* 
tbod, and assigned the invention to its real author, who^ 
had it not been for this liberal conduct of the master, would 
imve been^ unknown to posterity. At the age of eighteen 
he was appointed a tutor in arithnaetic, and was equal to 
the task of disputing with the most distinguished matfae- 
^maticians of his own age. He was afterwards appointed 
professor of mathejnatics at Bologna, where he die^l in 
1565. Ferrari, although, like many other learned men of 
his age, addicted to astrology, was an excellent classical 
'scholar,- a good geographer, and well versed in theprin- 
.ciples of architecture.* 


FERRARS (George), a learned lawyer, a good histo- 
rian, a celebrated poet, and a most accomplished courtier, 
in the reigns of Henry VIII. Edward VI. Mary, and El i-^ 
zabeth, was descended from an ancient family in Hert* 
fordsbire, and born in a village near St. Alban's, about 
1512. He was bred at O^^ford, and removed thence to. 
I^incoln's-inn, where he applied himself with so much siic* 
cess to the study of the law, that he was soon taken -no*-, 
tice of in Westminster-hall' as an advocate, at the- same 
time that he was much admired at court for his wit and 
good-breeding. His first rise in his profession, and at 
court, was owing to Cromwell earl of ^ Essex, who was 
himself a man of great parts, and took a pleasure in coun- 
tenancing and advancing others who bad talents. Upon^ 
the fall of this patron, he quitted the publie ex^eise of bi» 
profession as a lawyer ; not, however, before he had given 
evident testimonies of his knowledge and learning, m ap^ 
pears from, 1. ^^ The double, translation of Magna Charts 

, ^ > Pilkiogtoa. > ^ . ' Mo«»rU->^iitt9ii'8 Dictioi^firy.^. . ^ 

F E H K A R S. 239 

fmia Freoeh into Latin and English/' 2. ** Oiket laws en^- 
actdd in the time of Henry III. and Edw. I. translated into 

Afterwards he became the.king^s menial servant, whom* 
he attended in war as well as in peace, and served both 
with bis pen and his sword, and rose so m^ch io favour 
with Henry, as to receive from that monarch a veiy con- 
siderable grant in his native county, out of the king's pri- 
vate estate. This was in 1535, yet be managed so ill, 
that some years after, when member of 4)arliament for 
Plymouth, which he was elected in 1542, he had the mis- 
fortune, during the session, to be taken in execution by a 
sheriff's officer, and carried to the compter. This, how- 
ever, being represented to the bouse of commons, occa- 
sioned such a disturbance there, as not only produced his 
discharge, but a settled rule with respect to privilege. Yet 
Mr* Hatseil, in his '^ Collection of cases of Privileges of 
Parliament,'' seems to be of opinion that the measures 
which were adopted, and the doctrine which was then firsj: 
laid down with respect to the extent 'of the privileges of 
the bouse of commons, were more owing to Ferrars's being 
a servant of the king, than that he. was a member of the^ 
house of commons. He continued afterwards in high fa- 
vour with Henry all his reign, who fully approved what tha 
house of commons had done ; and Ferrars seems to have' 
stood upon good terms with the protector Somerset, in 
that of king Edward ; since he attended him as a commis* 
sioner of the carriage of the army into Scotland, in 1548.' 
Edward also had a singular kindness for him, as appeared 
afterwards at a very critical juncttire ; for when the unfor-* 
tunate duke of Somerset lay under sentence of^'deatb, the^ 
people murmuring on the one hand, and the king uneasy 
and ipielancholy on the other, it was thought expedient to 
dio something to quiet and amuse the people, and if pos* 
sible to entertain and divert the soverei<;n. In order to 
this, at the etitraace^ of Christmas holidays, George Fer-^ 
rars, esq. was proclaimed Lord of Misrule, that is, a' 
prince of sports and pastimes. This office, which required 
no common talents, he. discharged for twelve days together 
> at Greenwich, with great magnificence and address, and 
entirely to the king's satisfaction. In this character, at« 
tended by the politest part of the court, be made an ex* 
cursion-to London, wbeiqp he wa^ very honourably received 
by officer^ created for that purpose, splendidly entertained 

by the lord iiiayOr, and when bd took leAve^ had a biacU 
some present made bim in token of respect* 

But although he made so great a figure in the diveraiotii 
of a court, be preserved at the same tifne his credit with 
all the learned worlds and was no idle spectator of pobtieal 
affairs. This appears from the history of the reign of Mary^ 
which though inserted in the chronicle, and published na-^ 
der the name of Richard Grafton, was actually written by 
Ferrars ; as Stow expressly tells us. Our author' was am 
historian, a lawyer, and a politician, even in his poetry ; 
as appears from pieces of bis, inserted in the celebrated 
work entitled <^The Mirror for Magistrates," &c. The 
first edition of this work was published in 1559, by WiU 
liam Baldwin, who prefixed an epistle befor€i the second 
part of it, wherein he signifies, that i( had been intended 
to reprint " The Fall of Princes," by Boccace; as traua* 
lated into English by Lidgate the monk ; but that, upoa 
communicating his design to seven of his friends, all oi 
them sons of tbe Muses, tbcy dissuaded hioi from that, aod 
proposed to look over the English Chronicles, and to pick 
out and dress up in a poetic habit such stories as might 
tend to edification. To this collection Ferrars contributed 
the following pieces: 1. ^' The Fall of Robert Tresilian, 
, Chief Justice of England, and other his fellows, for mift-^- 
construing the Laws, and expounding them to serve the 
Prince's affections." 2. " The Tragedy, or unlawful mmr*^ 
der of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Oloucester/' 3.^ 
** Tragedy of king Richard 11.'' 4. « The Story of dame 
Eleanor Cobbam^ dutches^ of Gloucester," much altered 
and augmented in. tbe second edition of 1687, in which arat 
added, to the four already mentioned, 5. ** The Story of 
Humphrey Plantagenet, duke of Gloucester, protector of 
England." 6. << The Tragedy of Edmund duke of So« 
merset." A farther account will be given of thb work when, 
we come to the article Sackville. . . 

As to our author's religion, it is very probal)Ie, if not) 
certain, that he was a fixed, perhaps a zcfalous, protestant.; 
This may reasonably be collected from his coming into> 
public life under tbe protection of tbe lord Cromwell^ wha 
was undoubtedly of the protestant religion ; and from the: 
high credit in which he stood with the protector Somerset 
aod king Edward, which it is scarce possible be could have * 
attained^ if he had not been so, ^n bis history also of the 
reign of Mary, though be writes with much caution and 

ibodmmiion^ anfl tpeaks highly of the perSotial viHues of 
that priticess, yet be shews himself clearly of the reformed 
reli^ron, especially in the largfe account he gives of the . 
death 4^^ Gramner, and of sir Thomas Wiat's insurrecttom 
Hedi4d lit 1579, at Flatiistead'in Hertfordshire, and vfkU 
buried^in the parish church* 

There flourished ako at the same time with him Edwarb 
Ferrai^;s, or Farrars, a Warwickshire gentleman of good 
family, bred at Oxford, a po^t likewise, and much in the 
good graces of Henry VIII. Wood calls him a very inge- 
Bioas man ; and sa^ys, that. he wrote several tragedies 
and^comedies, none of which are extant He died in the . 
year 1564. 

There was a Henry FIERrars too, of the same county 
and £Aini(y, bred at Oxford, and afterwards famous for hii» 
knowledge and skill in heraldry, genealogies, and antiqui- 
ties. Wood says, thlit out of the collections of this gentle* 
man, Dugdale laid part of the foundation of his elaborate 
work entitled ** The Antiquities of Warwickshire illus- 
trated ;*^and that, after Dugdale's death, several of Fer- 
rars*s collections, that had come into his hands, were repo-* 
sited in the Ashmolean Museum. Ferrars was well known 
to, and respected by, Camden, who, in his discourse of the 
antiquity of Coventry, makes this honourable mention of 
him : "Thus much of Coventry ; yet have you not all this 
of me, but, willingly to acknowledge by whom I have pro- 
fited, of Henry FeiTars of Baldesly, a man both for paren- 
tage And knowledge of antiquity very commendable, and 
my special friend; who both in tlixi place, and also else- 
where, bath 2ft all times courteously shewed me the right- 
way when I was out, and from his candle, as it were, hath' 
Hghtened mine.*' Henry Ferrars had also, in his younger 
days, li; good' talent at poetry, some specimens of which^ 
Wood tells us, he bad seen scattered in divers 1>ooksy 
printed in the reign of Elizabeth. He died in 1633, 
aged eighty-four I ♦* leaving behind him,*' says Wood, 
*^ the eharacter of a well-bred gentleman, a good neighs 
hour, and an honest man." ^ 

F£RRE (ViNCENt), a Dominican, born at Valentia, in- 
Spain, made^atery distinguished figure among the divines 
of the seventeenth century. After teaching divinity for 

1 Biof. Brit — ^Warton'i Hiitonr q{ PMtry.-^PbiHppt'i The'alrum, Sir £, 


S4S F E B R E. . 

come time at Burgos, be was appointed first prafiessbr^at 

- llaiiie, wherebe remained for eighteen years; and: then 
was made prior of Salamanca ; and three years after pce^ 

^ fect« or regent of the student^. He died in 168^* His 
wwks consist of a ^* Commentary on the sunn of 8kiTbo* 
masy*' which appeared at Salamanca and Rome^ 1675~<^ 
1596, in 8 vols, folio. They were at one time held in great 
estimation for p^spicuity and precision* ^ , 

. FERREIN (Anthony), an eminent French anatoosist 
and surgeon, was born Oct. 27, 1693, at Frepech in Age* 
nois. He practised at Montpeliier, and was a. member of 
the faculty of th^t city and of Paris, member of the aca- 

- demy of sciences, and professor of physic in the royal col* 
lege. He was the author of tyifo works; ,one entitled 

. ** Lectures on Medicine,-' th^ other, ^< Lectures on the 
. Materia Medica ;" each in three volumes, i2mo, which 
were published in 1783, and proved the soundness of .his 
knowledge. He held, however, some peculiar notions as 
to the formation of the voice, which he was not able to de- 
monstrate to the satisfaction of his contemporaries. Jle 
died at Paris Feb. 28, 1765).* 

FERRERAS (Don John of), a noble and learned Spa* 
niard, was born at Labanezza, in 1652. After baying 
gone thrqugh his studies at the university of Salamanca, 
be took orders, and obtained the cure of St. James of Ta- 
Ltvera, and afterwards was removed to that of St. Peter at 
Madrid, where he became distinguished by his wit and 
learning. He refused two bishoprics, although he was 
pressed by the court to accept them, preferring a.qpiet. 
and literary life. The academy of Madrid cjhose him; for 
one of its members in 1713, the year of its foundation ; 
and the king confirmed this unanimous approbation of jthe 
literati, by appointing him his librarian. Ferreras.was 
Tery useful to this growing academy, particularly by! as* 
sisting in the composition of a Spanish Dictionary, which 
was undertaken and published by the academy, 1759, in 
six volumes, foHo. He died, four years before, in 1^35. 
He left several works in theology, philosophy, and history ; 
the most considerable of which ,was a general historj of 
Spain, written in Spanish, and translated into French by 
Hermilly, in ten volumes, 4to. Though Mariana^s history 
is more elegantly written^ yet all the Spanish literati agree, 

1 Aloreri. < Diet Hiat. 

F E R R E T I. 2i2 

that it is not so exact and faidiful as that of Ferreras. It 
ends in the reign of Philip IL* 

FERRETI (or Ferretus), ofVicensa, a poet and his* 
torian in the fourteenth century, was one of those who con- 
tributed to revive good taste in Europe, and to banish bar* 
barisai« He wrote a history of his own times, from 1230 
to 1318, in seven books, which was inserted by Murato^iy 
in the ninth volume of the writers on the history of Italy. 
A Latin poem by him, on the actions of Can de la Scala^ 
or Scaliger, is also extant. He is said to have produced 
many other works in prose and verse ; but there is no ac- 
count of his life extant.* 

FERRETI (iEMiuus), in Latin Ferrettus, one of the 
learned civilians in the sixteenth century, was born at Cas- 
teilo Franco in Tuscany, Nov. i^th, 1489. At twelve years 
old he was sent to Pisa, where he studied the civil and ' 
canon law for three years ; be spent two other years in the 
university of Sienna, after which be went to Rome, and 
was made secretary to cardinal Salviati. He was admitted, 
an advocate at the age of nineteen years, after a public dis* 
putation before a numerous audience of cardinals and 
jbishops. He then left his Christian name of Dominicui^ 
and took that of ^milius, according to a custom very pre- 
valent among the literati of Italy. Having accepted of the 
chair of law-professor, he explained so learnedly the law de 
Itebus crtditis (of things with which persons are trusted) 
that it gained him the title of secretary to Leo the Xth» 
%[e exercised that office for some years, after which he re- 
signed it voluntarily, and retired into his native country. 
He left it again at the end of two years, his father having 
been killed there, and went to Tridino in the dukedom of 
Montferrat, where he married ; and having continued there 
four years, be attended the marquis of Montferrat to Rome 
and to Naples, that marquis commanding part of the Frengh 
army. This expedition of the French proving unsuccess- 
ful^ Ferreti endeavoured to return into bis native country, 
but he was taken by the Spaniards, and could not obtain 
hU liberty but by paying a ransom. He went into France, 
and taught the law at Valence with so much reputation, 
that Francis I. made him counsellor in the parliament of 
Paris> and sent him as envoy to the Venetians, and to the 

B Morerur-^Tiraboachi.— Fabric. Bibl. Med. tt Inf. Latin. 

R 2 

Vlorentinef. fie acquitted himself so well of that empTojr^ 
ihent^ that it* determined thei marquis of Montfefrai to seii^ 
him to the court of Charles V. after be had obtained Fran-* 
CIS I.'s consent for that journey^ Ferreti attended the em^ 
peror in the expedition of Africa ; and as soon as he was 
returned into France^ the king sent hini to the Florentines 
during the vrar ip which they were Ifngaged against the 
«mperor. He went back to France wlien they were 5ub^ 
dluedy and followed the court to Nic6, where the pope^ 
Charles V. and the king of France had an interview : hav^ 
ing afterwards resigned the post of counsellor in the parlia^ 
nent, he went to Lyons, and thence to Florence, wher^ 
he wits admitted a citizen. He was sent for to Avignon 
to teadh the law there. His yearly sttpetid was at first 550 

. crowns, then 800, and then 1000; a smn that had never 
been given to any professor in that university. He gained 
tte love both of the inhabitants and of the students, wh6 
shewed it in a very remarkable manner after bis death'; for 
when his successor Craveta began his lectures by strictures 
upon Ferreti, the scholars shewed their attachment to their, 
old master by hissing and driving him from the place. He 
died at Avignon July 14, 1552. Ferreti was a man of ge- 
lieral learning, and well acquainted with classical literature* 
He gave an edition of the principal orations of CScero^ 
printed at Lyons by Gryphius, 8vo, " M. T. Ciceronis Ora^ 
tiones Yerrinse ac Pbilippicae,** dedicated to cardinal Sal- 
riati. His *♦ Opera Juridica** were published in 1555, 
and I59B, 4to. An epitaph written for him by Antonius 
Goveanus, speaks of him in the most extravagant terms of 

FERRETI (John Baptist), of Vincenza, was a Bene- 
dictine monk, and eminent as an antiquary. In 1672 be 
published, at Verona, his ** Mus« LapidaTiae,'* in TolioJ 
which is a collection, though by no means complete of 
correct, of the verses fontid inscribed on ancient monii^ 
ments. Burilfian the younger, in his preface to the "An- 
thologia Latina,*' seems to confound this Ferreti with hiiti 
who flourished in the fourteenth century, speaking of hii 

» history of his own times. The exact peribds of this aU« 

thor's birth and death are not known. • | 

FERRI' (Cmo), a skilful painter, wa^ descended of 'i 

good family, and born at Rome in 1634, where, beinrgia 

» Bayle in 6cn* Diet. — Moreri.^^Niccron, v»K V# 
« Saaii 0«»B(aM.^-CUaieat Vikl(4^«f itii»e.r 

F £ R K 1. «4$ 

^a^ cieoomstanoet} he ptirsued hi8;uictiiiation«nd Usti^ 
lor painting. He was » faithful ioiiutor of Peter da Cor*> 
tona, whose favourite disciple be was^ and to whom b# 
came so near in bis ideas, bis invention, and bis manner of 
painting, that bis cielings particularly are often mistaken 
for Cortona^s.. Generally, however, Mr. Fuseli says, Ferri 
has less grace of design, less ease in bis actions and dra«> 
peries, and less, compass of mind ; but be has more «o« 
lidity and carefulness of finish than his master. Though 
be set great prices on bis works, be was in continual em^ 
ploy. . Pope Alexander y II. had a great esteem for him; 
and his three «ucce^sors were no less favourable to him, 
The great duke sent for him to Florence, and assigned him 
a large pension tp finish the works which Cortona b&d left 
imperfect He entered so well into the spirit of themi 
and acquitted himself so worthily, that the whole work 
seems to be of the same band. The great duke nominated 
him chief of the school of Florence, in which rank be cour 
tinued for a long time. Ferri returned to Rome, where 
be appeared a great architect as well as a good painter* 
Several palaces, and .grand altars, as St. John of the Fio-^ 
rentines, and that of the CbiesaNuova, were raised f|rom bi4 
designsv^ He diverted himself more with drawing than 
painting. He was much importuned, for devices, figurea 
for breviaries, imd titles of books : several of which k^yj9 
been engraved by Spierre and-Bloemart The pope em- 
ployed bim in making cartoons for the Vatican ; and few 
men have worked in more different ways* The cupola of 
St. Agnes, in the palace of Navona, was bis last work< 
The chagrin be felt in seeing the angels of Bacici, a 
Cenoese painter, which were . directly under it, the fp^e^ 
of whose colouring made his appear too weak, is saidta 
bftve Jbeei) the cause of his death. One day be told Jt^a- 
zaro. Baldi, hi? companion, that his cupola appeared very 
different on the scaffold fmm what it did from belpw, . and 
that the angels of Bacici gave bim great pain ; and, falling 
sipk soon after, be died in 1689, at tbe.age of fifty -fivie^ ^ - 
FERRI (P-i^ul), in Latin- Ferri us, a most learned di-» 
vine of Germany, was born of a considerable fsLm'ilfAiJb 
Metz, in 1591, He was sent to study divinity at Mqb- 
tabah, and made so uncommon a progress, tbat be Km 
iulmitted a minister at Metz in 1610. Though be mA 

24e F E R R L 

but nineteen, he bad then published a bdok of poems ; tlie 
advertisement to which he finished in these words, <* sat 
ludo nugisque datum,'' He had eminent talents for preach* 
ing : bis graceful presence, his venerable countenance^ 
and fine delivery, adding great force to his eloquence, 
which was very powerful and moving. His enemies re- 
ported, falsely, that he was one of the ministers whom 
cardinal Richelieu had bribed to procure a coalition of the 
two religions ; however, it is certain that he was grieved 
at the division of the protestants, and hoped that he could 
contribute somewhat to forward a re-uhion ; and it is 
supposed that with this view he Isept a correspondence 
with Dury (See Duav). His death happened in 1669, 
when above fourscore stones were found in his bladder, 
which had occasioned it. He bad a very fine library, 
which he increased by several works of his own. In 1616 
he published *^ Scholastic! Ortbodoxi Specimen,'* in which 
he shews, that the protestant doctrine of grace has been 
taught by the schoolmen. This treatise gained him the 
esteem of Du Plessis Morqay, who wrote him a letter upon 
it, in which he advised him about another work he was 
upon, entitled ** Le dernier desespoir de la Tradition,^' 
&c. In 1630 he published at Leyden, ** Vindicim pro 
Scholastico Orthodoxo," against Perinus, an eminent Je- 
suit, who had published in 1619 a book entitled <* Thra- 
sonica Pauli Ferrii Calvinistse." In 1654 he published 
^* General Catecbisme de la Reformation," which was 
answered by Bossuet; and left behind him collections for a 
history of Metz, which are referred to by Caimet, as 
abounding in curious researches; and a vast number of 
sermons, of which about eleven hundred are on the epistle 
to the Hebrews. * 

FERRIER (Armand, or Arnold db), an eminent law- 
yer, called sometimes the Cato of France, was born at 
Toulouse in 1506. He was admitted a doctor of law at 
Padua ; and from a professor in the university of Toulouse, 
was raised to be a counsellor in the parliament of the same 
, city. It is remarkable of him, that though he was a pro- 
testant in his heart for a good part of his life, he did not 
profess himself to be so till a little before his death. He 
had indeed often discovered that he was no bigotted papist; 
and was so strongly suspected of heresy in 1559, that he 

^ Bayle ia Gen. Dicti«— Morari. 

r E R R I E. JL 247 

• * * 

^e^uld h^^veb^en imprisoned if he had not made his escape. 
He harangued, in 1562, in the councit of Trent, whitner 
he was sent ambassador by the French king ; and he ex^ 
pressied himself in so bold a manner in favour of the in* 
terests of France, that the Italian priests 'were highly 
offended at him. He went afterwards ambassador to Ve* 
nice, where he continued several years ; and took occastoii 
to assist father Paul in collecting materials for his *' His- 
tory of the Council of Trent." On his return from Venice^ 
Bu Plessis Mornay, who knew his thoughts, pressed him 
«o earnestly to declare the truth, that Ferrier openly pro* 
fessed himself a protestant, and the king of Navarre mad6 
him his chancellor. He was about seventy-six years old 
at the time of his renouncing popery ; and he only lived t6 
seventy-nine. He died in 1585. It has been said that he 
conspired with the chancellor d6 P Hospital to break the 
knot which united the French king with the holy see ; to 
assemble a national council, in which the king of France^ 
after the example of the king of England, should be de^ 
clared head of the Gallican church ; and to usurp all the 
estates of the church of France. He was reckoned among 
the greatest men in Europe, and was the author of some 
literary works.* 

FERRIER (Jeremy), a protestant minister and pro* 
fessor of divinity at Nismes, of the seventeenth century, is, 
contrary to his namesake in the preceding article, mef- 
morable for becoming a papist, even after having main* 
tained in public disputation, in 1 602, that *^ Pope Clement 
the Vlllth was properly the Antichrist," yet he was the 
first who began to yield in the political assemblies of the 
reformed in France. Many circumstances in his behavioQr 
had made him suspected as a pensioner of the court, as -a 
false brother, and a traitor to the churches. He did not, 
, however, openly change his religion till a popular tumult 
^ arose against him, in which bis house was plundered, and 
himself so near being murdered, that, for th^ sake of 
escaping he was obliged to lie three days concealed in*a 
tomb. After this he settled at Paris, where he erideavourfed 
. to make his fortune. He published in 1614, the year aflfer 
his conversions^ a book of controversy upon the siibjfect 
of antichrist. The king cmploye4 him iti sevei-al l)ii* 
portant affkirsi; and in 1626 he was commanded tb attend 

» ]pay1e in Gen. Diet.— Mt reiju 

«4S F £ it R I E B. 

his msyesty to Bxitapny^' where he was honoured with tliA 
-title of state ^nd privy counsellor. Cardinal de Richelieu 
had a particular esteem for him. He died of a hectic fever 
in 1626. His faoaily was numerous ; and he made all bis 
children promise that they would live and die in the catho- 
lic, faith. His only daughter married M. 7'ardieu, lieu* 
t;eiiant*crimiQel of Paris^ concerning which couple some 
curious anecdotes are jrecorded in Boileau^s tenth satire, 
and in the notes of St. Marc. Ferrier was the reputed 
author of a famous political work, entitled '' Catholique 
d'Etaty*' published in 1625, in answer to some libels which 
the king of Sf^in^s partizans had written against France, 
upon- allying herself with the protestant powers to the in- 
jury of the catholic religion.* 

FERRIER (John), a French Jesuit^ and a native of 
Rouergue, and confessor to the king of France, was born 
fn 1614, and turned a Jesuit in 1632. He bad taught 
philosophy four years, divinity twelve years, and ethics 
two years. He bad been principal of the college of Tou- 
louse, and had acquitted himself very well of that employ- 
ment. The Jesuits, probably looked upon him as a very 
able man, since they designed to make him the king^s 
confessor, to which office he was promoted in 1670> JJe 
died in the convent of the Jesuits at Paris, October 29^ 
1674. He was one of the ablest antagonists of Jansenius's 
followers, and bis thesis concerning probability, which he 
maintained at Toulouse the 8th and the 1 1th of June 1659^ 
made a considerable noise. He wrote a Latin answer to 
father Baron's objections against the ^^ Scientia media,'' 
entitled " Responsio ad Objectiones Vincentiauas," Tou- 
louse, 1668, 8vo. He intended also to publish a body of 
divinity, but only the first volume of it has been printed, 
which treats " Of the Unity of God according to St. Au- 
gustin and St. Thomas's principles." His other works are 
written in French, and relate for the most part to Jan- 
senism. He wrote two letters against Arnauld, and he 
gave an account of all that passed in 1653, concerning the 
a£^ir of Jansenism. According to the bibliographer of 
« tfbe Jesuits, . he wrote a book concerning the immortality of 
the soul in 1 660, and another on the beauty of Jesus Christ 
in. 16.57 ; but these were the production of John Ferrler, a 
Jfsuit of-Guienne. * 

} S*^yle in Gen. Diet.— ^Moieri^ ^iBajrlein Gen. Diet ' 

F B R R I E R. (X«i 

; . ' raiRRIBR (Claude de) & learned French bmUaii, vnt% 
4octor of }aw in the university of Paris, in which city? he 
• was born 1639, and taught law at Paris, as fellow, till 
1694, when he was appointed professor at. Rheims, whei^ 
be acquired great reputation, and died May 1 1, 17 15, aged 
seven -seven, leaving a great number of works, which be- 
came very popular, and the^bookseilers of Paris, for whom 
be wrote, were enriched, but he was not. His talents 
were considerable; but a certain arrogance of manner^ 
lind bigotry to his own opinions^ prevented him from being 
distinguished in his profession. The principal of his works 
are, 1.*^ Commentaires sur la Coutume de Paris," 2 vols. 
12mo. 2. "Traits des Fiefs," 1680, 4to. 3. " Recueil 
des Commentateurs de la Coutume de Paris," 17 14, 4 voisf, 
fol. 4. " La Jurisprudence du Code," 1 684, 2 vols. 4io. 
3. «< Du Digeste," 1688, 2 vols. 4to. 6. "Des Novelles,^* 
1688, 2 vols. 4to. 7. " La Science des Notaires," 1771, 2 
vols. 4to. 8. " Le Droit du Patronage," 1686, 4ta. 5» 
** Institution Coutumiere," 3 vols. l2mo^ 10. ** latrod^e* 
tion a la Pratique,^* 1758, 2 vols. 12mo, << Le Diet, de 
-Droit," 1771, 2 vols. 4to, is by Claudius Joseph, his son, 
4vho was dean of the law faculty in the university of Paris.' 

FERRON (Arnauld du), a French lawyer, was bom 
in 1515, and was a counsellor of the parliament of Bour- 
deaux. ile was an elegant writer in Latin, an imitator of 
the style of Terence, admired by Scaliger, and honoured 
by him with the name of Atttcus. He continued the his« 
tory of France id Latin (which Paulus ^milius, a writer 
of Verona, had given from the reign of Pharamond to 
1488) as far as the end of the reign of Francis L This 
work was published at Paris, by Vascosan, Jn 1554, foL 
and 1555, 8vo. It is copious, but not too long, an4 
abounds with curious anecdotes and very exact details. 
He wrote also " Observations sur la Coutume de Bour4 
deaux," Lyons, 1565, fol. He had considerable employe 
ments. His death happened in 1563, when he was na( 
more than forty-eight. • 

FESCH (Sebastian), an able antiquary, doctor and law^ 
professor at Basil, and afterwards secretary of that city,| 
was born July 6,. 1647. His regular studies were philo* 
sophy and law, to which he joined a knowledge of Greek 
and Roman antiquities, induced at first by a fine museuot 

> ^CorerL-r-Nictrani vol. XL *» Moreri.^Dict ^uH 

• .V 

^30 P £ S C H. 

ivhich his father had, and which he afterwards greatly 
enriched. Id 1667 he went to Grenoble and Lyons, whete 
be contracted an acquaintance with Spon ; and after visit-' 
ing some other parts of France, arrived in England, ami 
formed an intimacy with many of its learned men, partf«> 
cularly Dr. Thomas Gale, who was then employed on bis 
edition of Jamblicus ; and Fesch sup][)lied him with some 
useful observations from an ancient manuscript in his li* 
brary, an obligation which Gale has politely acknowledged* 
After his return to Basil, in 1672, he supported some 
.theses ** De Insignibus," in which he displayed much 
learning, and which were reprinted in German in the form 
of a treatise. In 167S he set out on a tour in search of 
.antiqiiary lore, to Austria, Carinthia, and Italy, making 
some stay at Padua with his friend Charles Patin, who was 
then professor of medicine. He was unanimpusly ad* 
mitted a member of the society of the Ri.covrati, and pro- 
.sou need on that occasion a panegyric on the republic of 
Venice, in Greek and Latin verse, before the principal 
personages of the city of Padua, and it was afterwards 
printed. At Rome he visited every object of cariosity, 
and made considerable additions to his collection of Greek 
and other rare medals. Having examined the very rare 
piece of Pylaemon Euergetes, king of Paphlagonia, he 
wrote a dissertation on it, which Gronovius reprinted in hrs 
Greek Antiquities, On his return home he took the de^ 
gree of doctor in law, and was soon after chosen syndic of 
the city of Basil, and secretary, and regent of the schools. 
.He died May 27, 1712. Besides the works above**men« 
tipned, be published some dissertations on subjects of law 
and philology, and a discourse on the death of Brands 
muller, the learned lawyer. ' 

FESTUS (PoMP£ius), was a celebrated grammarian of 
antiquity, who abridged a work of " Verrius Flaccus de 
significatione verborum,*^ as is supposed, in the fourth 
century. Flaccus^s work had been greatly commended by 
Pliny, AuIusGellius, Priscian, and other ancient writers, 
but Festus in his abridgment took unwarrantable liberties ; 
for he was not content with striking out a vast number of 
words, but pretended to criticize the rest, in a manner, as 
Vossius has observed, not favourable to the reputation of 
Flaccus. Another writer^ however^ in the eighth century> 

* Moreri. • 

F E 9 T U S. 251 

i^fterwards revenged this treatment of Flaccus, by abridg- 
ing JPestus in the same way. ' This was Paul the deacon^ 
vi^ho so maimed and disfigured Festus, that it was scarce 
possible to know his work, which lay in this miserable 
state till, a considerable fragment being found in the library 
of cardinal Farnese, some pains were taken to put it again 
into a little order. The first, or princeps editio, is without 
a date, but supposed to have been printed in 1470, which 
was followed by one with the date of 1 47 1. Since that time 
there have been various editions by Scaliger, Fulvius Ursi- 
nus, Aldus Minucius, and others ; but the most complete 
is the Delphin edition of Paris, 16S1, in 4to, published by 
Oacier, or perhaps the reprint of it by Le Clerc, Amst. 
J699. It is also among the <^ Auctores Latins Linguae^^ 
collected by Gothofredus in 1585, and afterwards reprinted 
with emendations and additions at Geneva, in 1622. Sea- 
liger says that Festus is an author of great use to those 
who would attain the knowledge of the Latin tongue with 
acfcuracy« * 

FETTI, or FETI (Domenico), an eminent painted, 
was born at Rome in 1589, and educated under Lodovico 
Civoli, a famous Florentine painter. As soon as he quitted 
the school of Civoli, be went to Mantua ; where the paint«» 
ings of Julio Romano afforded him the means of becoming 
a great painter, and from them he derived his colourings 
and the boldness of his characters. Cardinal Ferdinand 
Gonzaga, afterwards duke of Mantua, discovering the 
merit of Fetti, retained him at his court, furnished him 
with means of continuing his studies, and at last, employed 
him in adorning his palace. Few painters, according to a 
modem connoisseur, have possessed a greater freedom of 
pencil, a more harmonious style of colouring, or a greater 
knowledge of expression than Fetti. If he painted a head 
of character, he entered into the detail of it with such spi-^ 
rit, that it produced an astonishing relief ; and that too 
without the least hardness, so judiciously are the tints 
varied. It is the same with bis large compositions ; the 
light and shade are ingeniously balanced ; the figures are 
gnauped virith so much art, and the general disposition is so 
well observed, that they produce the most striking and 
harmonious effects. His pictures are scarce, and much 
sought after. He painted very little for churches. Going 

* Fabric. Bibl. Lat.^M«reri.-— Saxii OoooMst, 

fM . F E T T I. • 

to Venice; be abandoned himself to disorderly courses, 
which put an end to his life in its very prime, in 1624, when 
be ,was only in bis thirty-fifth year. The duke of Mantua 
regretted him exceedingly, a,nd sent for his father and 
sister, whom he took care of afterwards. The sister, who 
painted well, became a nun, and exercised hjer talent in 
the convent, which she adorned with several of her works^. 
Other religious houses in Mantua were also decorated with 
her paintings. ' 

FEUILLE'E (Louis), a Franciscan friar, of the order 
of minims, celebrated as a botanist and natural philoso* 
pher, was born at Mane in Provence, in 1660. He first 
Visited Cartbagena and Martinico, in 1703 and 1704, and 
afterwards travelled to the western coast of South America^ 
investigating the natural productions of New Spain and the 
neighbouring islands, from 1707 to 1712. All these 
voyages he accomplished under the patronage of Louis 
XIV. by whom he was liberally .pensioned, and who caused 
an observatory to be built for him at Marseilles, in which • 
town Fei|ill6e, worn out with his labour^, died in 1732. 
fie is said to have been of that modest simple character, . 
which best becomes an ecclesiastic and a true philosopher, , 
except perhaps in his resentment against Monsieur Fre*' 
sier, a rival philosopher and naturalist, sent out likewise 
by Louis XIV. whom he criticises at some length, in a 
rather contemptuous style, in the preface to the Journal of . 
one of his voyages. 

Feuill^e published ^* Journal des Observations physiques, 
mathematiques, & botanlques, faites par Tordre du Roi, 
9ur les cotes orientales (occidentales) de TAmerique meri-- 
dionale, & dans les Indes occidentales, depuis Pann^e 1707 . 
jusques en 1712,'' Paris, 1714, 2 vols. 4to, with numerous 
plates* This work is not elegant in style, but valuable fot , 
solid information upon all the subjects announced in its 
title, with various incidental matter besides. What relates 
to Peru makes a principal part of these volumes. In his ^ 
descriptions of plants, their reputed medical virtues met 
^th Is^udable attention from FeuiU^e, and are always added 
tQ his botanical descriptions, and he describes some species 
still unknown to us. The magnificent Flori-pondio (Datura 
firborea) was here first made known to botanists. He pub<» 
liabed another quarto volume, with a similar title, in 1725|' 

» Ar||^?iUe» vol. L-^-J^ilKingtoB^— Sir H. SUaose't CStalogve, p. 4L * 

f E 1 L tre. *n 

lathe pre&ee to which he censures Frezier, as above inen<» 
Ironed. The appendix, of 71 pages, with 50 plates, de<» 
scribes many extremely interesting plants of Chili. These 
loo botanical plates were, according to Haller, republished 
at Nuremberg in 1756 and 1757, in 2 vols. 4to, with a 
German translation of their descriptions. The original 
drawings of Feuill^e, many of which were never publishedj^ 
remain in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, but they are 
very rudely coloured, and without any pretensions to th^ 
•kill of a painter.* 

• FEUILLET (Nicholas), was a priest and canon of >St 
Cloud near Paris, whose preaching, those of his communion 
say, was zealous, and his doctrine sound. He had ac- 
quired a kind of licence to speak with the utmost freedoni 
to persons of the first rank at court, and reprove their irre* 
gularities ; from whence this verse of the 1 13th Psalm was 
applied to him ; ^^ I will speak of thy testimonies also, even 
before kings, and will not be ashamed/' Feuillet converted 
many sinners, which Boileau alludes to when he says^ 
" Laissez k Feuillet reformer Tunivers ;" and was the prin- 
Cipal instrument in the conversion of M. de Chanteau, cou-< . 
Sin-german of M. de Caumartin, counsellor of state. Tb6 
'irery instructive History he gave of this conversion was . 
printed; with some of his other works, 1702, 12mo, and 
has been several times reprinted. Feuillet died at Paris^ 
September 7, 1693, aged seventy-one. He left somd . 
■^ Letters," and a ** Funeral Oration*' on Henrietta of Eng* 
land, duchess of Orleans.* 

FEUGIUIERES (Manasses de Pas, Marquis de), ona . 
.^f the bravest French officers in the seventeenth century^ 
was the son of Francis de Pas, head chamberlain to Henry 
IV. descended from the ancient house of Pas in Artois, and 
of Magdeleine de la Fayette, and was born June I, 1590^ 
at'Saumur. He rose by his merit and birth to the highest 
military offices, commanded the king's forces twice as 
chief, conducted the famous siege of Rochelle, where hd 
was taken prisoner, and contributed greatly to the surren** 
der of that important place, through the intrigues of Mad; 
de Noailles, his wife's mother. Being afterwards sent 
into Germany as Simbassador extraordinury, he did great 
service to the state, was made lieutenant-general of Metz,' 
T0ul, and Verdun at his return, and died at Thionville/ 

1 Moreri.-^Dictr Hilt.— Reea'i CjrplopvdSa.-^HaUer Bibl. Bot. ' 
* Mm- cfi. 


lilarcb 14, 1^40,. of the wouods be bad received the pre* 
.ceding year at the siege of that city> during which he w|is 
xoade prisoner. His **.Negociations*' were printed in Ger* 
laanj^ 1633, and 16S4, Paris, 1753, 3 vols. 12aio. Isaac 

^ DE Pas, marquis de Feuquieres, his son, was also lieute- 
nant-general of the king's armies, counsellor of state in 
ordins^ry, governor of Verdun, and lieuteuant*general of 

. ITouI. He was sent as ambassador to Germany, and Swie- 
den, 1672, gave proofs of his cpurage ^nd prudence during 
this latter embassy, and died ambassador extraordinary in 
Spain, May 6, 1688, after having been viceroy in Ame« 
rica, 1660.* » 

* . FEUQUIERES (Anthony de Pas, Marquis of), aqvl 
pf Isaac, and grandson of the preceding Manasses de Pas, 
.was born in 1648, but did not greatly signalize himself by 
|iis military talents till he was forty years old, when, in Ger- 
many,, he performed so extraordinary services, at the head 

. of only 1000 horse, tbatjn the ensuing year, 1689, he was 
advanced to the rank of mareschaUde-camp. He then dis- 
tinguished himself greatly in Italy, and was promoted to 
be a lieutenant-general in 1693, in which capacity he 
served till his death in 1711. Before his death he wrote 
to solicit the protection of Louis XIV. for his only son, and 
was successful in his application. The marquis of Feu- 
quieres was an excellent officer, of great theoretical know- 

. ledge, but of a severe and censorious turn, and rendered 
not the less so by being disappointed of the mareschars 
staff. It was said by the wits, *^ that be was evidently the 
boldest man in Europe, since he slept among 100,000 of 

. bis enemies,'' meaning his soldiers, with whom he was no 
favourite* His ** Memoirs,'* are extant in 4to, *and iii four 
Tolumes 12mo. They contain the history of the generals 
of Louis XIV. and except that the author sometimes mii^ 
represents, for the sake of censuring, are^ esteemed' ^A 
among the best books on the art military. , The clearness 

. of the style, the variety of the facts, the freedom of the 
reflections, and the sagacity of the observations, render 

. these Memoirs well worthy of the attention, not only of 
officers, but of all enlightened students and politicians. * 

FEUTSKING (John kENRY), a Lutheran divine, was 
"born in the duchy of Holstein, in 1672. After an useful 
elementary education^ he studied philosophy and theology 

« Moreri.— Biet. Hbt. in Pas. » Ibid. 

^# « f «* ^ 

F E U T S K I If G. ■ sfS$ 

^ RostQck and Wifctemberg) where be was created doctor 
lo philosophy, in 1692. In 1697, he was appointed pastor 

] and superiotendant of the diocese of Jessen, and afterwards 
became pastor of the church of St. Bartholomew at Zerbst, 

^ preacher to the court, confessor and ecclesiastical coun** 

. sellor,' and snperintendant of the diocese of Zerbst, in Ati* 
halt. , In ,1709 he was appointed professor of divinity, and 
assessor oiP the ecclesiastical consistory of that city. At the 
same time he preached once a week before the electress of 
i^axony, and was honoured with the post of ecclesiastical 

'counsellor to the dale of Saxe-Gotha. His last appoint* 

. metit .was. that of confessor to the electress of Saxony, in 

^'1712, an office that he enjoyed but a few months, as he 

^ died in )7 13, when only forty-one years of age. His works, 
enumera|;ed by Moreri, are very numerous, and chiefly on 
theological subjects, but are now little known.' 

: FEVARDENTIUS, or FEU-ARDENT (Francis),* a 
Franciscan friar, was born at Coutances in Lower N6r« 

, mandy, in 1541 ; and might have inherited a large estate, 
had he addicted himself to the military profession. Bayle 

'thinks that he judged rightly of himself and his talents, 
and obtained a much greater reputation as a divine than as 
asoldier. It does not appear, however, that he attainedi 
aiiy just eminence. Daille observes, that <' be deserted 
his name Feu^ardent perfectly well : for tfiat he was so trans- 
ported with anger, hatred, and fury, as to be seldonis in his 
right senses ;" and he certainly was as fiery a zealot, 
and as bitter a persecutor, as the protestants ever bad. 
He was one of the most seditious preachers who raised 
the disturbances against Henry III. . and Henry IV. i^or 
did he spare even the chief of the . leaguers, when' *he 

^ thought him guilty of something that might prejudice 
the cause of the rebels. He wrote commentari)es''on 

\ some books of scripture, and translated somd works 'of 
the fttbers into French. He published at Paris, 1h* 1-576, 
*' The fiye books of Irenaeus,'* revised and corrected in 
several places from an ancient manuscript, with an addi- 
tion of five entire chapters, which were in his manuscript 
at the end of the fifth book. He has the end o£ 
each chapter, such notes as be thought necessary for the 
better understanding of bis author, which are for the most 

'- part useful and learned. The second edition, printed at 

* Moreri. 


MS$ t E'V ARB RM T I tJ & 

Cok^iije in 1596, afkl againr id 1630, and at Paris in lS39> 
is:beuer than tbe first, as it contains the Greek ]>a89age8 tt 
lren0cu$, which were in Epipbanius, and some other an^ 
pient writers. Feuardent published aisd some books of 
controversy,* which the catholics themselves own to have 
been written with too much passion. He died at Paris in 
Jf>\Oy and before his death Is said to have attained a more 
ealm and christian«>like temper.' 

FEVRE (Anne lb). See DACIER. , 
FEVRE (Guy de Sieur de la BoDErtE), or Guma 
Fabricius Boderianus, was born of a noble ftimily in the 
territory of Boderie, in Lower Normandy, in 1541. He 
acquired great knowledge in the Oriental langaages, and 
bad, with his brother Nicholas, the principal part in thd 
edition of the Polyglott of Antwerp, though that bonoor ii 
Usually given to the learned Arias Montanus. Le Fevre 
was secretary to the duke d^AIen^on, brother of king 
Henry III. ai>d composed several works in French, verse 
9iid prose, but in a style so vulgar and confused, that none 
of them are read. He died 159S. Nicholas le Fevre de 
la Boderie, hia brotheri was also very ingenious ; he died 
after 1 605. Anthony le Fevre de la Boderie, another 
brother, distinguished himself in the reigns of Heivry IV. 
tod Louis XIII. by his skill in negociations, and his em- 
bassies to Rome^ the Low Countries, and England, where 
he was loaded with presents. He discovered the marechal 
de Biron^s correspondence a^ Brussels, and rendered im- 
portant services to Henry IV. He died 1615, aged sixty^ 
and left *^ Traits de la Noblesse, traduit de Tltalien de 
Jean-Baptiste Nenna/' printed 1583, 8vo. His << Letter^ 
eo Negociations** were published 1749, 5 vols. 12mo, and 
he is also supposed to have been among the authors of the 
^' Catholicon/* He married the sister of the marquis de 
Feuquieres, governor of Verdun, by whom he had two 
daughters; one died very youngs the other married M» 
Arnauld d'Andilli 1613, who by her obtained the estate of 
Pomponne, and la Briotte.' 

FEVRE (James LE), or Jacobus Fabsr, Stapulensis, 
a man of genius and learning, was born at Estaples, in 
Picardy, about 1 440 ; and was one of those who contri- 
btited to revive polite literature in the university of Paris. 
He became, however, suspected of Lutheranism, and liraa 

* Bayle in Gen. Diet.— Nicevoo, toI. XXXlX.—Moreri. 
» AlorerL^Dict. BisU— Mceron, voU XXXVlIL-^CIiMifepie. 

DJiKgi^ i:a gire, W8]/! to the ourtrage of certain ignorant 
2eKlqfts» who fwffered him not to rest He then retired 
ftoQi' Paris to MeauK, where the bishop was William Bri- 
connet, a lo^er of the sciences and learned men ; but th« 
persecution raided by the Franciscans at Meaux obliging 
ibe bishop, agaiinst his inclination^ to desert Faber, the 
latiter was forced to. retire to Blois, and from thence to 
Guienne% Margaret queen of Navarre, sister to Francis I; 
honoured him with her protection, so that be enjo3f ed full 
liberty at Nerac till his death, which happened in 1537, 
w)ien be was little short of a hundred.' 

He was one of those, who, like Erasmus, though they 
did not outwardly defmrt from the church of Rome, and 
also disapproved in some, things the conduct of those who 
established the reformation in Germany, yet at the bottom 
werja inclined to a change.. He took a journey to 8tras<i> 
h^Tgf by the queen of Navarre's order, to confer with 
Bucer and Capito concerning the reformation of the 
church. He published, so early as 1512, a translation of 
St. PauPs epistles, with critical notes and a commentary, 
in which he. frequently censures the Vulgate. He pub- 
lished in 1522 similar notes and commentary upon th^ 
othec parts of the New Testament. Natalis Bedda, a di« 
Tine of Pavisi censured his divinity, as well as that of 
Erasmus; and theinquisitor^of Rome under Clement Vill: 
put bis, commentary. on the whole New Testament in the 
catalogue of prohibiteid books, till it should be corrected 
and purged from its errors. Father Simon has passed a 
judgment oo this work^of Faber's, which he concludes by 
observing, that' ^^ he ought to be placed among the most 
able commentatofs of tiie age. But Erasmus,. who wrote 
at ' the same time, and with infinitely more politeness^ 
greatly lessened Lds reputation. The works of Faber are 
BO longer r^ad at Paris; whereas those of Erasmus are 
highly esteemed even at this day." 

His ^natural moderation left him when he wrote against 
his 'friend Erasmus^ and the quarrel did not end at all to 
his advantage. Faber was angry at Erasmus, it is said, 
because Jie had not adopted all his opinions upon certain 
parages of scripture, when he published. his notes on the 
New Testament. He therefore rudely attacked him, and 
accused him of having advanced impious notions. Eras-^ 
mui defended himself ;v and when he had, said what was 
iufficient for that piirpose, begged of bis adve^rsary tbe 

You XIV. S 


continuance of his friendship, assuring him thdt be ba^ 
always loved and esteemed bim. The letter he wrote him 
on this occasion is dated April 1517, the year that Luthet 
began to preach. Erasmus was very sincere in his profes- 
iions to Faber ; and, accordingly, was much displeased 
with the compliments which he received from bis friends 
on his victory, desiring them not to change their opinion 
of Faber on account of this quarrel. What Erasmus wrote 
on this head to Tonstal, the English ambassador at Paris 
in 1517, doe* much honour both to himself and Faber. 
** What you write concerning my answer to Faber, though 
1 know you wrote it with a most friendly intention, yet 
gave me uneasiness on a double account ; because it re- 
vives my past grief, and because you seem on this occasion 
to speak with less esteem than I could wish of Faber ; a 
man who for integrity and humanity has scarcely his equal 
among thousands. In this single instance only has he 
acted unlike himself; in attacking a friend, who deserved 
iiot such usage, in so violent a • manner. But what man 
was ever wise at all times? And I wish I could have spared 
my adversary : but now I am afBicted for two reasons ; 
both because I ani constrained to engage with such a friend^ 
and because I perceive some to think less candidly of Fa- 
ber, for whom it is my earnest desire that all should en^ 
tertain the utmost esteem.'' These liberal sentiments had 
their effect on Faber, who repented of his attack, and made 
no reply. 

Some very singular things are related of his last hours. 
Margaret of Navarre was very fond of Faber, and visited 
him often. He and other learned men, whose conversa^ 
tion greatly pleased the queen, dined with her one day; 
when, in the midst of the entertainment, Faber began to 
weep. The queen asking the reason, he answered. That 
the enormity of his sins threw him into grief v not that he 
bad ever been guilty of debaucheries, but be reckoned it 
a very great crime, that having known the truth, and taught 
it to persons who had sealed it with their blood, he bad^^ 
had the weakness to keep himself in a place of refuge, far 
from the countries* where crowns of martyrdom were dis* 
tributed. The queen, who was eloquent, comforted hnn; 
yet he was found dead a few hours after going to bed^ 
which, considering bis very advanced age, was not very ex- 
traordinary. He wrote several works in divinity, besides^ 
ibo^e above'^pientioQedy particularly an edition of the 

FE^V RE. %5i 

Pjsalter, in fite languages, Paris, 1 509, fol. ; ^^ Trait6 <]« 
puplici, et unica .Magdalena," 4to;/^ Agones martyrum 
fiiensis Jaouarii/' foL without date of place or year, but 
.of the beginning of the sixteenth century ; a French ver- 
sion of the Bible, Antvrerpi 15^0, foL very scarce, knowR 
l^y the name of the Emperor's Bible, from the printer'^ 
naipe. This translation, say the catholics, was the foun« 
<lation of those which the.protestants and doctors of Louvaia 
have published.^ 

FEVRE (James i,e), a celebrated doctor of the Sor- 
bonne, archdeacon of Lisieux, and grand vicar of Bourges, 
was born at Coutance, of a family which produced several 
persons of merit and learning. He gained great reputa- 
tion by his works, which are, '^ Motifs invincibles pour 
convaincre ceux de la Religion pretendue Reform^e," 
12mo, which, like all his works, is much esteemed by 
those of hi^ communion. This was followed by some pieces 
in favour of the ^MMLotifs invincibles," against M. Arnauld^ 
who had attacked some parts of them ; which dispute did 
Dot, however, prevent the doctors from being friends. He 
wrote also, I. ** Nouvelle Conference avec un Ministre^ 
touchant les Causes de. la Separation des Protestans,'' 
16%5i 2. ^' Recueil de tout ce qui s'est fait pour et contre 
les Protestaas en -France," 4to. 3* "Instructions pour 
confirmer les nouveaux Convertis dans la Foi de PEglise.*' 
4* " L'Anti- Journal des Assenabl^es de Sorbonne :'Vthij 
work, his admirers says, is full of wit and subtile criticisms 
He published also a new edition of Dominico Me^rio's 
.work "on the. Agreement of the seeming Contradictions 
jn Holy Script lire," Paris, 1685, 12mo, in Latin, &c He 
died July I, 17,16,' at Paris." 

FEVRE (John Baptist le), of Villebrune, where he 
;Was bom in 1732, was a man of considerable classical 
learning! and the author of many useful translations into 
the. French language. Of his personal history we are only 
told^ that he was a doctor of medicine, professor of orien- 
tal languages in the Frisnch college, one of the forty mem- 
jbers of the French academy, and keeper of the national 
library, in. which he succeeded Chamfort. He was not 
much attached to the principles which occasioned the 
iffench revolution, and was proscribed by the French direc« 

., J Bayle in Gen. Diet. — Moreri.— Jortin's Erasmus.-^Clemeot Bibl. Carieuse. 
' * M9r«ri.-»Marchand. 

S 2 



fory for having written a pamphlet in which h% niaintaSned 
that France ought to be governed by a sitiigle chief. After 
l^esiding occasionally in several places, he was made pro- 
fiassor oif natural history at la Charente ; and when the cen-^ 
Ifral school, as it was called, was shut up, he taught ma-'' 
thematiqs and humanity in the college. , The last ten yeartf 
of his life were spent at Angouleme, where he died Oct. 7$ 
1S09. His character was lively, and his temper sometimetr 
impetuous and unguarded, which made him many ene- 
mies in the literary world. He was,' however, a man of 
indefatigable study, and was a master of fourteen lang- 
uages ancient and modem. His reading was most exten*^ 
sive, but not well digested, and such was bis love of 
ariety, that he seldom adhered to any one subject long 
enough to produce a work in which it was completely dis-^ 
cussed. He was, however, a valuable assistant to scholars 
employed on any arduous undertaking; and among others, 
is said to have contributed ta the two editions of Strabo 
lately printed at Utrecht and Oxford, by examining manu- 
^icripts for the editors. Among his translations are, a valu- 
able one of Atbeneeus, and the only one France can boast 
of since that of the abb<S MaroUes feH into disrepute. He 
translated also Hippocrates's Aphorisms; Epicletus; Ce* 
bes's Table ; " Silius Italicus," of whom also he published 
an edition of the original, in 1781, containing various 
readings from fout MSS. and from Laver's edition of 1471, 
never before collated by any editor. Yet in this be ift 
sometimes rash in his conjectures, and pettishly intempe- 
rate in noticing his predecessors. Le Fevre*s other trans- 
lations are, the ** Memoivs of Ulloa,'* and *• Cervantes's 
Tales,'* from the Spanish ; " Carli*s American Letters'* 
from the Italian ; Zimmerman ** On Experience,** and on 
the ** Epidemic Dysentery," &c. from the German ; 
** Rosen's treatise on Infants,'* from the Swedish ; and the 
tvorks of Armstrong and Underwobd cJn the aiarae subjecif, 
from the English. He published some other workd rela- 
tive to the arts, sciences, and politics, the titles of whicH 
are not given in our authority; and left complete, or 
nearly so, a translation of Aretseus, which he ui^dejrtook at 
the request of the School of health of Paris.'* 

FEVRE (NICOLAS LE), or Nicolaus Faber, a very in- 
genious, learned, and pious man, was born at Pari«| June. 2, 

^ DtcL Hist. 

F E V.R K» t6l 

I Hi, ot actording to Perrault, July 4, 1543^ and liberally 
eduoated by his mother, bis father dying in his infancy. 
During the course of his studies, as he was cutting a pen, 
» piece of the quill flew into bis eye, and gave him such 
excessive pain, that hastily lifting up bis band to it^ he 
(Struck it out with the knife* Having finished bis application 
to the languages, he was sent to study the civil law at Tho-^ 
louse, Padua, and Bologda. He did not come back till he 
had travelled through Italy: and he resided eighteen 
months in Rome, about 1571, where he cultivated a friend- 
ship with Sigonius, Muretus, and other learned men. He 
there acquired his taste for the investigation of antiquities, 
{md brought away with him many curiosities. Upon his 
retuk'n to France, he applied himself wholly to letters^ and 
would hear no mention of marriage. His mother and bro« 
ther dying in 1581, he lived with Peter Pithoeus, with 
whoqi he was very intimate;* and having no occupation 
but study, be employed himself in reading the ancients^ 
in correcting them by MSS. of which he had a great num- 
ber in his own library, and in writing notes upon theni* 
He laboured particularly on Seneca the rhetorician, whom 
he published in 1587, with a learned. preface and notes, an 
edition which we do not find mentioned by Dibdin oir 
Clarke. He applied himself also to , studies of a different 
kind, to the mathematics particularly ; in which he sue-* 
ceeded so well, that he discovered immediately the defect 
in Scaliger^s demonstration of the quadrature of the circle. 
When Henry the Fourth of France became at length the 
peaceable possessor of the crown, be appointed Faber pre- 
ceptor to the prince of Cond^. During this important 
(rust, he found time to labour upon some considerable 
works ; and composed that fine preface to the fragments 
of Hilary, in which he discovered so many important facts 
relating to the history of Ariajiism, not known before^ 
After the death of Henry IV. be was chosen, by the queen, 
preceptor to Louis XIII. He died in 1611, or according 
jto Perr^ult, Nov. 4, 1612, 

. Though he laboured intensely all his life, he was one of 
those learned men who are not ambitious of the character 
of author, but content with studying for themselves and 
(heir friends. He applied himself in his youth to the 
j^elles lettres and history, which he never neglected. Civil 
law, philosophy,' and morality, were afterwards his occu-» 
pation : and at the latter part of life, he spent his tim^ 

«e« F E V R K 

cbipfly among ecclesiastical antiquities. As he kept ti|^ 
a correspondence with all the learned of Edrope, when 
he heard of any person about to publish an author, or to 
compose a work of his own, he was ever ready io assist 
him with MSS. and to furnish him with memoirs, but with- 
out suffering any mention to be made of his name, though 
his injunctions upon this point were not always observed; 
His own works, which were but few, were collected after 
his death b}^ John le Begue, his friend, and printed at 
Paris, 1614, in a small volume, 4to. They consist of bib- 
lical criticism, questions on moj^als, and philological pieces 
in Latin and French. ^ 

The praises bestowed on Nicolas le Fevre, by Baillet, 
and almost all the critics of the time, are of the most 
exalted kind ; an advantage which his very great merits 
would not perhaps have gained, had they not been en- 
hanced by bis modesty. He was admired and loved, but 
not feared. LIpsius pronounced him a perfect critic, al- 
most the only one capable of correcting and, polishing the 
works of others; and whose learning, judgment, and dili* 
gence, knew no other bounds than what his modesty pre- 
scribed. Of the same cast are the eulogies upon him, by 
Baronius, Scasvola Samarthanus, Sirmond, Pithoeus, Lip- 
sius, cardinal Perron, Isaac Casaubon, Scaliger, Scioppius, 
and others. * 

FEVRE (Tannegui le), or Tanaquil Faber, a very 
learned man, father of madame Dacier, was born at Caen 
in Normandy in 1615. His father determined to educate 
him to learning, at the desire of one of his brothers, who 
was an ecclesiastic, and who promised to take him into his 
house under bis own care. He had a genius for music j 
and early became accomplished in it : but bis uncle proved 
too severe a preceptor in languages ; he therefore studied 
Latin with a tutor at home, and acquired the knowledge of 
Greek by his own efforts. The Jesuits at the college of 
La Fleche were desirous to detain him among them, an4 
his father would have persuaded him to take orders, but be 
resisted both. Having continued some years in Normandy, 
he went to Paris ; where, by his abilities, learning, aud 
address, he gained the friendship of persons of the highest 
distinction. M. de Noyers recommended him to cardinal- 
de Bichelieu, who settled on him a pension of 2000 Uvres^ 

I P^piQ,-*•Ifjcero|^ to). yiI.«^J«rnttlt Leslioinaei Illttstrei* 

F. E V B, E; t6| 

jko. inspect all the works printed at the Louvre. The car- 
dinal designed to have made him principal of the college 
which he was about to erect at Richelieu^ and to settle on 
bim a farther stipend : but he died, and Mazarine, who 
succeeded, not giving the same encouragement to learning, 
the Louvre press became almost useless, and Faber's pen- 
sion was very ill paid. His hopes being thus at an end, ha 
quitted his employment ; yet continued some years at 
Paris,ivpursuing his studies, and publishing various works. 
$ome years after he declared himself a protestaut, and 
became a professor in the university of Saumur; which 
place he accepted, preferably to the professorship of Greek 
at Nimeguen, to which he was invited at the same time. 
His great merit and character soon drew to him from all 
parts of the kingdom, and even from foreign countries, 
numbers of scholars, some of whom boarded at his house* 
He had afterwards a contest with the university and con- 
sistory of Saumur, on account of having, unguardedly and 
absurdly, asserted in one of his works, that he could par- 
don Sappho's passion for those of her own sex, since it 
bad inspired her with so beautiful an ode upon that subject. 
Upon this dispute he would have resigned his place, if he 
could have procured one elsewhere : and at last, in 1672, 
he was invited upon advantageous terms to the university of 
Heidelberg, to which he was preparing to remove, when 
he was seized with a fever, of which he died Sept. 12, 
1.672. He left a son of his own name, author of a small 
tract *^J)e futilitate Poetices,'' printed 1697 in 12mo, 
who' was a minister in Holland, and afterwards lived, in 
London, then went to Paris, where he embraced the Ro** 
misb religion ; and two daughters, one of whom was the 
celebrated madam Dacier, and another married to Paul 
Bauldri, professor at Utrecht Huet tells, that *' he had 
almost persuaded Faber to reconcile himself to the church 
of Rome,'* from which he had formerly deserted ; '< and 
that Faber signi6ed to him his resolution to do so, in a 
letter written a few months before his death, which pr€|i> 
vented him from executing his design.^' Voltaire, if fa^ 
may be credited, which requires no small degree of qai^- 
tion, , says he was a philosopher rather than a Hugonat, and 
despised the Calvinists though he lived among them. 

T. le Fevre was agreeable in his person, and his statu^f 
above the common standard ; but a little stiff in his^ beha* 
viour. He was §ood-aatured| but somewhitt blunt in bis 

ft«4 F E V R E. 

conversation. He had a strong avemon to falsehood and 
loquacity. He was always very elegant in (lis dress, an4 
60 expensive in this article, that be is said to have sent 
constantly to England for whole boxes of gloves, silk 
stockings, &c. and to Paris, and even to Rome, for all 
sorts of essences, perfumes, and powders. He was subject 
tQ sudden starts of passion in his family, which, however, 
were soon over. His books, his children, and his garden, 
in which he cultivated all kiuds of flowers himself^ 4i^ere his 
ordinary diversions. He ate and slept little. 

He published, 1. " Luciani de morte Peregrini libellus, 
cum notis,'^ 1653, 4to. He thought this the best of Lu- 
cian's pieces ; and had a design to. give ftn edition of ail 
his works, which, however, he never executed. 2. •* Dia- 
4;ribe, Flavii Josephi de Jesu Christo testimonium supposi* 
turn esse," 1655, 8vo. 3. " Luciani Timon," with a Latin 
version and notes. 4. " Epistokrum pars prima," 1 65d, 
4to. *' Pars secunda: cui accedunt Aristophahis Con* 
cionatrices, GrsBce & Latine, cum uotis," 1665, 4to. 

6. *^ JournaUu Journal, ou, Censure de la Censure;" and 
•afterwards, 6. " Seconder Journal ine;" both in 1666, 4to. 

7. " Abreg6 des Vies des Poetes Grecs," &c. with " the 
marriage of Belphegor, and the life of Theseus, from 
Plutarch," 1665, in 12mo. 8. " Convivium Xenopbontis." 
V. " Platonis Alcibiades primus." 10. " Plutarchus de 
•Superstitione ;" all in French translations, 1666; as was 
the year after, 11. " Aristippi Vita a D. Laertio." This 
last was inserted by De Sallengre, in his ** Memoirs de 
Literature," torn. ii. p. 2. In the same volume of the same 
work was published, 12. -'^ Methode pour commencer les 
bumanii^b^'Grecqueset Latines:" translated in English, and 
published by Phillips, in a book entitled *^ A compen* 
dious way of teaching ancient and modern languages, for- 
merly practised by the learned Tanaquil Faber, in the 
education of one of his sons, and of his daughter the 
celebrated madam Dacier. To which are added, some 
tracts and observations on the same subject by several emi- 
nent men, namely, Roger Ascham, Richard Carew, Milton, 
Locke, &c. With an account of the education of the 
dauphin, by Bossuet bishop of Meaux," 1723, 8vo. 13. 
^^ Fabulee ex Lodtnanis Arabico-Latinis versibus redditsB,*' 
1673, 12mo; and subjoined, the year after, to the first 
-volume of the second edition of bis '* EpistolsB." 14. He 
published notes upon several Greek and Latin authois 

T E V R E. ft&i 

of aiujtiqiiUy. : imnliely, Ap<»Uodoriis, Longinus/ AAacreon, 
Aristophanes, j£lian| Lucretius, PUsedrus, Virgil, Horace, 
.Terence, futrbpius, Justin, Dionysius Periegetes, and 

The character of this critic has been very variously re- 
presented. Bochart calls him a man excellently skilled in 
tbe Latin and Greek learning, and of uncommon sagacity 
aqid penetration. TolUus tells us, that he was a person of 
great wit and pleasantry, and wonderfully polished by all 
the elegance of the Greek and Roman literature. Guy 
Patin, in a letter dated at Paris Sept. 2i, 1666, gives hiia 
the character of an excellent person, and one of the first rank 
of learned men of that age. Nicholas Heinsius represents ' 
him as a man of learning and genius, but somewhat con- 
ceited. Morhof says, that he ^^ was very learned, a good 
philologer, well skilled in the Greek language, of a very 
fine and enterprizing genius, who from his own imagin%>- 
tion made a great many alterations in authors, though desti- 
.tute of manuscripts ; which rashness, however, sometimes 
ancqeeded very well with him, who by his own sagacity 
saw, what others search for with great labour in manuscripts. 
But he is more than once severely animadverted upon by 
other writers on account of his presumption; for he fre- 
quently corrects at his pleasure corrupt passages, and 
makes prodigious alterations in writers. Many of his con.^ 
. jectures are contained in bis epistles, of which there ara 
two books, in which he explains the passages of the an* 
cients contrary to the opinion of every body ; though be 
is highly to be valued on account of the elegance and 
• acuteness of his genius.*' Morhof also applies to him, 
the line 

Destruit^ ffidificat^ mutat quadrata rotun<fis. 

Huet, bishop of Avranches, assures us that our author 
was well skilled in the Greek and Roman, and all the an« 
cient learning. Niceron observes, that "his Latin style is 
fine and delicate, without any points or affectation ; every 
thing is expressed very happily in it. He had lH<evyise a 
good genius for Greek and Latin poetry ; and his verses 
are worthy of the better ages. His French style has not 
the graces of his Latin. He knew well enough the rules 
of our language, but he did not truly understand the ti'ue 
genius and natural propriety of it. As he lived in the 
l^rovince, that is, almost out of the wodd, he wrot^ more 

see T-E V R R 

by study than custom, and he has not always observed th€ 
French turn and idiom. Besides, he spoiled his style by 
a vicious afifectation, endeavouring to mix the serious of 
Balzac with the humour and pleasantry of Voiture. Not* 
withstanding these defects, what he has written in our lan« 
guage will still please ; and. if his translations have not all 
the elegance possible, they support themselves by theiv 
accuracy, and the learned remarks which accompany them.^* 
Mr. William Baxter, in the dedication of his edition -of 
Anacreon, styles him *< futilis Gailus," and affirms that 
our author in his notes upon that poet every where trifles, 
and with all his self-conceit and vanity has shewn himself 
absolutely unfit for that task. In another place he writes 
thus: *< Nugatur etiam Tanaquillus Faber, utsolet;^' and 
at last he styles him, ^^Criticaster Gallus.*' Some modern 
critics have not been much more favourable to his critical 

FEVRET (Charles), an eminent French civilian, was 
born at Semur, the capital of Auxois, Dec. 16, 1583. 
After studying at Dijon, Orleans, and other places, be 
was received as an advocate of parliament in 1602, when 
only nineteen years old, and the same year he went into 
-Germany to attend the celebrated Bongars, who was sent 
by Henry IV. resident from France, into the empire ; but 
soon left him, to study the law at Heidelberg, where the 
well>-knbwn Godefroy was at that time law-professor. Gode- 
froy paid great attention to Fevret, who was recom- 
mended by several persons of quality : he received him 
into his house, and caused him to hold public disputations, 
which he did with great * applause. In 1607, Fevret re- 
turned to Dijon, whiere he married Mrs. Anne Brunet of 
Beaulne, by whom he had nineteen children ; fourteen of 
which they brought up together during eight years. After 
his wife's death, which happened in 1637, he very whim-" 
^ically caused his bed to be made one half narrower, and 
pever would marry again. He gained great reputation it 
the bar at Dijon ; and was chosen counsellor to the three 
estates of the province. In 1629, Lewis the Thirteenth 
being come to Dijon in order to punish a popular insure 
rection, Fevret was chosen to petition the king that he 
ivould graciously be pleased to pardon the guilty. {}e 
ipoke for all the corporations, and made so elegant a dis- . 

* Qen. Diet— Morerit^^Niceron^ yole* III. and X.7<-Ciement Bibl. CaWewie* 

F-EVR'ET.' »6t 


coiinie, thai the king commanded him to print it, and to 
tend it to him at Lyons. His m^esty then pardoned thD 
authors of the sedition, and granted to Fevret tbe plaste of 
counsellor in the parliaufient of Dijon ; but not beit>g per- 
mitted to employ a depiaty, he refused it, because he would 
not quit his profession of an advocafe, and contented him- 
'«elf witii the posts of king's ccrunsellor and secretary to 
the court, with a pensida of 900 livres. H6 wrote a his- 
tory of this insurrection, which was published some time 
after. As he was frequently sent a deputy to the court, 
he was known to de Morillac, keeper of the seals of France, 
who honoured him with his friendship. As early as 1626 
and 1627, Monsieur, the king's brother, had chosen him 
for his counsellor in ordinary in all his affairs ; and the 
prince of Cohd6 had made him intendant of his house, and 
of his affairs in Burgundy. He was continued in the same 
post by his son Louis de Bourbon prince of Cond6 ; and/ 
during the life of these two princes, he was honoured with 
their favour in a distinguished manner. Frederic Casimir, 
prince palatine of the Rhine, and his consort Amelia An« 
twerpia, born princess of Orange, chose him also their 
counsel and intendant for their affairs in Burgundy. He 
had an extensive correspondence with all the learned ci- 
vilians in his time. He died at Dijon, in 1661. 

He published in 1645, a small Latin treatise entitled 
** De Claris Fori Burgundici Oratoribus," and his " Traiti 
de I'Abus'*' in 1653, which last celebrated work was written 
at the solicitation of the second Lewis de Bourbon prince 
of Cdndd he enlarged it afterwards by one half, which 
occasioned a second edition of it after his death, in 1667. 
It was reprinted a third time ten years after ; but the best 
edition is that of Lyons, 1736, in two volumes, folio. He 
made an excellent translation of Pibrac's (See Faur)* 
Quatraiifs, in Latin verses, printed at Lyons, 1667, with 
a commentary under this title, " De bfficiis vitas humans^, 
sivej in Pibraci Tetrasticha Commentarius." Several au- 
thors have mentioned him and his works in a very honour- 
able manner. • He had a son Peter, also a man of learnings 
who died in 1706, and left his fine library to the Jesuits 
of Dijon, with fhnds for increasing it. In 1708, a cata-i 
loglie of it was published in 4to, with a preface by father 

1 Qen. Diet,— Marerl— rNictron; vols, II. aiKJ X. 

fees FEVREt; 

FEVRET DB FoNTETTE (Chakles Marie), great graad-r 
son of the former, was born at Dijon in 1710, and edu? 
cated to the profession of the law* By distinguishing bimr 
self in aom^ great causes, he obtained a pension from tb^ 
^orernment He Ijsiboured for several years in the publir 
cation of a new edition of Le Lony^s *^ Bibliotb^que Hi^to^ 
rique de la France/' and. compiled so much matter as to 
extend that work from a single volume in folio, to four 
vast folios, besides a fifth containing indexes, &c. At 
the time of his deaths which happened in 1772, he was a 
member of the French academy of Belles-lettres, and dir 
rector of the university of Dijon. He was a man pleasing 
in society, and of much zeal, both literary and patriotic^ 
He lived to see only two volumes of bis edition of Le Long 
published. The rest were edited by Barbeau de BruyereJ 

FEYDEAU (Matthew), a French clergyman of the 
Jansenist party, was born at Paris in 1616, and studied in 
the college of the Sorbonne, where he obtained the estepm 
of persons of all ranks. In 1645, he was engaged by Mi* 
de Bellegarde, archbishop of Sens, to deliver a course of 
•instructions to the candidates for holy orders in his diocese 
He obtained some preferment in the chnrch, and comr 
posed several useful books, among which was one entitled 
^^ A Catechism on Grace^'' which was afterwards reprinted 
with the title of ^' Illustrations of certain difficulties . re* 
Bpecting Grace.^^ This work was condemned by a decree 
of the inquisition at Rome, which M. Fouquet, attorney* 
general of the parliament at Paris, would not permit to 
be promulgated in that city. In 1656, M. Feydeau wa^ 
one of the seventy-two doctors who were expelled by the 
faculty of the Sorbonne for refusing to subscribe to th^ 
condemnation of M. Arnauld ; and on this account he wa3 
obliged to relinquish his preferments. After this, for se- 
veral years, he lived chiefly in retirement, and produced 
his '^ Reflections on the History and Harmony of the Gosir 
pels,'' in 2 vols. 12mo; a work which has gone through 
several editions. In 1665, he was presented by the bi* 
shop of Aleth with a prebend in his diocese, which he rer 
.lugiied in 16lf8, in order to undertake the cure of Vitri.lis 
Francois, in Champagne, which after seven years he was 
obliged to give up, in consequence of the persecutions. with 
which his party was harassed. He was banished to Bourge»s 

I Diet. Bi6^ 

FE'Y'D'E A.U. 269 

in '1 677 ; and afterwards was sent to Anndnai in the Vi<« 
ifdfes, where he died July 24, 1694. He published many! 
w^ojrks besides those above<*mentioned) and left behind hiin> 
aiany others that have not yet appeared, particularly me'^ 
noirs of himself, as far as 1678, and many letters. A long^ 
Latin epitaph, engraved on his tomb, which is preserved 
1>y Moreri, was written by a religious of the Celestine 

FEYJOO (Benedict Jerom), was a learned physician 
of the order of St. Benedict, born in Spain, who died in 
1765: By his writings many have thought that he con- 
tributed as much towards curing the mental ' diseases of 
his ' compatriots and reforming the vitiated taste of his 
countrymen, by introducing liberal notions in medicine 
ind philosophy, as the great Michel Cervantes had done 
those of a preceding age, by his incomparable history of 
Don Quixote. In the^' Teatro Critico, sopra los Errores 
<;Dmmunes,'* which he published in fourteen volumes, are 
many severe reflections against the ignorance of themonks^ 
the licentiousness of the clergy, ridiculous privileges, abnse 
ef pilgrimages, exorcisms, pretended miracles, &c. &c. by 
whidi he made a formidable host of enemies, and would 
eertainly have been also a martyr, had the numerous calls 
of vengeance been listened to by those in power. The 
leaVned part of the nation, however, undertook his de* 
fence, and he escaped the grasp of the inquisition ; and, 
notwithstanding the freedom he had taken with th^ faculty, 
the medical college at Seville conferred on him the degree 
of doctor^ and honoured him with a seat at their hoards 
*!• Bourgoing observes, that Dr. Feyjoo, or Feijoo, was 
one of those writers who treated this conjectural art in the 
most rational manner, but he is certainly far from con« 
sistent, and sometimes lays down a doctrine which he is 
obliged afterwards to abandon. A considerable part of 
his ** Teatro Critico" was translated into French by D'Her- 
mil1y,.in 12 vols. 12mo; and several of his Essays have 
been published at various times in English, the largest* 
collection of whidh is entitled " Essays or Discourses, se- 
lect^ed from the works of Feyjoo, and translated from the 
Spanish, by John Brett, esq." 1780, 4 vols. Svo. The 
best are those on subjects of morals and criticism.' 

« Morcrl. « Diet. Hist. 

VtO f I C H A R 0* 

FICHARD (John), was a lawyer of Frankfort on lli^ 
Maine, and syndic of that tewn, where he died in 158>1^ 
lit tb6 age of sixty-ninCi He was the author of several 
works, of which the most famous was his *^ Virorum qui 
snperiori nostroque seeculo eruditione et doctrina illustres 
atque memorabiles fuerunt, Vitae," Francfort, 1536, 4to, 
a work of so great rarity, that some bibliographers have 
doubted its existence. He afterwards published, 2. " Vitas 
recehtioruni jurisconsultorum,'' Padua, 1565, 4t0, of which 
Clement notices a prior edition in 1537. 3. *' Onomas-* 
ticon philosophico-medico synonymum," 1 574. 4. '* De 
Cautelis,'* 1577. 5. " Concilium Matrimoniale," 1680.* 
^ FICHET (Alexander), a man of considerable learnings 
was born about 1589, and becoming a Jesuit, was ap« 
pointed professor of classics and rhetoric in the college of 
the Trinity at Lyons. The time of his death is not qien* 
tioned. He is known principally for an edition of thdl 
whole body of poets, which he corrected and published 
under the title of " Chorus Poetarum," Lyons, 1616, add-* 
ing several pieces of the lower empire, an ample index; 
and a '^ Musaeum rhetoricum et poeticum,'* which seem» 
to be a collection of the beauties of the poets. He pub*^ 
lished also, ^^ Arcana studiorum omnium, et 
bib4iotheca scientiarum," Lyons, 1649, 8vo, reprinted by 
Fabricius in 1710, with additions; " Favus Patrum," a 
collection of the thoughts of the fathers, in 12mo, above 
1000 pages, and some other works.* 

FICHET, or FISCHET (William), was an eminent 
prior, and doctor of the Sorbonne in 1454, and rector of 
the university of Paris in 1467, who taught rhetoric, phi«< 
losophy, and divinity, with' great reputation. He opposed 
the plan formed by Louis XL of arming the scholars, and 
was entrusted with several commissions of importance* 
Fichet went to Rome with cardinal Bessarion, who dedi* 
cated his orations to him in 1470, and he was well received 
by pope .Sixtus IV^ and appointed hit chamberlain. We 
have a work of bison '^Rhetoric,'' and some '* Epistles/' 
written in very elegant language for that age, pritited at 
the Sorbonne, 147 1, 4to, aiid which has been sold as high - 
as 50/. It was Fichet, who with his friend John de 1^ 
Pierre, brought Martin Crantz, Ulric Gering, and Michael 
Friburger, from Germany to the Sorbonne, in order to in*; 

^ Moreri.-'Dkt, Hift— Clement Bibl. Corisuse. * Moreru 

r I c I N u s. «7i 

troduce printing in France; and Fichei^s works sibove men« 
tioned were among the first they produced. ^ 
< FICINUS (Marsiuus), a learned Italian, and the reytyef 
of the Platonic philosophy in the West, was born at Flo- 
rence in 1433y where his father was physician to Cosmo de 
Medici, and sent his son to pursue that study at the uni- 
versity of Bologna. Marsilius obeyed him with some re- 
luctance, but having made a short trip from Bologna to 
Florence, his father took him with him on a visit to Cosmo 
de Medicts, which gave a new turn to his life and studies. 
.Cosmo was so charmed by his appearance and his spirited 
answers, that from that moment, although Marsilius was 
at this time merely a youth, he destined him to . be th^ 
principal of the Platonic school which he.was about to form« 
With this. view he brought him to reside with him, superin- 
tended his studies, and treated him with so much kind* 
ness, that Marsilius regarded him ever after as a second 
parent. He made such rapid progress in the study of phi- 
losophy, that be was only twenty-three years old, when he, 
wrote bis four books of the Institutions of Plato. Cosmo 
ai^d the learned Landino, to whom he shewed the manu- 
script, highly applaiided his labours, but advised him to 
learn Greek before be should publish them. This he ac- 
cordingly studied with his usual ardour, and gave the first 
proof of the progress he had made by translating the hymns 
0f Oi^heus into Latin. Reading about the same time in 
Plato that heaven had bestowed music on man in order to. 
ealm his passions, he learned that science also, and am^ed 
kimself with chanting the hymns of Orpheus, accompany*: 
ing himself with a lyre resembling that of the Greeks. He 
translated afterwards the book on the origin of the world 
attributed to Mercurius Trismegistus, and having presented 
t^ese firstofcuits of his Greek studies to his patron, Cosmo 
rewarded him with a grant of jsome land at Careggi, near 
J^orence, and with a house in the city, and some very mag- 
Bificent manuscripts of Plato and Plotinus. 
t Marsilius now undertook the entire translation of Plato, 
frbicfa he completed in five years, and was then in his 
tihirty-fifth year. Cosmo was now dead, but his son Peter 
who succeeded him, had the same friendship and esteem 
for our author, and it was by his orders that he published 
translation, and lectured on the works of Plato at Flo-; 

^ MoFAri. — MaitUire Annal. Typo|^. 

rm^ce to ah aitdi^nce convposed of the €nniii$iit sc^kolari oi 
Europe who w^re most conversant in ancient phil6sophyi 
Lorien2o also extended bis patronage to Mar&ilkis, whd 
baving taken priest's^ orders in his forty-second year.(1475)^ 
Lorenzo bestowed several benefices on him, which tendered 
kirn easy in his circa mstances. More^benevev wished^ 
and when, by Lorenzo's bounty^ be had attained tliis com# 
petency, he made over his patrimony to hisTeladons. Hi^ 
time was now divided between his ecclesiastical: dudes and 
bis philosophical studies/ His life was exemplary, and hi^ 
temper amiable. He loved retirement, especially at bii 
country-seat, where he enjoyed the consecsatioB ^£ -a few 
friends. Although bis constitution was w*eak,' and hetjw^m 
frequently a sufferer by disease, hik ardour of study nevwo 
abated: The pleasure he felt in his retirement, hisieon* 
tented disposition, and his respect for the Medici &miljv 
itiadehim refuse some great oSers made by pope Sixtna 
IV. and by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary* Hediwl^ 
at the age of sixty-six in 1439. :W V . . 

* As a philosopher, muish cannot now be said in favour ol 
Ficinus, and the high encomiums to which he appeared 
entitled in the fifteenth century, will not all bear the te^ 
of modern criticism. His works afford abundant proofe 
how deeply be was influenced by the reveries. of judicial 
astrology. His principal want was vigour and accumey^if 
judgment, with which if he bad been fucnkhed, be wmild 
hare avoided the superstitious sUitacbfoent tnanifested by 
bim tothe ^ Platonismns Alexandrinus^V than whict^ fi£uc««' 
ker observes, no philosophical reveries could possibly be 
more ridiculous ; and he would have evinced more sagaciibjK 
in detecting the sophisms of tbis sect. He was devoidalso 
of the more splendid ^and exterior graces, of a .welliouki'*' 
vated understanding; his style is pronounced inelegaaV 
and his language confusecL He was a Platoaifit' ev^eQ^m 
his correspondence, and some of his letters are enignolioftl 
and mysterious. Bruoker also accuses him of being of^ '^ 
timid and servile spirit, which would naturally lead bim. to 
accommodate his vision to the judgi»eQt,of his patroiij 
He enteriained the notion which prevailed amoDg. the 
Christian fathers, that the doctrine of Plato was, in some 
aort, ofdivine origin, and might be fairly construed into a 
perfect agreement with that of divine revelation- Frooi 
these causes, Ficinus is very far From adhering with strict- 
ness to his author's- meaning ; ia many instances he rather 

F 1 C I N S. 278 

e»pf€8ses his Qwiv coDceptioas tkan those of Ptato, tnd 
oft^n ^ives bis interpretafcioa a bias towards tbe Alexan- 
drian or Christian doctrine, for wbicb he has na sufficient 
suithority in the original. On the whole> Brucker ia of 
opinion^ that Ficinus was rather an* industrioua than a judi^- 
cious translator, and that his version of Plato should be 
read with caution^ The chief part of hia works are con-' 
tained in the Paris edition of 164 1, in 2 vola^ folio^ amongst 
which those of most merit are the versions of Plato and 
Plotinus. Of some, of his works there are very early edi* 
tioas, now of great rarity. * 

FICORONI (FRAiicis), a famous Roman medallist, au* 
tiquary, and Cicerone, was born in 1664,, at Lugano, aud 
died in 1747. Of bi^ personal history, our authority furnishes 
uo otl^r particulars than that be was a disciple of J. P«. Bel^ 
lori. He was, however, the author of mauy wocks oa sub« 
jects of classical antiquities, written in the Italian language^ 
pisHticularly ^^ Avertimenti delle Medaglie antiche,'^ men- 
tioned by Menckenius, and written about 1694. 2. ^< Os- 
servaa^ni sopra Pautichit^ di Rqma descritte nel Diario 
]taUco del Montfikucon^" &c. 1709.. 3. 'V Bella BoUa 
dforo de' FanciuUi uobili Romamo,'* "^c. 1732^ 4. ^^ D^ 
Tailed aUra Strum«^ti lusori degli autichi Romani,'' 17^4^ 
5v *^ Le Maschere Sceniche e figure Comiche de' antiebi 
Rooi^m^" 1736. (This is illustrated with engravings front 
aiic^t gems, cameos, marbles,, and bronzes, upon nearly 
100 plates well executed, is replete with erudition on 
tb<e subject, and Is at once curious, amusing, and instruc- 
tive. It is peculiarly connected with dancing, saltation, 
comic scenes, and the musical declamation and melody of 
the ancients.) 6. *' Piombi autichi,'' 1740 i^r-M published 
at RoBpie. The two latter were translated into Latiii^ the 
fyiU entitled *' De Lanris Scenicis et figuris comicis auti* 
quorum Romanorum,'' 1750. The second ^^ De Plumbeis 
anti<|4iorum niimismatibqs^ tarn sacris quam profanis,^ 1750, 
b<Mh by Dominicas Cantagallius, whose real name, Winckel- 
saan aeems to say, was Arcbangelo ContuccL He wrote 
aWp; 7. <^ Le Vestigia e Rarita di Roma antica, richercat^ 
et spi^ate,'' 1744; a. second book' entitled ^^ La Singcn* 
latk^ di Ronaa moderna,'' and some other tracts. ' 


1 Guingeuft Hist. Lit. d'ltalie.'— ^rressweli's Politian.— Scbelbora's AmcBiii- 
fates LitterarisD.—- Niceron, Yols. V. and X.— 'Brucker.'-CI^iQeat Bibl.CUiieaiMw - 
»-«^iifti Onomast. ■ . 

< Sazii. Onomast.-*-R«ei'8 Cyclopaedia. 

Vol- XIV. ' T 

hri F f b f) jfc W 


FIDDES (Richard), an English divine, and labofiotri 
Writer, wa*s born of reputable parents, at Hunmanby neat 
Scarborough in Yorkshire in 1671. In his education he 
Was much encouraged by his uncle the rev. Mr. Fiddes of 
Brightwell in Oxfordshire, who was as a father to hiiHl 
After being instructed at a private school at Wickbam in 
that neighbourhood, he was admitted of Corpus ^Christi, 
arid then of University college, in Oxford; where by hid 
parts andi address he gained many friends. He did not, 
however, continue there ; but, after taking a bachelor of 
arts degree in 1693, returned to his relation^,' and married, 
in the same year, Mrs. Jane Anderson, a lady of good 
family and forfuhei In 1694, he was ordained priest by 
Dr. Sharp, archbishop of York ;' and not long after, pre- 
sented to the rectory of Halsham in that county, of about 
^O/. per annum. Halsham, being situated in a marshy 
proved the occasion of much ill health to Fiddes and his 
family ; and he had the misfortune, while there, to be sud- 
denly so deprived of his speech, as never after to be abld. 
to utter words very articulately, unless his organs were 
strengthened with two or three glasses of wine, which, as 
he was a nian of great temperance, was to him an excess. 
His diocesan, however, dispensed with his residence upon 
his benefice for the future; on which he removed to Wick- 
ham, and continued there »ome months. Being no longer 
able to display his talents in preaching, which before sirere 
confessedly great, and having a numerous family, he re- 
solved to devote himself entirely to writing. For this pur- 
pose, he went to' London in 1712; and, by the favour of 
dean Swift, was introduced to the earl of OxfcJrd, who re- 
ceived him kindly, and nVade hiih one of his chaplains. 
The dean had a great esteem for Fiddes, and recommended 
his cause wtth the warmth and sincerity of a friend. The 
queen soon after appointed him chaplain to the garrison at 
Hull, and would probably have provided handsbmfely for 
him, had not dedith prevented her. Losing his patrons 
llpon'the chaqge of the ministry in 1714, he lost the above 
mentioned chaplainship ; and this expences of his family 
i icreasing, as his ability to supply them lessened, he was 
obliged, to apply himself to writing with greater assiduity 
than ever. Yet he continued in high esteem with contem- 
porary writers, especially those of his own party ; and was 
encouraged by some of the mdst» eminent men of 'thoise 

F I D D E S. $>5L 

times. By the generosity of his friend and relation Dr.. 
vRadcliife, the degree of bachelor of divinity ,was conferredi 
upon him by diploma, Feb. 1, 1713, and in 1718 he was 
honoured by the university of Oxford with that of doctor,, 
in considei*ation of his abilities as a writer. He died at the 
Jbouse of his friend Anstis at Putney, in 1725, Aged fifty- 
four years, leaving behind him a family consisting of a wife 
and six children. His eldest daughter was married, to. the 
nev. Mr. Barcroft, curate of St. George's, Hanover-square, 
who abridged Taylor's " Ductor Dubitantium." Dr. Fiddes 
was buried in Fulham churchyard, near the remains of 
bishop Compton, to whom he had been much obliged. 
. His first publication appears to have been, 1. "A pre- 
fatory Epistle concerning some Remarks, to be .published 
an Homer's Iliad : occasioned by the proposals of Mr. Pope 
towards a new EnglisIT version of that poem, 17 14," 12mo. 
It is addressed to Dr. Swift. It would seem to have been 
his intention to write a kind of moral commentary upon 
Homer; but, probably for want of encouragement, this never 
appeared. The first work by which he distinguished him- 
self in any considerable degree, was, 2. ^^ Theologia Spe- 
culativa : or the first part of a body of (^vinity under that 
tiUe, wherein are explained, the principles of Natural and 
Itevealed Religion, 1718," folio. This met with a favour- 
able reception from the public : , yet when Stackhouse, a 
man certainly not of much higher talents, afterwards exe- 
cuted a work of a similar nature, he endeavoured to dje- 
preciate the labours of his predecessor. Dr. Fiddes's se- 
cond part is entitled '^ Theologia Practica, wherein are 
explained the duties of Natural and Revealed Religion ;" 
and was pubhshed in 1720, folio* The same year also he 
published in folio, 3. ^' Fifty-two practical. Discourses on 
several subjects, six of which were never before printed.'* 
These, as well as his Body of Divinity, were published by 
a subscription, which was liberally encouraged at Oxford. 
But the work which gained him the most friends, and most 
enemies, was, 4. " The Life of Cardinal Wolsey, 1724," 
in folio, dedicated to the chancellors, vice^^chancellors, 
doctors, and other members of the two universities ; and 
encouraged by a large subscription. This, work was attacked 
with great severity in " The London Journal," and the au- 
thor charged him with being a papist ; who repelled this 
accusation in, 5* " An Answer to Britannicus, compiler of 
the London Joums^l, 1725," in two letters^ in the first of 

T 2 

in F I D I> E & 

wbich he endeavouri to obviate the charge of popery ; ia 
the second, to show his impartiality iu the life of .thi& car-i 
dinaK Dr. Knight, in the *^ Life of Krasmus/'. published a 
little after our author^s death, attacked him in the severest 
terms, accuaing him of speaking irreverently of Erasmus, 
*i probably,** says be, f^ because he h^d by his writings fa«* 
Toured the reformati(^D.'**-r-Dr.. Fiddes, he says, vilifies the 
reformation, depreciates the instruments of it, and paU 
Mates the absurdities of the Romish church. He declares 
also that the life was written at the solicitation of bishop 
Atterbury, on the occasion of the dispute in whi(;b he waa 
then engaged with archbishop Wake: and that A!tterbury 
supplied him with materials, suggested matter and method^ 
entertained him at his deanery, procured him subscribers^ 
and ** laid 4he whole plan for forming such a life as might 
blacken the reformation,% cast lighter odours upon popery^ 
and even make way for a popish pretender.'^ Fiddes, inV 
deed, had given occasion for part of this surmise, by saying, 
that ** a very learned prelate; generously offered to let me 
compile the life of cardinal Wolsey in his house.'V Sn^^ 
picipn was likewise heightened by the eulogium he mad» 
on Atterbury, a little before his deprivation. Though it 
may be difficult to determine bow far this author was at 
the bottom an enemy to the reformation,, yet in his Life of 
Wolsey, his i^rgudices in favour ef the i&ncient religion 
are unquestionably strong, and in these he shared with 
some contemporaries of no inconsiderable fame. As a coU 
lection of facts, however, th&work is highly valuable, and 
he has the merit (whatever that may be esteemed) of placing 
the life and character of Wolsey in a more just light than 
any preceding writer. As the munificent founder of Christ 
church, he could not avoid a certain reverence for Wolsey, 
nor, if Attef'bury assisted htm, can we wonder at that pre- 
late's disposition to t\kink well of so great a benefactor to 
learning, who would have proved a still greater benefactor, 
liad he not been sacrificed to the avarice and caprice of 
hisr royal master. - 

The great encouragement which the life of Wolsey obri 
fained, prompted Fiddes to undertake the lives of airTho^ 
mas More and bishop Fisher: but when he bad gone through 
a gceat part of this work, he loat/his manuscript *« He 

' • i^n advertisement was published, Barcroft, bis i^an-in-tair, offspring • r«- 
but without effect, a little after the ward to any t>ere6n who could prodtica 
dodor'f de^ihj by tbe itverenU Mr. tba mauufrctiptr Is the proposali ibr 

r ID D E s. 


fitiblisbedy 6. ^^ A-getieral tl'eatise'of Morality^ foi'med upon 
Ibe principles of Natural Reason only ; with a preface iiC 
aAswer to two essays ktely published in the Fable of th^ 
Beesy and some incidental remarks upon an Inquiry con* 
oetning Virtae, by the right honourable Anthony earl of 
Shaftesbury," 1724^ Bra, In his preface, he defends seme 
opinions of Shaftesbury against the anthbr of the ** Search 
into the Nature of Society }** and afterwards vindicates Dr; 
lladcKfFe from the aspersions of the same author, on ac* 
count of his* benefactions to the university of Oxford. ?» 
^< A Pfdlparative to the Lord*s Sapper.^ 8. << A Letter ia 
answer to one frttn a Freethinker, occasioned by the late 
diike of Buckingham's epitaph : wherein certain passages 
iri it that ha?e been thought exceptionable are vibdicated, 
and the doctrine of the soul's immortality asserted. To 
fdiich is prefixed, a version ^f the epitaph, agreeably to th^ 
explication given of it in the Answer ;'' in 1721, 8vo. The 
epitaph 'and vei^sion, which are here subjoined, will satisfy 
the reader that Fiddes misunderstood it, without being at 
the trouble to read his pamphlet : 

^ Pro ^^ seepe, pro Republfea semper. 

BubiuSj non improbus vixi. 

IncertuB mtnioPi sed inturbati^. 

Humanum estemre, & nescire. 

Christum advenerori Deo confido^ 

Omnipotently benevolentissimo. 

Ens £ntium> miserere meL" 

. ** Much for the prerogative^ ever for my country. 

I lived irregular, not profligate. 

Though going to a state unknown, I die resigned. 

FniUty and Ignorance attend on human li%. 

Religiously I worship Christ, in God confide^ 

*- \ Aimigbty« and most merciful; 

, / thou principle of all BeingSj and first of 
. * . Causes, have compassion on me.*' 

jtliii undertaking, it is said, "thatUie 
iO(iin)li(er of cardinal Wofoey's Life, 
baring in the progress «f that work» 
met with several curiods nieiboirs re- 
fating to the character and conduct of 
€)rThoaHi8 More, som^mechantellor 
^•f England* and John^l'i^er biihopof 
Kochester, conterifpdfariirs ^tli fftfe 
cardinal, hath beeh advlsea^^ffibtfth 
the LtTeaof those two great meli; ilMi 
^otb accordingly propose to publish 
Jlbeai ib Micbaelmas term 1725, upon 
» prospect thai an attempt of thii kjod 
iDay be of some service, towards a 
better illiutifation of the history of tbs 

time wherein they tpurished, botli in 
tretpeet to the pf>lttical 4nd: ecclesiasti- 
cal state of affairs." These two Lives 
were to make about HO sheets in a 
lairge letter ; and tbe first four sheets, 
which are in the hands of one of th« 
doctor's intimate friends, are wrtttep 
in a style suitable to the dignity of 
history; and shew that be- had not 
been sparing in his researches. The 
late Mr. Oldiswortb, who had seen tb* 
manuscript in question, offered to 
complete the two Lives, in case they 
should be found. Lift in QeD« Di/^. 

ili F I D D E k 

Dr. Fiddes ^as an ingenious, but not a very learned m'aW 
He had so happy a memory, that he retained every thing- 
he read, and never made use of notes in preaching. He 
was far from being a nervous writer, abounding in matter, 
but was prolix and tedious, for which it has been offered as^ 
an apology that his necessities did not allow him time to 
contract his thoughts into a narrower compass. It is rea- 
sonable to suppo<ie, that he was sincere in his professions 
concerning the hierarchy ; and as reasonable to suppose, 
that he had no affection for popery. In his Life in the Ge* 
neral Dictionary, is a letter from him to a protestant lady, 
to dissuade her from turning Roman catholic, which sets 
this question at rest. His misfortunes, in the latter part 
of his life, were chiefly owing* to his strong attachment to 
ai party. His application to bis studies was so intense, that 
he would frequently pass wbole nights in writing, which, 
together with Jiis misfortunes, is supposed not a little to 
have hastened his death*. He was reckoned, upon the 
whole, a good man, but rather wanting in point of prtt- 
dence, and by no means a manager of his moneyl' 

FIDELIS (Cassandra), a very learned lady, of a family 
originally of Milan, is supposed to have been born about 
1465. She was early instructed in the Greek and Latin 
languages, elocution, and the Aristotelian philosophy, to 
which she was partial, and maintained a correspondence 
with many of the literati of her age. She is said to have 
been of unblemished morals, great frankness of disposition, 
and occasional gaiety. Politian considered her as no less 
a prodigy among her sex than Picus was among his, and 
was so struck with her character, that he visited Venice 
almost solely with a view to converse with her ; and persons 
of all ranks vied in their respect for her, while crowned 
heads invited her by large offers to visit and settle in their 
courts. In 1487, Cassandra delivered a public oration be- 

* Our author, about a year before contempbtioa in the Bodleian libraiy, 

bis deaib, being in Oxf« irJ, bad in> that he did not take notice of the s^hut- 

vited several persons of consequence ting it up; and might have spent the 

in that university to sup with him at whole night there, had not the inarti« 

his lodgings. The guests came, the cuiat^ noise he mad6 from the window 

entertainment was got ready and spoilt, occasioned a student wlio was passing 

but the doctor could not be met with i>y to take notice of him, and procure 

in any of the colleges. At last, how- histrelease by the assibtaoce of Uie 

ever, be appeared j when it was found "janitor. ; 

that be had been so much wrapt up in 

. 1 Life by Dr. Birch in the Oeneral Dictionary, of which a poor abridgment,^ 
'without acknowledgment! was made by Dr. Tower6 for the new edition of the 
Blograpbia Britaoiiica. 

F .i D E 1 1 s. eip 

f<>«e the university of Padua, " pro Alberto Lamberto Ca- 
jnonico Concordiensi," a philosophical relation of hers, which 
is still e;ctant. Some suppose her to have been in the prac- 
tice of delivering public lectures in that university, but this 
is doubted by her biographer. She had once the honour 
of acjidressing a complimentary oration to Bona Fortia, 
que^n of Sarmatia, when visiting Venice, which was deli- 
yered in the Bucentauro, sent out with a suitable train to 
meet and escort her into the Venetian port ; on which oc- 
casion the queen presented her with a magnificent gold 
(phain; but Cassandra, with that philosophic indifference 
which she had always evinced for this precious metal, gave 
it next day into the hands of the doge. 

Agreeably to the will of her father, she gave her hand 
to Jo. Maria Mapellius of Vicenza, a learned physician, in 
ber connexion with whom she experienced various re- 
verses. In 1521 she became a widow. In her ninetieth 
year ,she was appointed to preside over a religious society 
of her own sex at Venice, and died in 1558, or as some 
#ay in 1567. She had composed a work "De Scientia- 
rum Ordine," frequently mentioned in her letters, but it 
was never published. Tbomasinus wrote her life, prefixed to 
her "Epistolae et Orationes Posthumae,'* Padua, 163jS,. 8vo.* 

FIELD (Richard), an eminent English divine, was bora 
Oct. 15, 1561, in the parish of Hempsted in the; county of 
Hertford, of an ancient family of good repute in that 
county. The estate which came to him from his father 
and grandfather had been in the family ms^ny years before, 
and it is recorded as somewhat singular that out of his- 
grandfather's house, there had died but three owners of 
this estate in 160 years. He received his first education in 
tihe free school of Berkhampstead, and was afterwards ad- 
mitted of Magdalen-hall, Oxford ; and such was the cha- 
racter he left behind him, that his chambers and study there 
fi^ere. shewn, for a time after he. quitted them. But 
.Recording to Wood's account, he was first admitl:ed of 
Magdalen college in the year 1577, and proceeded A. B. 
before he went to Magdalen-hall, where he.^took his mas- 
ter's degree, and ^as esteemed the best disputant iu vthe 
schools. After some time spent in the study of divinity^ 
be read the catechetical lecture in Magdalen-hall, which, 
though a private lecture, was in his bands rendered so. ih^ 
.^eresting as to be much frequented by the whole univer- 

^ Gccsswell^a PoUtiaD, &c«— Roscoe's LQreDZO.«*Nrceron| Vm.-^TirabQftcbu 

180 F I E L D. 

sity. Dr. John Reynoldsi though greatly his senior^ and 
either then or soon' afti^r Margaret .professori audpresident ; 
of Corpus Christi college, was a constant ^auditor. FieUl 
was well skilled in school divinity, and a frequent preacher 
while he lived in Oxfordshire, and is said to have been very 
instrumental in pi^yenting the increase of nonconformity 
in the university. His .father^ had provided a match for 
him, as being his eldest son ; but his not taking orders 
being made an indispensable requisite, he thought fit to 
decHne the choice, and returned to Oxford ; and after he 
had spent seven years tf^ere, he became divinity reader in 
Winchester cathedral. 

In 1594 he was chosep divinity reader to the honourable 
society of Lincoln^s-inn, and soon after presented by Mr. 
Richard Kingsmill, one of the benchers and smveyor of 
the court of wards, to the valuable rectory of Burgbclear 
in Hampshire, where Mr. Kingsmill lived, and refused the 
living of St. Andrew, fiolborn, which was afterwards of-^ 
fered to him^ preferring a retired life, and passing the 
greater part of his time at Burgbclear to his death. On 
April 9j, 1594, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Ri-« 
irhard Harris, sometime fellow of New coltege^ Oxford, 
and r^tor of Hardwicke in Buckinghamshire, with which 
]ady^ S^i^^ had received a very libera^ education, he lived 
happtljp: upwards of twenty years. On Sept. 27, 1598, he 
was rhade chaplain in ordinary to queen £lizabetb, after 
having, on the 23d preceding, preached a kind of proba- 
tionary sermon before her majesty; and he was soon after 
made pfeb^ndary of Windsor. He was also joined in the 
spedal eomihission with William marquis of Winchester, 
add Thotnas Bilson bishop of Winchester, &c. for eccle- 
siastical cabse^ Within the diocese of Winchester ; and in 
another to exercise all spiritual jurisdiction in the said- dio- 
cese, with Whitgift archbishop of Canterbury, Charles 
earl of Ndttingham, Thomas bishop of Winchester, and 
others, by James I. 1603, to whom be was also chaplain ivn 
ordinary, and sent to the conference at Hampton court, 
concerning ecclesiastical causes, held Jan. 14, 1603. In 
1 605, when the king was to be entertained at Oxford with 
all manner of scholastic exercises, he was sent for out of 
the country to bear a part in the divinity act. Sir Natha^ 
Diel Brent, afterwards warden of Merton, used to say. that 
the disputation between Dr. Field and Dr. Aglionby, before 

kia^ James, was the best he ever heard la hU Ufe> and tbfiSk 

F i E L D.~ fSi 

k'»was listened to with grelt attention a/nd delight by all 
present. The question was, ^^ An sancti et angeli cognos* 
cant c<^itationes cordium ?'' 

About 1610 the king bestowed on him the deanery d 
Gloucester, where he never resided long, but in order to 
pYeacb four or five times a year to a full auditory who re* 
3pe€ted and loved him. ^ The greatest part of his time he 
spent at bis parsonage, and tbe winter at Windsor, where 
his house in the cloister was the resort of all who were 
eminent for learning, to enjoy his conversation, and pro-^ 
fit by his sentiments on ecclesiastical affairs, and on the 
parties and sects which divided the Christian world. Dr. 
Barlow, dean of Wells, and Dr. Craken thorp were among 
his correspondents. He rejoiced when any man noted for 
learning was made prebendary of Windsor; and oftea 
visited -sir Henry Savile at £ton college, and other emi* 
nent persons in that il)sighboarhood. He often preached 
before the king, who, the first time he heard him, said, 
^< Is his name Field ? This is a fold for God to dwell in ;'* 
and Fuller, in the same punning age, calls him *^ that 
learned divme, whose memory swelleth like sl field which 
the Lord bath blessed." In the king^s progress through 
Hampshire, in 1609, the bishop of Winchester appointed 
him among those who were to preach before him j and in. 
1611,. the king having a niind to hear the prebendaries of 
Winchester in their order, the dean wrote to him first, and 
he preached oftener than any of them, and to crowded aU'*^ 
diertces. The king, who delighted to discourse with him 
on points of divinity, proposed to send him into Germany 
to compose the differences between £he Lutherans and 
Calvinists, hut, for whatever reason, this appointment did 
not take place ; and not long before his death, the king 
would have made him bishop of Salisbury, and gave him a 
promise of the see of Oxford on a vacancy. Bishop Hall 
tells us, that about the same time he was to have been 
made dean of Worcester. On OcL 27, 1614, he lost his 
wife, who left him six sons and a daughter. After con*, 
tinaing a widower about two years, he married the only 
daughter of Dr. John King, prebendary of Windsor and 
Westminster, widow of Dr. John Spenser, some time pre-f 
sident of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, but with her he* 
lived not much above a ntontb. She. however bred up hitf 
only daughter, and married her to bet eldest son, of which 
match there were three sons and five daughters. 


t»a jr I E L Di 

..Dc« Field had reached the beginning of fai$ fifty -fsiztfaf 
year, when, on Nov. 15, 1616, he died of an apoplexy, or 
some imposthume breaking inwardly, which suddenly de- 
prived him of all sense and motion. He was buried in the 
outerxhapel of St. George at Windsor, below the choir. 
Over his grave was laid a black marble slab, with his figure 
in brass, and under it an inscription on a plate of the same^ 
metal, recording the deaths of him and his first wife. His 
whole life was spent in the instruction of others, both by 
precept and example. He was a good and faithful pastor, 
an afitictionate husband and parent, a good master and 
neighbour ; charitable to the poor, moderate in bis pur- 
suits, never aiming at greatness for himself or his posterity^ 
be left to his eldest son very little more than what descend- 
ed to him from his ancestors. He had such a memory that 
he.used to retain the substance of every book he read ; but 
liis judgment was ..still greater. Although he was able to 
penetrate into the most subtle and intricate disputes, be 
was more intent on composing than increasing controver- 
sies. He did not like disputes about the high points of 
predestination and reprobation, yet appears rather to have 
inclined to the Calvinistic views of these matters. When 
be first set about writing his books *^ Of the Church,^* his 
old acquaintance Dr. Kettle dissuaded him, telling hioi 
that wheri once he was engaged in controversy, he would 
never live quietly, but be continually troubled with answers 
and replies. To this he Si^id, " I will so write that they 
$ball have no great mind to answer mef' which proved to 
be nearly the case, as his ptiain arguments were never re- 
futed. This work was pubJidhed at London in 1606, folio, 
in four books, to whiqhv he added a fifth in 1610, folio, 
with an appendix containing a defence of each passage of 
thq former books that were excepted against, or wrested to 
the maintenance of Romish errors. All these were re- 
printed at Oxford in 1628, folio. This second edition is 
<;harged by the Scots in their " C.anterburian's Self-convic- 
tion," 1641, folio, with additions made by bishop Laud. 
The purport and merit of this work has. reminded some of 
the judicious Hooker, between wBom and Dr. Field there 
was a great friendship. Dr. Field published also a sermon 
on St.Jude, v. 3,^1604, 4to, preached^before the. king at 
Windsor ; and, a little before his death, had composed 
gr^at part of a work entitled " A view of the Controversies 
in Religion, ^vhiqh in times have caused the la^ 

T I E L D. 5rS3 

mentable divisions in the Christian world ;" but it was never 
completed^ though the preface was written by the author, 
and Is printed at large in the Life of him by his Son, toge- 
tlier with some propositions laid down by him on election 
and reprobation. This Life was published from the origi- 
nal by John Le Neve, author of the •* Monumenta Angli<» 
cana," in 16t7> 8vo, and from a copy of it interleaved X 

with MS notes by the author, and by bishop Kennet, Mr. K^l w 
Gough, in whose possession it was, drew up a life for the ' 
new edition of the Biographia Britannica, which, with.a 
very few omissions, we have here copied. It only remains 
to be mentioned that Dr. Field was nominated one of the 
fellows of Chelsea college in 1610, by king James, whoj 
when he heard of his death, expressed his regi'et, and 
added, '<i should have done more for that man!" His 
«on, who wrote his life, was the Rev. Nathaniel Field, 
rector of Stourton in the county of Wilts. Another son^ 
Giles, lies buried, under a monumental inscription, against 
the east wall of New college Ante-chapel. . He died in 
1629, aged twenty-one. * 

FIELDING (Henry), beyond all comparison the first 
novel-writer of this country, was born at Sharpham Park 
in Somersetshire, April 22, 1707. His father, Edmund 
Fielding, esq. was the third son of John Fielding, D. D. 
canon of Salisbury, who was the fifth son of George earl 
of Desmond, and brother to William third earl of Den* 
high, nephew to Basil the second earl, and grandson to 
William, who was first raised to tbe peerage. Edmund 
Fielding served under the duke of Marlborough, and to- 
wards the close of king Geofge the First's reign, or the 
accession of George II. was promoted to the rank of a 
lieutenant-general. His mother was daughter to the first 
judge Gould, and aunt to sir Henry Gould, lately one of 
the judges of the common pleas. This lady, besides Henry, 
who seems 'to have been the eldest, had four daughters) 
and another son named Edmund, who. was an officer in the 
sea-service. Afterwards, in consequence of his father's 
second marriage, Fielding had six iialf- brothers, George, 
James, Charles, John, William, and Basil. Of these no- 
thing memorable is recorded, except of John, who will be 
the stibject of a subsequent article : as will also Sarah) tb« 
sister of Henry Fielding. His father died in 1740. 

! Life as ahoTe,<— Atli, .Ox. toI« I* 


Henry Flielding received the first rudiments of his edu« 
cation at home, under the care of the rev. Mr. Oliver, fot 
whom he seems to hare had no great regard, as he is said 
to have designed a portrait of him in the very himiorous 
yet unfavourable character of parson Trulliber, in his ^' Jo« 
seph Andrews." From this situation he was removed to 
Eton school, where he had an opportunity of cultivating % 
very early intimacy and friendship with several* young men 
who afterwards became conspicuous personages iti tb^ 
kingdom, such as lord Lyttelton, Mr. Fox, Mr. Pitt, sir 
Charles Hanbury Williams, &c. who ever through life re* 
tained a warm regard for him. But these were not the 
only advantages he reaped at that great seminary of edu** 
cation ; for, by an assiduous application to study, and the 
possession of strong t^nd peculiar talents, he became, be* 
fore he left that school, uncommonly versed in Greek 
authors, and a master of the Latin classics* Thus accom'- 
plished, at about eighteen years of age he left £top, and 
went to Leyden, where he studied under the most cele« 
brated civilians for about two yeafs, when, the remltiilqce^ 
from England not coming so regularly as at first, he %as 
obliged to return to London. / .[ 

General Fielding^ s. family being very greatly incre^sett 
by his second marriage, it became impossible foe him to 
make such appointments for this his eldest son as he could 
have wished ; his allowance was therefore either very ill paid 
or entirely neglected. This unhappy situation soon pro* 
duced all the ill consequences which could arise from po* 
verty and dissipation. Possessed of a strong constitution, 
a lively imagination, and a disposition naturally but little 
formed for cecoBomy, Henry Fielding found himself his 
own master, in a place where the temptations to every 
expensive pleasure are numerous, and the means of gra- 
tifying them easily attainable. From this unfortunately 
pleasing situation sprang the source of every misfortune or 
uneasiness that Fielding afterwards felt through life. Iii| 
very soon found that his finances were by no means pro^* 
portioned to the brisk career of dissipation into which he 
had launched; yet, as disagreeable impressions never con^ 
tinned long ujpon his mind, but only roiized him to strug* 
jgle through his diflG^sulties with the greater spirit, he flat* 
tered himself that he abould find resources in bis wit and 
invention, and acccordingly commenced writer fpr the 
stage in 1727, at which time he had' not more than at« 
tained the completion of his twentieth year. 

F I EL Dl N a 285 

His first dramatic attempt was a piece called ^[ Love in 
several Masques,*^ whieb^ though it immediately succeeded 
the long and; .crowded run at the '* Provoked Husband,** 
met with a favoQtaWe reception, as did likewise bis se- 
cond play, <' The Temple Beau/* which came out in the 
following year. He did not, however, meet with equal 
$uccess in all bis dramatic works, for he has even printed, 
tfi'the title-page bf'Qne of his farces, ^^ as it was damned 
at the theatre-royal Drury-lane ;*' and be himself inform* 
us, in the general preface to his miscellanies, that for the 
<^ Weddiog-Day,** though acted six nights, his profits from 
the hovise did not exceed fifty pounds. Nor did a much 
better fate attend some of his earlier productions, so that^ 
though it was his lot always to write from necessity, he 
would, probably, aocwithstanding his writings, ))ave la* 
boured continually under that necessity, had not the se<» 
verity of the publi'ey .and the malice of his enemies, met 
with a noble all^viatiori from the patronage of several per- 
sons of distingufshed' rank and character, particularly the 
lat'e dukes of Richmond and Roxburgh, John duke of 
Argyle, the. first lord Lyttelton, &c. the last-named of 
which noblemen, not only by bis friendship softened the 
ipigour of our author^s misfortunes while he lived, but also 
by ilia generous ardour has vindicated his character, and 
done justice to his memory, after death. 

About six or seven years after Fielding had begun to 
write for the stage, he fell in love with isind married mis* 
Craddock, a young lady from Salisbury, possessed of a 
very great share of beauty, and a fortune of about 1500/. 
and about the same time his father dying, an estate at 
East Stour, in Dorsetshire, of somewhat better than 200& 
per annum, came into his possession. With this fortune 
which, had it been conducted with prudence and oecdnom'yj^ 
might have secured to him a state of independence for life, 
and, assisted by the productions of a genius unincumbered 
with anxieties and perplexity, might have even afforded 
htm an affluent income, he determined to I'etire to bis 
country seat. For his wife's sake, whom he loved with the 
greatest ardour, he had also formed the resolution of bid* 
ding adieu to all th^ follies and intemperances to which he 
had fkddicted himself in his short but very rapid career of 
a town life, and of living in domestic regularity. 

But here one folly only took placijf of another, and family 
pride Bow brought oa him all the inconveniences in m<t 

2.96: FIE L D I NO; 

place, tbat youthfal dissipation and libertinism had done 
in anotlier. Fond of shew and magniBceace,. he encum- 
bered himself with a large retinue of servants; and led by 
natural disposition to enjoy society and convivial mirth, \u^ 
threw open his gates for hospitality, and suffered his whole 
patrimony to be devoured up by hounds, horses, and en- 
tertainments. Thus, in less than tki*ee years, he dissipated 
his whole property ; and from the mere passion of being 
usteemed a man of great fortune, reduced himself to the 
unpleasant situation of having no fortune at all. He had 
thus, at the age of thirty, undermined his own support?, 
and had now no dependence but on his abilities,. Not 
discouraged, however, he determined to exert his talents 
vigorously, applied himself closely to the study of the law, 
and, after the customary time of probation at the Temple, 
was called to the bar,* and made no inconsiderable figure » 
in Westrainster-halL 

To the practice of the law Fielding now adherecV with- 
great assiduity, both in the courts in London, and on the 
circuits, as long as bis health permitted, and it is probable 
wpuld have risen to a considerable degree of eminence in 
k, had not the intemperances of his early life put a check, 
by their consequences, to the progress of his success. 
Though but a young man, he began .now to be molested 
with such violent aCttacks from the gout as rendered it im- 
possible .for him to give such constant attendance at the 
bar as the laboriousness of that profession requires. Un- 
der these united severities of pain and want, he pursued 
his researches with an eagerness peculiar to him ; and, as^ 
a proof of tlie degree of eminence to which be might have 
risen, he left two MS volumes, in folio, on the crown 
law, to which branch he had most assiduously applied. It 
gives us an idea of the great force and vigour of his mind, 
]jf we consider him pursuing so ardi^ous a study under the 
exigencies of family distress, with a wife and children, 
whom he tenderly loved, looking up to him for subsistence, 
with a body torn by the acutest pains, and a mind^ dis- 
tracted by a thousand avocations, yet obliged, for imme- 
diate supply, to produce almost extempore, a play, a. 
ferce, a pamphlet, or a newspaper. A large number of 
&]gitive political tracts, which had their value when the 
incidents were actually passing on the great scene of busi-w 
ness, came from bis pen. The periodical paper, called 
^^Xhe. Champion," owed its cbief suppott to hist abilitie&^ 

#IELDI>r<?* 887 

A poetical epistle to the right honourable sir Robert Wal^^ 
pole, written in 1730, shews at once his acquaintance with 
distress, and the firmness qf mind with which he supported 
it. Such other works as were produced before his genial 
was come to Its full growth were, *^ An Essay on Conver- 
«aiion ;" " An Essay on the knowledge arid characters of 
Men ;" " A Journey (mm this World to the ndxt ;" " The 
History of Jo'tiathan Wild the Great ;" &c. The two last 
mentioned' are satires of a peculiar texture, and entirely 

But his genius is seen in full and vigorous exertion, first 
in ** Joseph Andrews," and more completely in his " Ton! 
Jones;" which are too well known, and too justly admired, 
to leave any room for expatiating on their merits. Soon 
after the publication of " Joseph Andrews," his last co- 
medy was exhibited on the stage, entitled ** The Wed- 
ding- Day," which was attended with but an indifferent 
share of success^ The repeated shocks of illness more 
and more disqualified him from pursuing the law: from 
business, therefore, he derived little or no supplies^ and 
his prospect grew every day more gloomy and melancholy. 
To these discouraging circumstances, if we add the in£ir<« 
mity of his wife, and the agonies he felt on her account^ 
the measure of his affliction may be considered as nearly 
full. That fortitude of mind, with which he met all the 
other calamities ^of life, deserted him on this most trying 
occasion ; and her death, which happened about this time; 
brought on such a vehemence of grief, that his friends b^-^ 
gan to think him in daiiger of losing his reason. At length, 
when the first emotions of sorrow were abated, philosophy 
fidministered her aid, his resolution returned, and he began 
again to struggle with his fortune. He engaged in two 
periodical papers successively^ with a laudable and spiritied 
design of rendering service to his country. The. first of 
these was called ** The True Patriot/' which was under- 
taken during the rebellion of 1745. Precarious, however, as 
•ucif means of subsistence unavoidably must be, it was scarcely 
possible he should be thus enabled to recover his shattered 
fortunes, and was therefore at length obliged to accept of 
the o6fice of -an acting magistrate in the commission of the 
f)eace for the county of Middlesex, in which station he 
-continued till near the time of his deaths This office^ 
4iowever, seldom fails of being hateful to the populace, 
^nd of course is liable to many ii>famou9 and unjust impu^ 


tationsy particularly that of Tenality ; a charge which tlm 
ill-natured world, not unacquainted with Fielding'^ want 
of GBGononiy, and passion for expence, were but too ready 
to cast upon him. From this charge Mr. Murphy^ in th« 
life of this author, prefixed to the first edition of bia works^ 
has taken great pains to exculpate him; as likewise baa 
Fielding hioiseif, in his '^ Voyage lo Lisbon," which mhy^ 
with some degree of propriety, be considered as the last 
words of a dying man. Amidst all the laborious duties of 
his office, his invention could not lie still, but be found 
leisure to amuse himself, and afterwards the world, with 
^* The History of Tom Jones." His " Amelia " was en- 
tirely planned and executed while he was distracted by a 
multiplicity of avocations which surround a public magis- 
trate; and his constitution, now greatly impaired and en- 
feebled, was labouring under severer attacks of the gout 
than he had before felt; yet the activity of his mind was 
not to be subdued. At length, however,, his whole- frame 
was so entirely shattered by continual inroads of compli- 
cated disorders, and the incessant fatigue of business in 
his office, that, hy the advice of his physicians, as a last 
effort to preserve life, and support a broken constitution, 
be set out for Lisbon, Even in this distressful condition, 
bis imagination still continued OK^king the strongest efforts 
lo display itself; and the last gleams of his wit and hu- 
mour sparkled in the ^^ JournaF' he left behind him of his 
<< Voyage" to that place v which was published in 1755, 
at London, in 12mo. In 1754, about two months after 
bis arrival at Lisbon, he died Oct. 8, in bis foi*%y-eighth 
year. His works have been publislied in several sisies, with 
f^ An Essay on the Life and Genius of the Author, by At* 
Ibur Murphy, esq." 

Fieiding^s genius excelled most in those strong, lively^ 
and natural paintings of the characters of mankind, add 
the movements of the human l^art, which coastitute the 
basis of his novels; yet, as comedy bears the closest afii^ 
Bity to this kind of writing, his dramatic pieces, every*one 
of which is comic, are far from being coBtemptible* His 
farces and ballad pieces, more especially^ have aspright^- 
liness of manner, and a forcibleneas of charaoler> by which 
it is impossible not to be agreeably eatertained ; and in 
those which he has in any degree borrowed from Moliere^ 
or any other wriler, he has done great hoilour and justice 
to his original^ by the manner in which be has ti:eat«.d the 


I" I E L D I N 6. 28* 


4Ubjiect. Having tnaified a second tihie, he left a wife 
4nd four children, who wet-e educated Undelr the care 6t 
iheir uncle, with the aid of a very generous donatioQ 
given annually by Ralph Allen, esq. the cbleibrated maU 
bf Bath. One of hi.s sons is still living, a barrister of con« 
fiideirablfe reputation. Thii second wife difed at Cahter- 
buryi irt May 1 802, at a vfery dd^anced . age. Pielding'^ 
fhline was naturaill^ vfery fo'bust, and his hfeigHt rathe^ 
above six feet. It was thought that no j[)icture was takeii 
df him while he lived, dnd it i^ certain thiit Ihe portrait pre- 
fixed to his Works was i sketch Executed by his friend Ho- 
frarth, frdm rfjemory. We find,' however, in Mr. Nichols's 
new edition of the Lif^ bf fiowyer, ii beslutiful engraving 
from a mirtiatufe in. th^ ^ossessidn of his grand-daughter^ 
Mr^. Sophia Fi^ldiiilg. Hi^ character as a uian,' tnay iti 
great measure be deduced from the incidents of his life^ ' 
but cannot perhaps^ be delineated better than by his bio* 
^apher }/lr. Murphy, ^ith whose Words this article ma]^ 
properly be closed. ', 

" It will be ah hdmane and geiftrOus ofllcfe to set dtpwii 
id the account of slaffKder a*nd defamation, a great p'^rt ol 
(bat abusb v^hich wkd dfischarged against him by his enemies 
In his lift; trine ; deducing, however, fr6nfi th^ whdte, this 
usefcrl les^sbn,' that cjCilck dnd \^arih pa^sifons should be early* 
controul^d, and ibat dissipation and extrdvslgan't pleasures 
are the most dang^rotis ^alliation^s that can be found for 
dis^potntments and Vexatit>riS in' the first stages of life. 
** We haye sei6n," adds he, " how Mr. Fielding vei^ soon 
sqtiandi6red aSvay his sihiW patrimony, Which,' with oeco- 
nomy, ndii'gbt have procured hini' independence ; we have 
seen h6w 6e ruined, iuto the bargain, a constitution, which 
iii its original te^tur^ seemed foraged to fast much longer. 
tVbfen* ilfness and indigen<be w^re once let in upon himl 
h6 no lohger remained the liiaster of his oWn action's; and 
that nic^ delicacy 6f conduct which alone constitutes and 
presferv^s a character, waisi occaisibhally obliged to giVe 
way. Whfen he Was not lind^r thi^ immediate urgency of 
Wati tTj th^s^ who w^re intimate* with hini ave ready tb'aver, 
that hi had. a: ihlhd greatly siijierior to any thitig naean or 
little ; WhHh his' finances were Exhausted*, he Wa^' riot . the 
most elegant in his choice of the means to redress himself^ 
and be would in^ntly exhibit a farce or a puppet -shew*, 
ih the KRiymarket theatre^ which was wholly inconsistent 
with the prof'essibn hie had embarked in. But his intimates 
Vol. XIV. U 


are witness how much his pride suffered when he was forced 
into measures of this kind ; no man having a juster sense, 
of propriety, or more honourable ideas of thp employment, 
of an author apd a scholar/' Many years after the death 
of Fielding, the French consul at Lisbon, le Chev. de 
Meyrionnet, wrote an ^legant epitaph for him, and pro- 
posed to have erected a monument; but the Engli^hfac- 
tocy, stimulated by^this generosity in a foreigner, tpok the 
matter into their own hands. 

[ Many of the. most eminent critics of the age have treated 
on Mr. Fielding^s genius, as may appear from our referen- 
ces, and while they concur in censuring his occasional in- 
delicacies, are yet unanimous in assigning him the very 
first rank of genius. "Tom Jones, and "Amelia," are 
his best performances^, and the most perfect perhaps of 
their .kind ia the world. With respect to the former, Dr, 
Beattie has well observed, " that since the days of Homer, 
the world has not seen a more ^.rtful epic fable. The cha- 
racters and adventures are wonderfully diversified, yet the 
circumstances are all so natural, and rise so easily from 
one another, and co-operate with so mtich regularity in 
bringing on, even while they seem to retard, the cata- 
strophe, that the curiosity of the reader is kept always 
awake, and instead of flagging, grows more and mpre im-* 
patient as the story advances, till at last it becomes down- 
right anxiety. . And when we get to the end, and look 
back on the whole contrivance, we are amazed to find that 
of so many incidents there should be so few superfluous ; 
that in such a variety of fiction there should be so great 
probability ; and that so complex a tale should be so per- 
spicuously conducted, and with perfect unity of design." 
The same author justly remarks that the novel, pr " comic 
romance, since the time, of J^ielding, seems to have been 
declining apace, from simplicity and nature, into impro- 
bability and affectation." .He has, indeed, not only had 
no equal, no successful rival ; but among the many hundreds 
who have attempted the same species of writing, there is 
Tkot^oue who reminds us of Fielding. The cause of his su^ 
periority is to be sought in his wit and humour, of which 
he bad a more inexhaustible fund, as well as more know* 

. ^ The author himself was not of what reason he bad for this, and think 

^t^ifi .opinion. Dr. Warton informt us it still move unaccountable, that Dr. 

that he valued l>is *' Joseph Andrew^'* Warton should add the words " as iie 

above all his writings. We know not justly may.'' WooU's Life of Warton. 


ledge of mankind, than any person of modern times. Lord 
Lyttelton, after mentioning several particulars of Pope, 
Swift, and other wits of that age, when reminded of 
Fielding, said, " HenVy Fielding had more wit and humour 
than all the persons we have been speaking of put toge^ 
then" And many parts of his writings, particularly of his 
** Amelia," shew that he could excel, when he chose, in 
the pathetic. The world, after so many years, yet con-^ 
curs in these sentiments of Fielding's excellence ; and his 
works are as fully established in popularity, as those of the 
greatest geniuses of our nation, and the demand for them 
continues as great. 

There are not so many anecdotes preserved concerning 
Fielding as might perhaps have been expected, considering 
the eccentricity of his disposition, and his talents for con- 
versation. But when he died, the passion for collecting 
the memorabilia of literary men was little felt In the 
Gent Mag. for 1786, however, we have an anecdote which 
19 too characteristic to be omitted. Some parochial taxes 
for Fielding's house in Beaufort Buildings being unpaid, 
and for which demands had been made again and again, 
lie was at length told by the collector, who bad ain esteem 
for him, that no longer procrastination could be admitted. 
Ih this dilemma he had recourse to Jacob Tonson, the 
bookseller, and mortgaging the future sheets of some work 
he had in hand, received the sum he wanted, about ten or 
twelve guineas. When he was near bis own .house, he 
met with an old college chum, whom he had not seen for 
man}" years, and Fielding finding that he had been unfor- 
tunate in life, immediately gave him up the whole money 
that he had obtained from Mr. Tonson. Returning home 
in the full- enjoyment of his benevolent disposition and 
conduct, he was told that the collector had called twice 
for the taxes. Fielding's reply was laconic, but memo- 
rable : ^^ Friendship has called for the money, and had it ; 
let the collector call again." The reader will be glad to 
bear that a second application to Jacob Tonson enabled 
him to satisfy the parish demands. — Another anecdote af- 
fords one of those happy turns of wit which do not often 
occur. Being once in company with the earl of Denbigh, 
and it being nt)ticed that Fielding was of the Denbigh fa- 
mily,: the earl asked tb^ reason why they spelt their nances 
diiferently ; the earl's family spelling it with the e first, 
(Feilding), and Mr, Jlenry Fielding with the i first, (Field- 

V 2 

??9 F I E ,L D I N O. 

ing) ; " I cannot tell, piy lord," $M pur author, '♦excepi 
it be that my branch of the femily were the first th;^^ koevy 
bow to spell !" * 

FIELDING (Sajiah), third sister of the preceding, waf 
born in l^lf^ lived unnnarrjed, and died ^t fiath, where 
^he hajd long re^id^d, in April 1768. ShfS made soma 
figure among the literary ladies pf her ag^^ and possessed 
a well cultivated mind. Soon after th^e appearance of h^r 
brother's " Joseph Andrews," she ppblisbed a novel in i 
vols. r2mQ, entitled " The Adventures of David Simple^ 
in search pf a faithful friend,'' which had a considerable 
share of popularity, and is not yet forgotten. In 175? 
$h^ produced a third volume, which did not excite sp much 
attention. I^er npxt prqductjon, which appefkre4 in 1753^ 
was " The Cry, ^ new Drfimatic fah^^," 3 vojs, hMt this, 
although far frqm being destitute of ^lerit^ was not well 
^dap^^d to the tas^te of ron^i^aT^cerref^d^rs. Her l^^t per-f 
^ovvfid^ncp was " J^enpphan's Mepioirs pf Socfs^t^s, with tb^ 
Defence of Spcr^tps befPfP hi,^ Judges,^'' ti;^nslated from 
the original Qreek, 1762, 3yo, In this trs|nslaUQi>> which 
h e^ec^t^d with i^delity $ipd eleganc^^ ^e ws^ favoured 
with ^9V^^ valuab\^ notef by the ^^rne4 Mr, H:^rris, Qf 
Saliiibury, who aUo probably contributed to the correctness 
pf the translation. The qther works of this I^Yi 1^^ 
l^oowu, were, <^ FaQiil^iar letters between the Qha^racteirs io 
Pavid Simple," ^ vols. ; ** The Governess, or Littfl^ Fe- 
ppale ^c^deniy ;" " T^p Liyps of (pleopatra.^nd Octavisi;" 
" The Hi tory pf the Countess of D^lvyyn^" 2 vols, ; and 
'^ Ij'be Hi^^tory oj^ Opheli^" 2 yols^ Dr. Jp^n G|oadly> ^ho. w^s 
her particular fripnd, erected a Inou^Inent to her u^ep^tory^ 
witii^ a haudspm^ compliment to ^^r v^tv^es and t^sdeai^s.' 

J^I ELDING (Sj^u Jcxhn), wast half br/^bier, ^^ s^ve^ 
mentioned, to, ^enry folding, ^n^^ his^ sjg^es^or yifk th^ 
pfiice of justice for Westmi^ter, iii, whiob» d¥>Mgh hli^d 
from his youth, he acted with gre^^t; s^gaciitiy and activi^ 
fpr many years. He received ijbe honoui^ pf knightbpod 
for his.seriric^ in Octohei;, 1761, and died, ajb Brov^ptoo in 
September 1780. Ijie published aA varipu;s tii^es^ tbd^ foU 
lowing w:orks : 1. ^^ An* accou.nit o^ the Qri^Jn, and Cffectjt 
of a Police, set on foot by his gface t^he d^Jke of Niewcast}^ 

1 Life by Marphy, pre6xed to bis Works.— Biog. Brit. toI. VI. part I. nn- 
pablithed.— Blair's Lectures. — Mason^s Life of Qray. — Monboddo on the Origin^ 
Ice. of Language, vol. Ili. p. 13^ S96 — 398.-:— H9,rrisfs Pluloiogit^aj Uwuriu* 
1^3, 164. — Beattie's Dissertations^ p» 571.— B^attiefs Essaysi, p. 422S, 

9 Nichols** Bowyer. 


ill rtie year \7S% lipon d Pkn presented to Yixi grace by 
the late Henry Fielding, esq*. To wMch is added, a Plan 
for preserting th<We deserted Girls in this Town whb be- 
come Pro^ituties from Nec^teity. 1 768f." This was a sntalf 
trace in »vo. 2. " Extra<;ts from such of the Penal Laws' 
As particularly relate to the Peace and good Order of the 
MetropoKs^" 176 1, 8vo ; al?irger piA)licatiort 3. " l^Jie 
Universal' Mentor ; containing^ Essays on the most im-' 
p<Mtant Subjects in Life ; composed of Observati6ns, Sen-. 
dmentSy and' Examples of Virtue, selected from the ap-' 
proved Ethic Writers, Biographers, and Historians, both 
dncient a«d moderii," 1762, 12mo. This appears to have 
been the di^hai'ge of his common-place book. 4. " A: 
Charge to the Gr^nd Jury of Westminster,'* 1763, 4to, 
stated to have been published at the unanimous request of 
die magistrates and jui*y, when he was chair inan of thd 
quarter sessions. 5. " Another Charge to the Grartd Jury 
on a similar occa^ion^'* 1766, 4to. 6. " A brief Dfescrip-' 
tion of the Cities of London and Westfminster, &c. To' 
viHiiicb are added, some Cautions agaiiist the Tricks* of 
Sharpers," &c. 1777, l'2mo. Nothing in this appears to' 
bftve' proceeded firom sir John, except the " Cautions," 
and the us^e of his name wa^ perhaps a bookseller's' tribk.; 
It ia moist to tfie hbnour of sir John Fifelding's memory, 
that he was »distiriguished'piromoter of the Magdaleh'hos-* 
{Htal; the Asylum, and the Marine Society.* 

FIENNES (William), lord Say and Sdte, a- person of 
literaty merit, but not so wtell knO\Vn on that account afr 
for the part he bore in the Grand Rebellion, was born at 
Broughton in Oxfordshire, in 1582, being the eldest sbn' 
of sir Richard Fiennes, to whom James I. had re^tored'arid 
confirmed the dignity of baron Say and Sele : and; after* 
being properly instructed at Winchester school, w^s sent 
ill 1696 to NewwcoUege in Oxford^ of wHic'h, by virtue of 
hUrelfttibpship to the founder, he was made fellow: AftSr 
beh^'spent some ye^rs in sthdy, he travelled into foreign 
cbuntries, arid then relturned home with the reputation of 
a^ise and prudent man. When the war was carried on in- 
the Palatinate, he contributed largely to it, accoi-ding to 
his estarte^, which was highly pleasing to king James ; but, 
indulging bis neighbours by leaving it tp themselves to pay' 
what they thought' fit, he was, on notice given to his ma- 
jesty, committed to custody in June 162^, He was, hovv- 

> Geat. Mag. passim. See ladex. 

2M F I E N N E S. 

ever, soon released ; and, in July 1624, advanced from a 
baron to be viscount Say and Sele. At this time, says 
Wood, he stood up for the privileges of Magna Charta; 
but, after the rebellion broke out, treated it with the ut- 
xjiost contempt : and when the long- parliament began in 
3 640, he shewed himself so active that, as Wood says, he 
and Hampden and Pym, with one or two more, were 
esteemed parliament-drivers, or swayers of all the parlia» 
ments in which they sat. In order to reconcile him to the 
court, he had the place of mastership of the court of wards 
given him in May 1641 : but this availed nothing; for, 
^hen arms were taken up, he acted openly against the 
king. Feb. 1642, his majesty published two proclamations, 
commanding all the officers of the court of wards to 
attend him at Oxford ; but lord Say refusing, was outlawed, 
and attainted of treason. He was tbe lasr who held the 
office of master of this court, which was abolished in 1646 
by the parliament, on which occasion 10,000/. was granted 
to him, with a part of the earl of Worcester's. estate, as a 
compensation. In 1648 he qpposed any personal treaty 
with his majesty, yet the same year was one of, the parlia^. 
ment-commissioners in the Isle of Wight, when they 
treated with the king abopt peace: at which time he is 
said to have urged against the king this passage out of 
Hooker^s " Ecclesiastical Polity," that " thoqgh the king 
was singulis major ^ yet he was universis minor :" that is, 
greater than any individual, yet less than the whole com- 
munity. After the king's death, he joined with the Inde- 
' pendents, as he had done before with the Presbyterians ; 
and became intimate with Oliver, who made him one of 
his house of lords. '^ After the restoration of Charles IL 
when he had acted," says Wood, " as a grand rebel for 
his own ends almost twenty years, he was rewarded for* 
sooth with the honourable offices of lord privy seal, and 
lord chamberlain of the household ; while others, that had 
suffered in estate and body, and had been reduced to a bit 
of bread for his majesty's cause, had then little or nothing 
given, to relieve them; for which they were to thank a 
hungry and great officer, who, to fill his own coffers, was 
the occasion of the utter ruin of many." Wood relates 
also, with some sur[yise, that this noble person^^ after be 
had spent eighty years mostly in an unquiet and discon- 
tented condition, had been a grand promoter of the rebeU 
Uon, and had in some respect been accessary to the miir-* 

F I E N N. E S. 295 

derof Chailes L died quietly in his bed, April 14, 1662, 
and was buried with his ancestors at Broughlon. On the 
restoration he was certainly made lord privy seal, but not, 
as Wood says, chamberlain of the household. Whitlock 
says, that ** he was a person of great parts, wisdom, and 
integrity:" and Clarendon, though of a cohtrary party, 
doeiT hot deny him to have had these qualities, but only 
supposes them to have been wrongly directed, and greatly 
corrupted. He calls him, 'f a man of a close arid reserved 
nature, of great parts, and of the highest ambition ; but 
whose ambition would not be satisfied with offices and pre- 
ferments, without some condescensions and alterations in 
ecclesiastical matters. He had for many years been the 
oracle of those who were puritans in the worst sense, and 
had steered all theit counsels and designs. He was a no- 
torious enemy to the' church, and* to most of the eminent 
churchmen, with some of whom he had particular contests. 
He had always opposed and contradicted all acts of state, 
. and ail taxes and impositions, which were not ekactly legal. 
Ice. — In a word, he had very great authority with all the 
disicontented party throughout the kingdom, and a gpod 
reputation with many who were not discontented; who 
believed him to be a wise man, and of a very useful temper 
id an age of licence, and one who would still adhere to' 
the law.*' But from a comparison of every authority, a 
recent writer observes, that he appears to have been fair 
from a virtuous or amiable man ; he was poor, proud, and 
discontented, and seems to have opposed the court, partly 
at least with the view of extorting preferment from thence. 
He bad the most chimerical notions of civil liberty, and 
upon the defeat of those projects in which he had so great 
a share, retired with indignation to the isle of Lundy, on 
the Devonshire coast, where he continued a voluntary pri- 
soner until the protector's, death. 

Besides several speeches in parliament, he published, 
I.- ** The Scots design discovered ; relating their dangerous 
attempts lately practised against the English nation, with 
the sad consequence of the same. Wherein divers matters 
of public concernment are disclosed ; and the book called. 
Truths Manifest, is made apparent to be Lies Manifest, 
1653," 4to. 2. " Folly and Madness made manifest ; 
or,^ some things written to shew, how contrary to the word 
of God, and practice of the Saints in the Old and New 
Testament, the doctrines and practices of the Quakers 

996 F I £ N N E & 

are," 1659, ^to. 3. " Tb^ Quaker^ I^etply m^i^tf^st^d to 
be railing : or, a pursuance of tnpsf by tl^e light pj( the 
Scriptures^ who thrpugh tbelr dark imagi,nations W9ul4^^vacte 
the T^ruth," 1659, 4to. It s^pms. the Qjjjakers we^^. pretty, 
numerous in bis neighboarhood of Broughtou ; and be 
either was, or pretended to be, oiucb troubled wi^ them* 
These tracts are so scarce and little kn^wn at this time, as 
to have escaped ]\(lr. f^ark's;. i^esi^^rcb^, yrhq inCp;i;jw ut 
^hat he was hpt able to discover any of th^pi, in t^Q go- 
pious collectiop of printed trs^cts^ either in, tl|^ Biritisih 
Museuqfi, or fhe Bridg^w^tej; li]^rary, * 

FIENNES (Nathana^I.), ^ecopd iSfpp o^ lord Sfty jqst 
mentioned, w^s. born at B^rjpug^ton, in Qpcfordsbir^; in 
1608; ahd^ like his fj9.ther, ai^i; a, proper ediuciitipp at 
Winchester school^ was adnaitted of New CoU^g^ ip Ooc- 
ford, and also ij[)ade~ {ellow in right oif kiod>ip tp! the 
founder. After p,as8ip§ some ^ears tbei)5, h^. ti;;^!{f$U^d ta 
Geneva, and amoijg the Cai^tpifs of S^yiritzerl^ofji, ^l}^);e h^ 
increased that'd^isaijFie.ct^pu t;o tl)e ehiif^ch^ vybipii, he bade 
been too much taught, in bii^ infynpy. Fi;on^, b^^ t^ay^els hft 
returned th'piigh Scotlapd^ "at. t^?, tipje ^i)|^n tl|^ ^b^- 
lion wajs beginning ;'^aa, in, 1649^ wa^. el^ct^d to sjt, iq, 
parliaiiient for Banbur^^ ^bei^^ it y^a§ q^jp^ly. disgoyer^^i 
thathe w?js ready to join ii>/st}l Iffjj fai^^'fi^ i^^einpQmti^, 
njeasures, ' Afterward^ he b^,qam^ colon,4?i| of i^orse i^icter. 
tlie earl of Ess^x, and. was qj^de gpvei;por of, ^r^^tpi, ^ben. 
first taken fpr the'use of. t^ie jw^rjiaip^nt ; but^ sviri'^Q(}0rillg> 
it too easily to prince Rup^jrt,iq. July 1643, hj? iv;a!Si tried 
by a council of^war, ana seij tended to ^lo?^ l)|s. l^f^fid- The, 
only witnesses a^aipst hini on this pqqasioii virer^.the celer 
brated Clfement Walker^ and I'ryun^. He had aftervfards, 
by the intere$t/pf.l)is father,, a pardon granted hm fpr liCe, 
but he could, not. continue any loogl^r in, the, army ; and. 
the shame of it affected him, so mf)qb» tj^^t b^ WAPti for. 
spnie time abroad, ^^retaining spll," says Clarendon, ^^tbe 
same full disaffection tb^tbe government of thft.chufpli andi 
state, and only grieved that he bad a. less capacity, left. to. 
cfo hurt to either/* When, the Ercjshyter^ans wqre. tprp^di 
out of parliament, he bf^came an independent, toqk the. 
engagement, was intimate, with Cromwell; and Mfhea 
Cromwell declared himself Prqt^ctpr, was niade ope qf.his^ 

> Biog. Brit.r— Sir E. Brydges's edition of CoHins's Peerage.— Park's Ro^al 
and Noble Author?, vol. Ilf.— Lloyd's Slat^ Worthie8.*«i^Atb. Ox. rol. 11.-—'' 
Biog* Brit. vol. VI, Part I, un^ublislied. 

F I E N N E S. 897 

privy-councii, lord privy- seal in 1655, an^ a membc^v of 
his house of lords. Though be hjE^d suflS^ien^ly shewa 
bis aversion to tnpaarchical governmeot, yet when be 
sj^w what Oliver aimed at, he because extrenjely food 
pf it, and in 1660, he published a book with this titles 
^VMooatchy aiSserte(ji to be the best, most ancient, and 
* l,egal form of goveniment, in a conference held at White«^ 
l^aJ^ virith Oliver Lord I^rotector, and Comn^ittee of Parlia-i 
ment, &c. in April 1657.'^ He published, also several 
speeches an(cl pan^pblets, sofoe of wh]ch wei;e a defence o£ 
bis. own conduct at Bristol. Walker informs ua that he was 
(be author of a historical tra^t called ^^ Anglia Rediviva,'* 
published und^r tbp naine of Sprigge* After the restora-« 
^on, hi^ retired to Newton Tony, near Salisbury in Wilt-. 
iblfGf where be bad an esta|:e that came to him by his 
jl^ond n^ife ;. an.d h^r^ continued muok neglected^ and in 
grea^ obs&urity, until hip deatb, I^ec IQ, 1669. Claren» 
dofi; has spp^n. of his abilities in very high terms. '^ Colon 
njsl Fiiann^,^^ says b§, '^ besides the credit and seputatiott 
gf b^^ fMh^]^,. ba^ a v€ry good stock ofi estimation in the 
hpii^c^ of copampns upon his owxi acore . for truly he had* 
xery good pafts,Qf learning and. natiure, and was priiKyto, 
and^4}; ipfifiager, iq, the mosjtr secret designs from, the- 
begini^ipg; ; i^nd if b^ had uot^ incumbi^red. himself witb the army, to which, men thought, his nature* 
nptf so. v^ell disposed^ he had sune been second to none in 
those councils, after Mn Hap[)pden!&death.'^ ^ 

FIENUS, or FYENS (THPMiWs), a physician of emi- 
nence, was born a^ Antw^p> IVIar^h-28, 1,567. His.father, 
v^lfo ^^s. a. plfysici$^n,at( Ant^erpj and. wha. died at Dort in. 
Iy535, was, the s^^bor of a treatise* entitled " Commenta- 
ries de flafibas humaniim corpus infestantibus^^' Antwerp, 
hSSf, His sqp, Thomas, studied medicine at Leyden, 
and. afterward^ s^( Bologna, which he visited in 1590. On. 
bis return to his native country his talents were soon made 
known, and in 1593 he was invited to Louvaine, in order 
tp fill ope of the vacapt professorships of medicine in that 
university, in which' he took the degree of doctor about the 
^d of that year. After seven years of residence, he was. 
aj^pointed physician, to Maximilian, duke and afterwards* 
elector of Bavaria ; but this he resigned at the end of one, 

"' Biog. Brit. vol. VI. Parti, unpublished. — Ath. 6x. vol, tl. — ^Noble's Me- 
mdir^ of.'Crouiwei}, vol. i. p. 371. — VVarburton's Letters to Hurd, 4to ediU 
p- 107. 


F I E N U S. 

year, and returned to Loovaine, where* the archduke AI* 
bert immediately increased his salary to a thousand ducats, 
in order to secure his services, and here he remained untit 
his death, March 15, 1631, at the college of Breughel, of 
which he had been for a long time president. Besides 
being an able Greek an<l matheniatical scholar, be was re« 
garded as an intelligent and able physician ; and had fev^ 
equals among his contemporaries in natural history and 
surgery. His works, which contributed' greatly to advance 
his reputation, were, 1. " De Cauteriis libri quinque,'* 
Louvaine, 1598. 2. " Libri Chirurgici Xli, de praecipuis 
Artis Chirurgicae controversiis," FranciFort, 1602, which 
passed through many editions. 3. *^ De viribus Imagi- 
nationis Tractatus," L,ouvaine, 1608*. '4. " De Cometa 
anni 1618," Antwerp, 1619, agaihst opinions of Copenii- 
cus respecting the motion of the earth. . 5. *• De vi forma- 
trice foetCis liber, in quo ostenditur animam rationalem 
infundi' terti& die," ibid. 1620. This work was attacked 
with considerable success, by Louis du Gardin, a professor 
of Douay, and Fienus replied in, 6. *^ De formatrice foetus 
adversus Ludovicum du Gardin, &c." Louvaine, 1624. 
His opinion was also impugned by Santa Cruz, the phy- 
sician of Philip IV. which produced, 7. " Pro sua de ani- 
matione fcetCls terti& die opinione Apologia, adversus An- 
tonium Ponce Santa Cruz, Regis Hispaniarum Medicum' 
Cubicularem, &c." Louvaine, 1629. 8. " Semiotice, sive 
de signis medicis Tractatus," Leyden, 1664.' 

. FIGRELIUS (Emundus), a learned Swede, a profes- 
sor of history, and an antiquary at Upsal, published in' 
1656, a work of much research, entitled ** De Statuis 
iUustrium Romanorum,*' 8vo, which he dedicated to^ 
Charles Gustavus king of Sweden. He had passed some 
months at Rome in his youth,* and this work was partly the 

* In this work on the powe^ of ima- 
gination, Fienus relates a story of an 
hypocondriac, whose delusioDs repre- 
sented his body so large, that he 
thought it impossible for hiin to get out 
of his room. The physician, fancying 
there could be no better way of rectify- 
ing his imagination than by letting him 
see that the thing could be done, or- 
dered him to be carried out by force. 

* Niceron, vols. II. and X. — Moreri.' 
dia from £lpy. 

Great was the struggle: an^ the patient 
no sooner saw himself at the outside of 
the door, than he fell into the same ' 
agonies of pain* as if his boaes had 
been all broken by being forced through .. 
a passage too little for him j and died 
immediately after.' Fienus does not' 
relate this upon bis own knowledge, » 
but he does not seem in the least to 
question the reality of the fisust. 

-Foppen Bibl. Belg.— Rees's Cyclops- 

F I G R E L I U S. . €99 

result of his stndies and observntions there. He died ia 
1676. We have no farther partiouJar$ of his life, and be 
is but slightly mentioned in biographieai collections. ' 


FILANGIERI (Gaetano, or Cajetan), a celebrated 
Itahan pohtical writer, the descendant of a very illustrious 
but decayed family at Naples, was born there Aug. 1 3,. 
1752. His parents had very early destined him for the 
military profession, but the attachment he showed to the 
aicquisition of literary knowledge, induced them to suffer 
him to pursue his own course of study. His application 
to general literature became then intense, and before he 
was twenty years of age,, be was not only an accomplished 
Greek and Latin scholar, but had made himself intimately 
acquainted with mathematics, ancient history, and the 
laws of nature and nations as adipinistered in every coun-- 
try. He had also begun at this time to write two works, . the . 
one on public and private education, and the other on the ' 
duties of princes, as founded on nature and social order, 
and although he did not complete his design in either, yet < 
he incorporated many of the sentiments advanced in his 
great work on legislation, tie afterwards studied law, 
more in compliance with the will of his friends^ who con- 
sidered the bar as the introduction to public honour and 
preferment, than from his own inclination ; and the case 
of an arbitrary decision occurring, he published an exceU 
leqt work on the subject, entitled *^ Biflessioni Politiche 
sulP ultima legge Sovraoa, che riguarda Tamministrazione 
della giusti:&ia,'' Naples, 1774,^ 8vo. This excited the 
more attention, as die author was at this time only in his 
twenty-second year, and a youth averse to the pleasures 
and amc^ements of his age, and intent only on the most 
profound researches into the principles of law and justice. 
Nor were these studies much interrupted by his obtaining 
in 1777 a place at court, that of gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, with the title of an officer of the marines, which 
appears to h^ve been usually conferred on gentlemen who 
w£re near the person of the monarchr In 1780 he published 
tl>e first two volumes of his celebrated work on Legislation, 
** Scienza della Legislatione,'' at Naples ; the third and 
fourth appeared in 1783; the fifth, siiith^ and seventh in 
1785; aud the eighth, after his death, in 1789. This was 

) Diet. His^.— Witt^s's Diarium Bio^rapbicum.-^Cleiaei|t, Bibl, Curieuse. 

500 S' I L A N G I E R I. 

lepvkited at Naples^ YeBieey Fforence, MiliHi'^ &c. antf 
translated int^ FFenefa, GermaK, and Spanrisi). The en- 
comiums bestowed ofi it were general tbraugliaitt Europe, 
and although some of his sentiments were opp<)sed with 
considerable viol'ence, and some of ihem afre perhaps more 
beautiful m theory than ia practice, a common ease witit 
specuJators> vfko take upon them to legislate for the wfaote 
world; yet it has been said with justice, that be brought 
to. his great task qaalifications ia which hot4i legi^lutorsr antP 
author9^ who- haye* raadie great exertions on* the same sub- 
ject, have been* lamentably deficient, — knowledge^ temper; 
and moderation ; and' if assent i» withheld tVom' any pro- 
position » OP Gonfietion does not attend* evei^ argntnent, 
the* sentiment of esteem and respect for an- enlightened, 
iadustniouS) and yirtuoiis man', labouring for the benefit' of 
his feUow-ereatures, and seeking* their good by tetnperate' 
amd: isational means^ is never for a moment suspended'. 
Tbfis valuable writer bad not quite completed' his plan, 
when- his llEtbours were ended by a' premature' death; in- the' 
spring of 178S, when he wasonly in' bis- thirty-sixth year. 
He was universally lamented by his countrymen* at large; 
andahe king, who* a little before his- death bad called him 
to > die administration* of rtie fitiances, testified his high* re- 
gard for so useful a servant', by providing' for his chiTdret^ 
by a wifewhomcbe liadmarriedMn 1783; His biographer 
applies' to- him, with the- change of name, what Tacitus 
says of Agricola, " Q'uidquid ok Filangterio amavtmus, 
quidquid'mirati sumus> manet mansurumque est in animis 
hominum^ in setemitate teiuporam, femarerum."— Iti 1806, 
sir Richard Clayton* published an* excellent translation' of 
Filangierii in 2 vols< 8vo^ as fkr as relates- to -pdiiticaL add 
obconomical laws^ and* omitting* what is said' on- crtminal^ 
legislation/ which the translator conceived was- not* wanted 
in this country, where the distribution' of public justice is 
scarcely snsceptiblfe of amendment. * 


FILESAG (John), was a native oP Pflrris, who taught 
eihics) and- afterwards philosophy, at the college de la 
Mlirebe^ and was rector of the university in 158&. He 
took' his doctor^s* degree, April^^^ 1590, and became cu- 
rate* of St; J^hB e»' Greve. Filesac, who was eminent 
among his contemporaries for his^ firmness, learning, and 

I'FabfonlVitflB Ilfttoriira, toI. XV.^Brit. Grit; yo).XXX> 

F-I L E S A C. 301 

piety, diad at Paris, senior of the Sorbonne, and dean of 
the facjulty of theology, May 27, 1638, leaving several 
very learned Vorks, the piino^ipal of which are, ^^ A Trea-^ 
tise on the sacred* Authority of Bisbo|>s," in Latin, Pari9| 
1606, dvo; another '< on Lent;" a treatise on the ^' Ori« 
gin of Parishes;" treatises on ^' Auric eiar Confession ;'* on 
** Idolatry," and on <^ the Origin of the andent Statmeo 
of the Faculty of Paris." They are united under the tttl# 
of '< Opera Pleraque," Paris, 1621, 3 vols. 4to, but he baa 
on the whole too much in the form of comptlationB from 
other authors to entitle him to the credit of an original 
writer. * 

FILICAIA (Vincent i>£), a celebrated Italian poet, wan 
horn December SO/ 1 642^ of a noble family at Florence; 
He studied philosophy^ law, and divinity five years at 
Pisa, and took a doctov of law^s degree there. H^ then 
returu^d to Florence, where, after several years spent m 
his closet, with no other employment than poetry and th€» 
belle84ettres, the grand duke appointed him senator* He 
died September ^2:7, 1707, aged sixty^flve. Filieaia was 
mieoher of the aeademies delta Crusca, and degii Areadt* 
fiis poems are much admired for their delicacy and nobkl 
sentiments. They have been publi^faed together by Scipio 
Fiiicaia, his sou^ under the title of ^^ Poeaie Toscane dif 
Vincenzo da Filieaia," &c. 1707, foi. ; tbe aame with the 
Latin pvo$e, Venice, 1747^ S vela. 12mo. ^ 

FILIPPI (Bastiako), of Ferrara, an aitistborn in 1532) 
was nicknamed Graieila by his couiiirymen^ because be wad 
ibefisst wbo introduced the method of squaring lavge pic- 
tures, in order to reduce them with exactness to soM^ler pre»- 
portions) which the Italtane call ^a^iito^e,. a method which 
be had learned from Michel Angeio, whose scholar he wair 
at Rome^ tboogh unknown to Vasairi, at leaat not men^^ 
tinned in his: life. He was tbe son of Camillo Filippi^ wbd 
died in 151%, an artiste^ uncettatn scbool, bsi; who paifited 
in a neat and limpid manner ;. and if we may jwdge frodnr ^ 
half-figure of Si Pawl, in^an Annuisziata of hia in S, Maria 
in Vado^ not without some- aim at the. style of Michel Ah« 
^elo* From him tberefone Baatiatio probably derived* that 
ardent diesire for it which made him secretly levve* his 
fetber's houAC, ai»i journey to Borne,, whece he became on^ 

* Dupio. — Moreri. 

• Fabr. Vitae Ualojom> tor. vn.<*-TirabosckJ, — ^Niceron, vol. t' 

S02 F I L I p p r. 

of the most indefatigable copyists and dearest pupils of 
Buonarotti. What p6wers he acquired is evident from the 
** Universal Judgilient,*' v^bich he painted in three years, 
in the choir of the metropolitan ; a work nearer to Michel 
Ang^lo than what can be produced by the whole Florentine 
school. It possesses grandeur of design with great variety 
of imagery, well disposed groupes, and repose for the eye. 
It appears incredible that in a subject pre-occupied by 
Buonarotti, Filippi should have been able to appear so 
novel and so grand. He imitated the genius, but dis-^ 
darned to. transcribe the figures of his mod^l. He too, like 
Dante and Michel Angelo, made use of that opportunity 
to gratify this aflPections or animosities, by placing his 
friends among the elect, and his enemies with the rejected. 
In that hapless host he painted the faithless mistress who 
had renounced his nuptials, and drew among the blessed 
another whom he had married in her place, casting a look 
of insult on her rival. At present it is not easy to decide 
on the propriety or intemperance of BaruflFaldi and other 
Ferrarese writers, who prefer this painting to that of the 
Sistina, for decorum and colour, because it has been long 
retouched ; and already made Barotti, in bis description of 
Ferrarese pictures, lament " that the figures which formerly 
appeared living flesh, now seem to be of wood.'* Of Fi- 
Ijppi's powers, however, as a colourist, other proofs exist 
at Ferrara in many an untouched picture : they appear to 
advantage, though his flesh -tints are too adust and bronzed, 
and bis colours too often united into a misty mass. 
. In the nudities of those pictures, especially in those of 
the colossal figure of S. Cristophano, Filippi adopted the 
line of Michel Angelo ; in the draped figures he followed 
other models, as is evident in the Circumcision on an altar 
of the Duomo, 'which resembles more the style of his father 
than his owu.r. Want of patience in invention and practice 
m$^de him often repeat himself ; such are his Niinziatas, 
re^produced'at least seven times on the same idea. The 
worst is, that if the Last Judgment, the large altar-piece 
of S. Catherine in her church, and a few other public 
works be excepted, he more or less hurried on the rest ; 
content to leave in each some master trait, and less so- 
li^^us to obtain the^ praise of diligence than of power 
from posterity. What he painted for galleries is not inuch, 
but conducted with more care : without recurring to what 
may be seen at Ferrara/ the Baptism of Christ in the house 

F IL I P P I. 303 

A<:qua at Osicao, and some of bis copies from Michel An- 
gelo at Rome, are of that number. In his earliest time 
he painted grotesques, a branch which he afterwards left 
entirely to his younger brother Cesare Filippi, who was as 
eminent in the ornamental style, as weak in large figures 
and history. ' He died in 1602.* 

FILMER (Sir RcBERr), son of sir Edward Filmer, of 
East Sutton, in Kent, by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of 
Richard Argall, esq. was born in the end of the sixteenth 
century, and educated in Trinity-college, in Cambridge, 
of which he was naatriculated July 5, 1604. His works 
are, 1. " The Anarchy of a limited and mixed Monarchy," 
16 i.6, which was an answer to Hunton's " Treatise on Mo- 
narchy," printed in 1643. Sir Robert's work was reprinted 
in .1652 and 1679, 8vo. 2. " Patriarcha," in which he 
endeavours to prove, that all government was monarchical 
at first, and that all legal titles to govern are originally de- 
rived from the heads of families, or from such upon whom 
their right was transferred, either by cession or failure of 
the line. He also wrote, " The Freeholders' Grand In- 
quest, &c." On the trial of the celebrated Sidney, it was 
m^ide a charge that they found in his possession a manu- 
script answer to Filmer's *^ Patriarcha," but this was after- 
wards more completely answered by Locke, in his ^' Two 
Treatises on Government," published, in 1689; Filmer 
died in 1647.* . 

FINiEUS (Orontius), in French Fine, professor of 
mathematics in the Royal college at Paris, was theson of 
a physician, and born at Brian^on, in Dauphin^, in 1494. 
He went young to Paris, where his friends procured him a 
place in the college of Navarre. He there applied him- 
self to polite literature and philosophy ; yet devoted him>* 
self more particularly to mathematics, for which he had. a 
strong natural inclination, and made a considerable pro- 
gress, though without the assistance of a master. . He ac- 
quired likewise much skill in mechanics ; and having both 
a genius to invent instruments, and a skilful hand to make 
them, he gained high reputation by the specimens he gave 
of his ingenuity. He first made himself knov^n by cor- 
recting and publishing Siliceus's " Arithmetic," and the 

Margareta Philpsoptiica." He afterw^ards read private 

> Pilkington by Fnsell. 

A Atb. Ox. tol. II.— Burnetts Own Times.— Cole's MS .\thenae in Brit. Mus. 


S04 F I N ^ U S. 

lectures iri ctiatbematics, and then taught that sciencfe pub- 
licly in the college of Gervais ; by which he became so 
fattious, that he was recommended to Francis I. as the fitir 
test person to teach mathematics in the new college which 
that prince had founded at Paris. He omitted hotbing to 
support the glory of his profession ; and though he in- 
Btrubted his scholars with great assiduity, yet he found 
time to publish a great many books upon almost every part 
of the mathematics. A remarkable proof of his skill in 
mechafiics is exhibited in the clock which he invented in 
1553, and of which there is a description in the Journal 
of Amsterdam for March 2S^, 1694. Yet his genirte^ hh 
labours, his inventions, and the festeem which an infinite 
nombef Of persons shewed him, could riot Secure him frona 
that fate which so often befalls meti of letters. He was 
obliged to struggle all his life with pfoverty ; and, when he 
/iied, left a wife ^nd six children, and many debts. His 
^hildWrt, hdwevef, found patrons, ^ho for their father*s 
sake assisted his family. He died in 155i, aged sixiy-one'. 
Lik^itll the other mathematicians and dstronomers of thosk. 
times, he was greatly addicted to astrology ; and had ihh 
liiisfc^ttfinfe to be a long time imprisoned, becat/se h*6 bad 
foreHoM so*« things which were not accefptable to the 
eourt* of France. He ^as one of those whoVainfy boasted 
of having fbdnd out the quadrature of the circle. His 
works were collected ih 3 vols, folio, in 1532f, i542, an'd 
155^, and there rs an Itialian edition in 4to, Venice, 15^7.* 
FINCH (Heneage), first earl of Nottingham, and k)rd 
high* chant^ellor of Ertgknd, the son of ^ir Heneage Fin<jB', 
kiH. recorder of London, was born Dec. 21 or ^3, 1621, in 
the county of Kent He was educated at Westminkter- . 
school, st&d! became a gentleman conimorier df Christ 
chureb^in O^yford, 1635. After he had prosecuted Ms stuV'^ 
di«s there fof two or three years, he removed to the fniier 
Temple, whefe, by diligence and good p^rts, he became \ 
remarkable for his^ knowledge of the municipal Ikv^s, i^ai ' 
successively barrister, bencher, treasurer, readfei*, &C. 
CbArles 11. on his restor'ation, made him solicitor general, : 
ilnd advanced him to the dignity of a barohet. H'e WaK.!! 
reader of the Inner Terhplfe the next year, and chose for 
his subject the statute of 39 E)iz. cortceriiing the payment 
and recovery of the debts of the crown, at that time very ^- 

« G«n. Diet— Nicerpn, vol. XXXVIU.— Moreri: 

ff I N C H. 805 

^^eatoliaUe an.d necessary, and whtdi be treated with grtet 
'^r^gth pf reason, and depth of law. Uncommon honours 
were paid to him on this occasion, the reading and enter- 
tatnixient lasting from the 4th to the nth of August. At 
the first dfty*8 entertainment were several of the nobility ef 
die kingdom, and privy counsellors, with divers otbera ef 
his friends ; at the second, were the lord mayor, aldermen, 
and prineipal citizens of London ; at the third, which was 
two days a&er the former, was the whole college of pby- 
aicians, who all came in their caps and gowns; at the 
li^urtb, all the judges, advocates, doctors of the civil law, 
and all the society of Doctors' Commons ; at the fifth, tfa^ 
arcbbisJbLops, bishops, and chief of the clergy ; and at the 
last, which wns on August 15, his majesty king Charles 11, 
did him the honour (never before granted by any of faia 
fdyal prof enitors) to accept of an invitation to <!ine with 
him. in the great hall of the Inner Temple. 

As s^icitor-generaJ, he took an active part in the trials 
of the regicidesi and in April 1661, by the atrong reborn* 
mendattoB of lord Clarendon, he was chosen a member of 
parliament for the university of Oxford ; but, toys Wood, 
^ be did ns no good, when we wanted his assistance for 
taking off the tribute belonging to hearths." In 1665, after 
the parliament then sitting at Oxford had been prorogued, 
iie was in full convocation created doctor of dvil law; and-, 
the creation being over, the vice-chancellor, in the pre« 
aence of several parliament-med^ stood up and spoke to 
the yublic orator to do bis gffice, who aaid, among othir 
things, ^' That the university wished they bad more col- 
leges to entertain the parliament men, and more chambers, 
but by n6 means more chimuies ;" at which sir Heneage 
was observed to change countenance, and draw a little 
back. When the disgrace of lord Clarendon drew on, ia 
I667V aad he was impeached in parliament for some sup* 
posed high crimes, sir Heneage, noA forgetting his ohL 
friend, appeared vigorously in his defence. In 1670, the 
kbig appointed bim attorney general ; and, about three 
years after, lord keeper. Soon after he was advanced to 
the degree of a faaron, by the title of Lord Finch of Da* 
Tteiary, in the county of Northampton, and upon the suv- 
sender of the great seal to his majesty, Dec. 19, 167 &;< he 
«ecei¥ed it imdoeiediately back again, with the title. of Lord 
ifoh Chancellor of England. 

The conduct of Xatd fihancellor Finch ia the disposal of 

Vol. XIV. X 

^8*6 r 1 N C fi. 

< church livings merits, particular approbation. AiiaichtAs$(3 
- the interests of the church of England,, he bad considered 
the necessity of inquiring into the characters ^f those who 
-might be candidates for benefices in the disposal of:tbe 
. se^« But tlie many avocations of his high office preveM^ 
his personal attention to this point; lie therefore addressed 
his chaplain (Dr. Sharps afteiTwards archbishop of Yorik) to 
^ this effect: ** The greatest difficulty^ Iitpprebend, in<die 
execution of my office^ is the patronage of ecclesiastieal 
- prefer iBents. God is my witness- that I would not know* 
lingly prefer an unworthy person ; but as my course of .ikfe 
and studies bais lain another way, I caiiDot think myself ao 
good a judge of the merits of such suitors an you are ; I 
therefore charge it upon your conscience, , as you will an- 
bwor it to Almighty God| that upon ^every such occasioti; 
you make the best inquiry^ and give me the best advice 
you can, that I may never bestow any ^voiir upon^ui uii« 
deserviag man ; which if you neglect to do, the guilt will 
be entirely yours, and I shall deliver my own soul." This 
trust, so solemnly committed to his care^ Dr. Sharp (saj^s 
his recent biographer Mr. Todd) faithf uHy dischai^ed ; asd 
his j|d vice was no less faithfully followed by his patro% as 
long as he continued in office. By so conscientious a dis- 
posal of ehurchrpreferment in the dissolute * reigli of 
.rCharles II. the cause of religion must have been emiiiendy 
-advanced. • v ...?... ,-i 

., He performed the office of high, steward,^ »t the trialjof 
.lord l^talFordy.who was found guilty of high treason kyjbis 
-pe^rs, for being concerned in the popish plot. 'Qn:Mhj 
.12, 1681, he was created earl of Nottingham, anddasd, 
quite worn out, at his house in Queen«street»'< Limii^lii^jH 
inn-^elds, Dec. 1 a, 1682, and was. buried inr the chtHr^h'^f 
. Raunston near Olney in .Buckioghainshirf^ whei^ehia^saa 
erected a sYiperb monument to his meiMry. Theugbolie 
. li^ed iu very troublesome and difficult timesy yet he.tioo- 
4f]cted himself with such- eveo. steadiness^ that h^pretakicd 
; the good opinion of both prince and people, -ibriii^aar'dis- 
. tinguished by his wisdom and >elo(|iience ^^ and. \va&suich^ 
: excellent orator, that some of his co«tempoi!ai!ies;«lisuie 
. styles} him the English Roscius, tb^. English Gscere^ Ac. 
Burnet, intbe preface to his *^ History.of ,tbe .Refdi 
>tion,'' tells us, that his great parts find greater nrtmdd 
: so conspicuous, that it would be a high presumptsoop t»ihim 
.. io My any thing io his commendation^} ^beingm>i)e^kMSg 

^:So0re mninh^tf than in hhi zeal for^ and care oi^ ih(5 thiirch 
'"-of 'England. ; His character is described by Dryden^, or 
itatber Tate> in the second part of *^ Absalom and Achito*- 
phdl^'V under the name of Amri; but more reliancre litay fee 
'fia^ed on ifae opinidii of judge Blackstoner ^* He was a 
jfiecson,'- says this learned cbmrnentator^ " of the greatest 
abilitiesi and fiiost incorrupted inl^egrity ; a therougb mas- 
ter and 2^ealoq$. defender of the laws and constitution of bis 
country; and endfued with a pervading genius that ^iMiabled 
biin^todiseofef and to pursue the true spirit of justice^ 
'notwithstanding the embarrassments raided by the nar^ow 
aad teiihnical nodoita which then prevailed- in the 'couns of 

- iaw^'^nd t^ impi&rfect ideas of redress which had possesstd 
Jtbe courta of eq^ity• The reason and necessities of nian- 

(.kindy arising ^romthe great change in property^ by the 
-vBxtensioaof :trad€; and. the aboli|ion of miUtafy tenures^ 

- 4so-cq>eraied an establieihing his plan> and enabled -him, ia 
t tfaeicourseof nine years^ to build a system of juriaprudence 

"«and jurisdictbn. upon wide and rational foundatimis^ which 
1 ha;^e,al0o been extended and improved. by many great 
bsuen^ Mdiobave since presided. in> chancery ; and from that 
^^iqietoibis^y thie'pqwer and basiness of the courts have in^ 
-Hsreased to an amazing, degree/' ■/•.:^'i^t' 

'^\ . .Under bis Bame^tre published^ 1* Set^eral speeches isttld 
^Xdi&ciMicseaiti {the trial of the jodges of Cfad:rielil. ii^'t^e 

book entitled ** An exact and most impartial accourift'^f 
Ijtltei'ilifdictHient^ Arraignmenft, Trialy^^nd JudgmeiH^ ' (ac« 
ricbi^dliii^^lo law;) iOf't^enty^nine regicides^ &c. 1660/* 4«o, 
\AiS^9QSy<k ■■'. 2i '< Speeches to both • Housies of Parliameiu, 
viiZtb Jaoi 1633 |.ISth of April and 13th of Oct. 1075$ I^th 

<6frFeh.jl'6^J^;.4th of Marcb^ 1678 ; and'SOkh of April, 
tA^-B^y S^hes&wei^e spoken^Twhile he was lord kee^per at^d 
xtchanceHiH^**^ 3.' Mc:j3peeeb at the SeotetKe of WittiaG(^ Vis- 
^4;od§t)Staffprd>-7i;h>Dee. 16ao^-' printed in <me sheets folio; 

- fivmlt^in ifa^ Trial o£ • the said Viscount, p. a 1 2. 4. ^' An- 
^aweraibyibia M^^ty'a command, ^ upon several Addresses 
- (fireaeiited^ to l&i' >m|ijie8ty at Hfunpton Court, the> «l 9th -^f 
i::4May, Ld^l /' )in -pne sheet, in folio. 5. <^ His Argumenti ; 
\'ij^ajwbicdi;he<^iiiade'tbe Decree in the caase between the 

?lto9oiiral33& Charles Howard,^esq. plaintiff, Henry late duke 
"jai'Ktorfblk, Henry lord Mowbray his son, Henry marquis 
^irf*^ Dorciiester^ &nd Richard Marriott, esq. defendants ; 
r^iAeteibf^'iia^^i&wnA ways and inethpds of limiting a trust of 
-:aeraEi<for y%ars^(e fully debated, 1615/* folio. 6. « Aa 

lot mx^vvL 

(A^rgmtient on this ckitn of the Crown to pftrddn en" loli^ 
ipeachment,^* folio. He also left (behind bim, written with 
ills own hand, ** Chaneeiy Reports/* MS. in folio, and not^ 
©« Coke's Institute.^ . - . ; 

FINCH (DANiei.)^ second earl of Kotiinghaniji son of 
t^e preceding, by his iadj Elizabe^, daughter of Mr; 
Daniel Hervey^ merchant in Ixmdon, was bornaboat i64T^ 
«ind educated at Christ ehurch, Oxford ; but entered early 
into public life, and served in several paiiiaments. in the 
reign of Charles 11. for the city of Lichfield, and for the 
borough of Newton in the eonnty of Southampton; In 
1679 he was constituted first commissioner of the- Ad^^ 
teiralty, and sworn of the privy-council ; and in the lattet 
«nd of the year following, spoke with much vigour in th6 
iiouse of commons against the bill for the exclustoh of tfat 
duke of York, declaring ^'diat the kings of England di> 
'Hot rule by virtue of any statute-law,*' aa bad been aug^* 
'gested b V some f>ersons on the other side "Of the question, 
'**. since tneir right was by so ancient a prescription, thatt 
it might justly be i^d to<be from God 'alone; and aucb as 
no power on earth ought tO'^ispute.** ^ 

On the decease of his father in I€Bf , he Succeeded litiii 
in his titles and estate ; and on the death of Charles IIi, 
•was one Of ihe prirvy^eouneil who aigned the order, xULted 
-at -Whitehall, Feb. 6, i^M-iS, for proclaiming the duke ctf 
•York king of England. In that rei^n he was one of the 
tdiief opposers of the abrogation of the test actj which he 
c^sidered as the strongest fence of the protestant religiod. 
Upon the trial of ihe keven bishops, 4ie was present in court 
'With seveml other noblemen ; and his brother 'Heneage, 
afterwards earl of Aylesford, was of the counsel foridiose 
.prelates;- lie was likewise one of the patribtis, 'who, from 
a true sseal for their religion and their country, often mift 
to concert such advices and advertisements as migfartbfe 
*fit for the prince of Orange to know, that he might govern 
•bimself by them. When, however, it Was secretly prirr 
.posed to him to invite that prince into England, be t^ k 
conscientious hesitation on the subject, and informed'tfae 
iriends of that meastire that be could not penonally adopt 
jt, yet would preserve the secret with which they had in*- 
trusted him. Upon the prince's landing in the Wes^ fat 

. 1 Coirms'sPeerage.---Biog. Brit.-p»Tod4*f DeaiiioC.Cto^n^iiiqry^^J^ 
Koy at and Koble^utbon by Park«-All^ ^x* toL II. ' 

riNciR mm 

^9^ otie oCtkote lords who wtmdu » last altempt on the obf«( 
ftthiacy of the king, by pieioiitHig a petition to his m^>*j 
j^itfi advismg him to call a parliaaent regohiratid frae in 
all respect% to which be was even for adding^ ^^ that thet 
pieera who had joined the prince might sit in that free par^^ 
liameat ;'^ bat this by the other lords was thought nnaeces^ii 
siry. He was afterwards one of the commissioners sent by 
bis tnajeaty to treat with the prinee. When afterwards the' 
convention was opened^ he was the principal manager of 
the debates in favour of a regent, agatitst those who were 
f6r setcii^ up another king ; supporting his opinion by • 
ttmXiy argamente drawn- from the English history, and add* « 
lAg a reoent instauce in Portugal^ where Don- Pedro had; 
onTy the tide of regent conferred upon him, while hisde*. 
posed brother lived* However^ he owned it to be a prin^ 
ciple gfMtided on the law and history of England, that: 
oi^dieace and allegiance were due to the king for the time 
(beh^^ even in opposition to one, with whom the right was 
thought sttU to remsnUi He likewise told bishop Burnet, 
that thoogh he ooitld not argue nor vote, but according to 
the notions which be had iiarmed concerning our laws and • 
coosl^ittition, he should not be sorry to see his own side: 
Oiit<«i^oted ; and that though he could not agree to the ' 
shaking cf i king, as things stood, yet if he rfonnd ooa-^ 
.lAade, he woeld be more faithful to him than those vWfao.' 
Blade him could be, according to their prindple& , * 

When king WilKam aind queen -Mary therefore were^ 
advanced to the throne, he waa offered the post of lord^ 
high chancellor of England, which be-excused bimtelf from 
accepting, alledging his unfitness for an employment that' 
roqtffired a constant application ; but was appointed one of 
the principal secietaries of state. In 1690, he attended^ 
JMs^ migesty to the fisitious congress at the Hague; and^ 
Jdng^ James JI. look sUfch umbrage at bis services, that in 
fabdecbration upon bis intended descent in 1692, his lord<* 
ahlp war excepted out of his general pardon. In Marchi 
J 693-4, he resigned his place of principal secretary of 
state ; and the year following had a public testimony, 
given to the integrity of bis conduct in a very remarkable: 
-instance; for, upon an examination in parliament into the 
.bribery and corroptiAn of some of their own members, in' 
order to obtain a new charter for the Eust-India Company^^ 
it appeared by the deposition bf sir Basil Firebraice, tha|' 
bis lordfibip had absolutely refused to take five thouiiand^ 

3|<i: FINC Hi 

gpiioeaft for hi&inteF€8| in promoting that cbitrler|< aiid-fiiAr 
tbousand pounds on pas^ng-the act for tbat puriyne. v :^:.: 
: Upon tbe accession of queen Anne he .was aga»i\^p-* 
]^Hfited one. of the principal secretaries of state, and. ip^ 
that station bad a-jirote of the house of coaamona passed^ ii)t 
his 'favour^ ^>tbat he had. tngbly merited the tritsl^bjec 
majesty^ had reposed in hioi/' and the like sanction U^Bk 
the bouse of lords. However, on th'e i7th of April 17P4, 
he resigned that employment, and accepted of .no oth^* 
potMuring all that reign, though large offers were .m$i^ 
to engage him in the court interest and,measures,<u{>oii ^the 
change of the ministry in 17 iO, his refusal of wbic^ so eiirr 
asperated the opposite party, tbat he was ^tttacb^ Pi^il^li 
great .virulence in several libels both in verse and pco^ 
He continued therefore to give his opinion uponall^oQcai^ 
mma with, great freedom, and^ in. December the ^me^ye^T- 
distingaisbed himself by a vigorous speech in tb&:b(ws.e.<lf 
lords, irepresenting, that po peace could be safe) or. ho- 
nourable to Great Bcttain,.. if Spain and the Wes^tlpdi^ 
^vjere allotted to any bvaneh of the house of Bourbeti; :w4 
had .sd/ much, weight in that house, that the claAis^ wbiob* 
he offered to that purpose to be inserted in tbe ad4r6s^iitf . 
thanks, in. answer to her majesty's ^eech, was after- i^i 
warm debate carried. He soon after moved likewiis^ fi)r 
an address to the queen, that her majesty would not tr4$9|t 
except iii concert with her allies. When bis late majesty, 
•long Geor^ succeeded to the crowo» his lordship was pjie 
cf the lords justices for the administration of affairs tilLhis. 
iwrivial ; and on tbe 24th of September 1714, was declar^ 
lord- president of thecouncil. But on the 29th of February 
1715-16, he retired from, all public business to a stqdi^QU^ 
course of life ; the fruits of which appeared in his elabprate 
answer to Mr. Whiston's letter to him. upon the subj^t of 
the trinity ; for which, on the 22d of March. 1720-Si|L, be 
hod the unanimous thanks of the university of Oxford^ in 
full convocation *. He died January 21st, 1729.-30,.haviQg . 

4P On March 22, 1720-1, tbe uni- tbe Holy Ghost ; and that Dr. Sbipi>en, 

:T«nity of Chcford, in a full cooYOca- Tice-chaDcellor, William Bromleyt ^nd' 

■■ tion, mMDimously decreed, '* Tbat the George Clark, es<|rs. repceseotativee-ef 

• Kolema thanks of that university be the university, wait on the said^arl, 

returned to the right bonoarable the and present to his lordship the thapks 

««i1 of Nottingham, for his roost noble aforesaid of. the whole university.*' On 

defence of the Christian faith, con-. April 11 following, pr. John Robinson,, 

tained in his lordship's answer to Mr. bishop of London, at the head of Uie 

^hision^s letter to him, concerning (iiergy of his diocese, waited on ^is 

the, ctemity of the Son of God, and oC lordship, awl (etarniBd him their thai^ki 

PINCH; 111^ 

jl(it before isucceeded ^o the title of «aii of Wiiichelse% 

into wbicb that of .Nottingham) merged. 

By his fifst wife, the lady Et^sex Rich, second daughter 
and one of the co-heirs of Robert earl of Warwick, he had 
issue one daughter; and by his second, Anne, onlydaugb* 
ter of Christopher lord viscount Hatton, he bad five sons 
and eight daughters^ 

He was remarkably skilled in the whole system of the 
English law, as well as in the records of parliaments; 
and these qnaliftcations, joined to a copious and. ready 
eloquence, of which he was master^ gave him great weigbl 
in all public assemblies. Besides the pamphlet against 
Whiston, his lordship wrote " A Letter to Dr. Waterland,'* 
printed at the end of Dr. Newton's treatise on Pluralities; 
and a pamphlet entitled ** Ohservations upon the State of 
the Nation in January 1712<r]3," has been ascribed to himt 
but, as lord Orford thinks, he was not the;author of it. ' r 
^ FINCH (Anne, countess of Winchelsea), ^ lady of 
considerable poetical talents, was the daughter of sir Wil« 
Itaxn Kingsmill, of Sidmonton, in the county of. Southamp^ 
ton, but the time of her birth is not meationecL Sheiwas 
maid of honour to the duchess of York, second wife of 
James II. ; and afterwards married to Heneage, s^oud soa 
pf Heneage earl of Winchelsea ; which Heneage was, in 
bis father's life-time, gentleman of the bed-chamber to 
the duke of York, and afterwards, upon the death of bis 
nephew Charles, succeeded to the title of earl of Win- 
chelsea. One of the mbst considerable of this lady^s 
poems was that ^^ upon the Spleen,^' printed in '^ A nem 
miscellany of original Poems on several occasions,'' pub- 
lished by Mr. Charles Gildon in 1701, 8vo. That poem 
occasioned another of Mr. Nicholas Rowe, entitled " An 
£pist]e to Flavia, on the sight of two Pindaric Odes on tha 
Spleen and Vanity, written by a lady to her friend*" A 
collection of her poems was printed in 1713, 8vo; cqi^5> 
taining likewise a tragedy called ^^ Aristomenes/* never 

on the same account; as also did the Qreetham,mKotlatid8h|re, all the tithes 

clei^y of the diocese of Peterborongb. of corp, hay, &e. arising and growiaf 

- His lordship bad before manifested his in Woolfox, in- the * sai4 parisii of 

regard for the private interest of the Greetham,'for an augroentatioa, ofai 

olerity, havio* by indenture, Sept. 11, least 8/. per annum, to the said vit 

1702, freely derised to the vicarage of oarage for ever. . 

' Col!iris*8 Peerage, by sir E. Brydges. — Birch's Lives. — Ath. Ox. vol. II.— « 
Diralpele's Royal and Noble Authors, by Park.*-Swifi*s Works ; see lndex,'-« 
WhisionU J4f^.— NiQhols's Atterbury, vol. I. ISl, 160, 162| HI, 9Q, '' 

it» F I N c a 

; and many still continue unpnbKsIied, a few df 
which may be seen in the General Dicttonacy, whieh Dr; 
^irch inserted there by permission of the cottintessof Hert- 
ford, in whose possession they were. Her ladyship ob- 
tained the good will of Pope, who addressed some verses 
to her which drew forth ^n elegant replication, printed w 
Cibber's Lives. She died August 5, 1720, without issue; 
as did the earl her husband, Sept. 3a, 1726.' 

FINCH (Henry), of the family of the lord keeper, ivas 
the son of sir Thomas Finch of Eastwell in Kent, andnras 
born in that county, and educated at .Oriel college, Ox- 
ford. From that be went to Gray*s Inn, and after pursuing 
the usual course of law studies, became a counsellor of 
reputation, and was autumn or summer reader of that 
house in 2 James I. In 1 6 1 4 be attained the rank of a 
sei^eantj and two years after was knighted. He died Oct* 
11, 1625, leaving a son, John, who was afterward created 
lord Finch of Fordwicb, and was keeper of the great seal. 
Sir Henry Finch wt-ote ^'Nomotechnia, oil descnption diel 
Commun Leys d^Angleterre, &c.** Lond. 1613, fol. This 
** Deacription of the Common Law'* was afterwards pub- 
fished by himself in English, under the title ** Of Law, or 
a Discourse thereof,'* Loud. 1627, 1636, and 1661, Svo. 
But a better translation was published in. 1758 by an anony- 
toons hand. He published also ^* On the Calling of the 
Jews," a work which. Wood has so imperfectly described ' 
tbat it IS not easy to discover its drift.* 

FINET (Sir John), a man considerable enough to be 
remembered, was son of Robert Finet of Soulton, near 
Bover, in Kent, and born in 157 L*. His great grandfa* 
ther was of Sienna, in Italy, where bis family was ancient; 
and coming into England a servant to cardinal Campegius, 
the pope*8 legate, married a maid of honour to queen Ca» 
therine, consort to Henry VIII. and settled here. He wa^ 
bred up in the court, where, by his wit, mirth, and nncom«* 
mon skill in composing songs, be very much pleased James' 
I. In 1614 he was sent into France about matters of pub** 
lie concern ; and the year after was knighted. In 1616 he 
was made assistant to the master of the ceremonies, being^ 
then in good esteem with Charles J. He died in 164L^ 
aged seventy. He wrote a book entitled ** Fineti Philoxe- 

. 1 Gtnenl Diet. toI. X. art. Wiocbeliea.— Gibber's Lives.-~Park*t edit of tbe 
Hojal and N«ble AutboTf. .« Atb.Ox. Td^ U 

ma ET.^ : as 

Ittk I' Some cfhoic^obsewatioMtoitciiiiig the twatfpAon and^ 
precedency, the tiMtmeiH and 8iidienc6» the pufkctUiotf* 
and' contexts of foreign a«bassad«f^ in j^ngiand^ 1656,**^ 
Sp6: published by Jasie» Howel, and dedicated to 10fd> 
L'kle. He also trandated firom f rench into English ^ Thtf 
liKBgiriiiing, contmuance, and decay of Estates, ^c« 1606 f*"* 
written originally by R. de Lusing. ' 

FIOEAVANTI (Leonard), a physician of Bologna, lit* 
the sixteenth century, who possessed a considerable de*" 
grieeof reputation among bis contemporaries, appears to^ 
have been an arrant empiric in the modem sense of the 
word. In his writings be dwells at great length on the 
exceHence of the secret remedies which he possessed, and; 
is violent in his condemnation of blood-letting. He died 
on the 4th of September 1588. The titles of bis work«y 
which are all in Italian, and have ^one through sereraJ^. 
edmons> are, *'Del Specchio di Scientia Universale," 
Venice, 1564; ** Regiroento della Peste,'* ibid. 1565; 
**Capricci Medicinali,'' ibid. 1568. " IlTesoro delki vitst 
humana,'^ ibid. 1570. ** Compendio dei Secreti Natu* 
rali/' Turin, 1580, Venice, 1581, &c.; «* Delia Fi^ica, 
dtvisa in libri quattro/* Venice^ 1594; ** Cirurgiai** ibid. 

FIRENZUOLA (Ahoblo), so called from bis native 
city^ Florence (in Italian Firenze), though bis family name 
wits Nannini, was celebrated in his time as a poet, but his 
works are now in less repute, which, from their light cha« 
raicter and indecencies, is not much to be regretted. He^ 
originally practised as an advocate at Rome, and then be-* 
CBme an ecclesiastic of the congregation of Vallombrota* 
He was pe^rsonally esteemed by pope Clemefit VH. who* 
was also an admirer of his works. He died at Rome in 
1545. His works in prose were published in 8vq, atFlo^- 
rence, in 1548, and his poetry, the same size, in 154^. 
These editions, as well as his translation of the Golden Asa 
of Apuleius, are scarce, but a complete edition of bis 
whole works was published at Florence, 4 vols. Bvo, in 
17j65-€G, in which are some comedies, and other pro^^f 
ducttons.' V 

FIKMICUS MATERNUS (Julius), was an ancient' 
Christian writer, and author of a piece entitled *^ De £r¥ 

» Wood'f F*8ti, vol. L. « Rces's Cy«lopu Crom El^.— pict. lik^U 

"^ Moreri*«-Tiraboichi«'-^Dict. Uist. '.. ■■ i 

»14^ F I R Bl I C U S. 

rare Profanarum Religioomn ;*' which he addressed to the 
empemrs Canstantius and Constaofl, the* sooi of Conaljan* 
tine. It is supposed to have been written after the death 
of Constantine, the eldest son of Cohstantine the Great^ 
which happened in the year 340, and before that of Con* 
atans, who was slain by Magnentiua in the year 350 : he^ 
ing addressed to Constantius and Constans, there is rea* 
aon to believe that Constantino their eldest brother wats 
dead, and it is evident that Constans was then aiive. It is 
retparkable, that no ancient writers have mad^ any nieti'o 
tioo of Firmicus ; so that we do not know what he was, of 
what. country 9 or of what profession. Some moderns coa«> 
jecture that be was by birth a Sicilian, and in- the former 
part /of his life an heathen. His treatise ^' Of the Errors 
of the Prophane Religions/* discovers great parts, great 
learning) and gre^t zeal for Christianity, and has been 
often printed, sometimes separately, sometimes' with other 
fathers. Among the separate editions are one printed at 
Strasbourg, in 1562, another at Heidelberg, 1599, and a 
third at Paris, 1610, all in 8vo ; afterwards it was joined 
with Minucius Felix, and printed at Amsterdam, 1 645^ at 
l^eyden, 165^, and again at Leyden, at the end of the 
same father, by James Gronovius, in 1709, 8vo. It is 
likewise to be found in the *^ Bibliotfaeca Patrum ;" and 
at the end of Cyprian, printed at Paris in 1666« 

There are '^ Eight Books of AstroiKuny, or Mathema* 
tics,'' which bear the name of this author, and which have 
been several times printed, first at Venice in 1497, f«il. 
and afterwards at Basil in 1551, at the end of the astro^r. 
tiomical pieces of Ptolemy and. some Arabians; but there 
is nothing in this work that relates to the real science of 
astronomy, the author amusing himself altogether with 
astrological calculations, after the manner of the Babylo-^ 
nians and Egyptians ; on which account Baronius was of 
opinion, that it could not be written by so pious a man 
and so good a Christian as this Firmicus, who no doubt 
would have thought it very sinful to have dealt in such 
profane and impious speculations. Cave, however, sup- 
posed that he might have written these books in his uocon-t 
verted state ; for, though Baronius will have them to be 
written about the year 355, yet Labb^us, as he tells usji 
affirms them to be between 334 and 337. There is not 
evidence enough, however, to determine the question.* 

• * 

1 Dupin.««-CaTe.-«-Moren.i-Fabric. Bibl. lAt.<n«-aDd BibU Lat, Med. 

F I R M I L I A N. Sl» 

't 'FIRMILIAN (St.). a celebrated bidiop of Cssareaia 
dippadocia, in the third centary, was one of the friends 
ef Origdn, who took St Cyprian's part against pope Ste<» 
phen; maintaining the necessity of re-baptizing those who 
had been baptized by heretics ; and wrote a long letter on 
^is subject in the year 256, to St. Cyprian, by whom it 
was translated into Latin, and may be seen in his workss. 
8t. Fhrmilian presided at the first council of Antioch held 
in the year 264, against Paul of Samosata, who promised 
a change of doctrine ; but, continuing to propagate: his 
«rrors, was condemned at the second council of Antioch, 
in the year 269« St. Firmiiian died at Tarsus, as he was 
going to this council.^ ' ' 

FIRMIN (Giles), a nonconformist divine and physician, 
was bom in 1617, in Suffolk, and educated at Cambridge, 
where he studied physic, and afterwards practised it with 
great success in New England, to which he fled, as 
he .said, to enjoy liberty of conscience. When that, 
however, was restored about tbe latter end of the cirvll 
wars, he returned to England, was ordained, and became 
minister at Shalford, in Essex, where he continued till he 
was ejected, in 1662, by the act of tiniformity. Heafter* 
wards resumed the practice of phy^c, but never neglected 
to preach when he had an opportunity, in which he ap« 
pears to have been protected by his excellent and. cha« 
ritable character as a physician. He died in 1697, at the 
age of eighty. He was author of several works, the most 
known of which is his ** Real Christian." The others are 
of the controversial kind, with the Quakers, Antinomians, 
and Anabaptists, or concerning church governuienti He 
had far more moderation as well as loyalty than many of 
his brethren, and even is said to have joined with a few 
like himself, during the usurpation, in praying for the 
exiled royal family. ' 

FIRMIN (Thomas), a person memorable for public be- 
nefactions and charities, was born at Ipswich in Suffolk, in 
^June 1633. His parents, who were puritans, and very 
reputable and. substantial people, at a proper age put out 
their son to an apprenticeship in London. His master was 
an Arminian, a hearer of Mr. John Goodwin ; to whose 
sermons yonng Firmin resorting, <^ exchanged," as We are 
told, ^' the harsh opinions of Calvin, in which be had been 


} Cave.— Moreri.r— Lardper^s Works. • Calamy^ 

X19 F I R M I N. 


edacated, for those more reasonable ones of A rmifriusHhd 
tiie remonstraDts." But here be did not stop i being wbati 
is palled a free inquirer into religions matters, be was af-i 
iervrards carried by tbis spirit and temper to espouse some 
opinions totally at variance with the orthodox faith : he 
became persuaded, for instance, that ^^ the unity of God isi 
an unity of person as well as of nature ; and that the Holy 
Spirit is indeed a person, but not God.'* He adopted tbescf 
principles first from the noted Biddle, who was imprisoned 
for his opinions in 1645, and Firmin was so zealous in hit 
cause, that when he was only an apprentice, be delivered » 
petition for his release to Oliver Cromwell, who gave bioi 
tbis laconic answer : ** You curl-pated boy, doyou tbtnk FU 
show any favour to a man that de»ies his Savioer, au({ 
disturbs the government ?'* i 

^ As soon as he was made free^ he began to trade for bim^ 
self in the linen manufacture, with a stock not exceeding 
iOOi^ which, however, he improved so far, as to marry, in 
1660, a citizen's daughter with 500/. to her portion. Tfai^ 
wife did not live many years, but after bringing him two 
children, died, M/hile be was managing some affairs of trade 
at Cambridge : and, according to the assertion of his bio«r 
grapher, he dreamed at the same time at Cambridge, thai 
his wife was breathing her last. Afterwards he settled in 
Lombard*street, and became so celebrated for bis public* 
apiritedness and benevolence, that he was noticed by all 
persons of consequence, and especially by the clergy. He 
became open intimate terms with Whichcot, Wilkins, TiU 
lotson, &c. ; so particularly with the last, that when obliged 
to be out of town, at Canterbury perhaps, where be was * 
dean, he left to Mr. Firmin the provision of preachers fbf 
his Tuesday*!^ lecture at St. Laurence's church near Guild* 
ball. Mr. Firmin was afterwards so publicly known, aa t<i 
fail under the cognizance of majesty itself. Queen MarjP 
having heard of bis Usefulness in all public designs, those 
of charity especially, and that he was heterodox in the 
articles of the trinity, the divinity of our Saviour, and the 
satisfaction, spoke to Tillotson to set him right io those 
weighty and necessary points ; who answered, that he had 
often endeavoured it; but that Mr. Firmin had now so 
long imbibed the Socinian doctrine, as to be beyond tho 
veaeh of his arguments. His grace, however, for he was 
then archbishop, published his sermons, formerly preached, 
at St. Laurence's, concerning those qu^stioos^ and ieat 

T IR M I Nr ait 

Mr.; Firmin one of the first copies from the press, who, tiot 
convinced, caused a respectful answer to be drawn up and 
pubiished with this title, ^^ Considerations on the expli* 
cations and defences of the jdoctriae of the Trinity/* him^ 
self giving a copy to his grace : to which the arcbbisbop^ 
after he had read it^ only answered, '< My lord of Sariim,*^ 
meamag Dr. Burnet, ^ shall humble your writers ;" istitt 
retaining, however, his uanai kindness for Mr. Firmin. 

In 1 664, be married a second wife, who brought hioi 
several children : nevertheless, his benevolent i^rit did 
not slacken, but he went about doing good as usual, and tbe 
plague in I66S, and the fire in 1666, fuirnished him with a 
Tariety of objects. He went on with his trade in Lorn* 
baxd-<street, till 1676: at which time his biographer sup* 
poses him to have been worth 9O00L though he had dis<» 
fK)sed of incredible sums in charities. This year he erects 
ftd his warehouse in Little^ Britain, for the employment of 
the poor in the linen manufacture ; of which Tillotson hsu 
spoken most honourably, in his funeral sermon on Mr* 
GougC) in 1681, giving the merit of the thought to Mr. 
•Gouge^ but that aS the adoption and great exteniuon of it 
to Mr. Firmin» The method was this : he bought flax and 
iiemp for them to spin ; when spun he paid thein for their 
wori^ and caused it tp be wrought into cloth, whicli he 
sold as he aould, himself bearing the whole loss. 

In 16e0and 1681, came over the French protestants, 
who furnished new work for Mr. Firmin^s a^eal and charity : 
and, in 1682^ he set up a linen manufacture for them aft 
Ipswich* During the last twenty years of his life, hei was 
ane of the governors of Christ's hospital in Lc^idon ; to. 
which he procured many considerable donations. About 
the revolution, when great numbers of Irish nobility, clergy, 
•gentry, and others, fled into England from the peniecutioh 
and proscription of king James, brie^ and other means, 
pereseton foot for their relief, in all which Mr. Fifmin 
iras so active, that he received a letter of thanks for bis 
diligence and kindness, signed by the archbi^op of Tuam^ 
tad seven bishops. In April 1693, he became a governor 
of St. TbomasV hospital in Southwark, nor was there hardly 
any- public trust or charity, in which he either was not ih 
one shape or other concerned. He died Dec. 20, 1697, in 
the sigcty»sixth year of bis age, and was buried, according 
to his desire, ia tbe cloisters of Cbrist^s hospital, la 


Art StSCHEft. 

Am wall near his grave is placed an inscription^ in whieflli^ 
benevolence is recorded with a just encomium. V * 

FISCHER (John Christian), an eminent performer 
4ind composer for the hautbois^ was bom at Fribourg, and 
educated at a common reading school at a village in Bohet 
mia, where all the children learn music, reading, and writ^ 
ing, as a matter of course. He first learned a Utile on 
the violin, but changed it soon for the hautbois, and became 
:early in life so excdJent a performer on that instrument, as 
to be appointed one of the king of Poland^s celebrated band 
:«t Dresden^ On the dissolution of this, band he w^nt to 
Berlin, Where he had the honour, during a month, to ac* 
43ompany Frederick the late king of Prussia alone, four 
hours every day. From Berlin he went to Manheim, and 
Jtfaence to Paris, where be was heai^d with admiration, and 
3s. spon as he bad acquired some money he came over to 
Sngland, and here, as soon as he had been once heard in 
:public, which was at a benefit, no other concert, publie or 
.private, was thought complete without bis performacfee'; 
.and being engaged to play a concerto every night at Vaux* 
Jball, be drew thither all the lovers of music, but particU- 
darly professors. When the. queen's band wasformed, Fis- 
'cber was appointed one of her majesty's chamber musicians; 
«nd whei;! Bach and Abel, uniting, * established a weekly 
subscription concert at Hanover^square, where, for a long 
^time, no music was heard but that of these excellent mas- 
ters, Fischer was allowed to compose for himself, and in u 
«tyle so new and fanciful, that in point of invention, as.weH 
fls tone, taste, expression, and neatness of execution, hia 
^piece was always regarded as one of the highest treats of 
the night, and beard with proportionate rapture. 

In all musical performances at the universities, and at 
the periodical meetings at the provincial towns, Fisefaer'a 
concertos were eagerly expected, and heard with raptore. 
His tone was not only uncommonly sweet, but so powerful^ 
that Giardini, who never could praise a German but through 
the medium of abu$e> used to say that he had such an im^ 
fiudAice of tone as no other instrument eouid^ contend 
with, and 4iis execution was quite* as iniich as the lustra* 
ment would bear to produce an agreeable effect. His tast6 
and cbiaro^souro were exquisite, and be bad bis reed pet* 
fectly binder his command. / As to his composition, he wa^ 

* Lifo by Cornish, 1780, -Igmo.wBttraet'g Own Tim^s.— Birch's TillotsoB. 

JPIS€HER. • *S%9 

.alivkys so originalj interesting, and pleasing, tfant he may 
De pronounced one of the few intuitive musicians who bad 
.powers which he knew not how he acquired, and talents at 
;Wbicb study alone can never arrive. His taste and ear 
were exceeding delicate and refined ; and he seemed to 
possess a happy and peculiar faculty of tempering a con^ 
,tinued tone to diff(U'ent bases, according to < their several 
relations : upon the whole, his performance was so capital, 
.that a hearer must have been extremely fastidious not to re- 
ceive from, it a great* degree of pleasure. I ' 

Fischer left England in 1786, and< in the beginning of 
the next year had not been beard of. His majesty inquired 
several times, with sotne solicitude, whether he bad writ^ 
.tea to any of his friends in England, and was answered ib 
jtbe negati?e ; one of them understood, by report, that he 
was at Strasburg. He returned, . however, at the end of 
4787, and continued in England during the rest of his life. 
About 1777 he had married a daughter of , the. admirable 
painter, Gainsborough, an enthusiastic lover of good muttC 
and performance, and of none so much as. Fischer's ; in- 
deed he enchanted the whole family with bis strains, which 
were beyond measure captivating, and he stood so well fft 
his instrument, that his. figure had all the grace of a Tibiam 
^t the altar of Apollo. . But this marriage was not auspio 
cions; Fischer, with a good person, and superior genius fioar 
his. art, was. extremely deficient in colloquial eloquence;^ 
^nd in all those. undefinable charms iof conversation, which 
/engage the attention and endear the speaker. He had 
^)ot a grain of sense but. what he breathed through his 
reed; he never spoke.more than three words at a time, and 
those were negatives or affirmatives. Yet, though he had 
ffiw charms for a friend or companion, he delighted the 
l^blic at large in a higher degree -than is allowed to any 
but gifted mortal?. This admirable musician was seized 
^itb an apoplectic fit April 2i», 1800, during the perform* 
n^nce. of a solo ait the queen's house, at his OM^eslj's co&w 
peifL. Prince William of; Gloucester, observing bis aitiia^ 
^00, supported him out of the apartment, whence he wm 
conveyed to.his residence in. Compton-street, Soho, where 
be expired about an hour, afterwards. } ■' 

FISCHER (John Andrbw), a physician of Erfurt, the 
fon of a celebrated apothecary, was born 4>n the iS&th of 

> Bta'fitCyc1op»dia, bjr J>r« Burner. 

(SOD f I S C H E S. 

November^ 1 667, and graduated lu the university of firfml^ 
ia April 1691. He was appointed professor extraordinary 
in tbe fiaicul^ of Erfurt in 1695^ and professor ti logic in 
ibe Evangelical college in 16S9; hat be relinquished both 
these appoitutments in 1716, io order t(> assume the duties 
•f tbe profepaorsbip of pathology and of tbe practice ot 
medicine^ to which fake had heeh noasdnated three years 
.before. fUteher acquired eooaiderable cepuUUion at Erfurt, 
«iid in tbe /courts, in the ricitiity of that city, and had beeft 
ten years physician to the court of Mentz, when be 
ilied on tbe ISdi of February, 17^9. He has left several 
/essays in tbe foem of inaugural theses ; which were pub*^ 
lished betwieen the year 1718 and that of his death ; bat 
iie waft aW suthor of some more important works: vis* 
]• ^ Consilia Medica, cpm in usum practicum et forefvsemy 
IMTO-soopocuraadi et renanciandi adornata sunt.'' Three 
Toluiaes of this work were pubiisbed successively at Krahc^ 
forty in 1704, 1706, and 1712. 2. ^Hlias in nuce, seu 
Medicina Synoptica,'' Erfurt, 1716. 3. <^ Responsa Prac** 
tica,'' Leipsic, 1719.' 

. FISH (Simon), a man who deserves some notice on ac«- 
sount of his zeal for the reformation, was born in Kent^ 
end, after an education at Oxford, went about 1^25 td 
GrayVInn, to study the law. A play was then written 
fay one Roo, or Roe, in which cardinal Wolsey was severely 
reflected on ; and Fish undertook to act the part in which 
he was ridicnied, after every body else had refused to ven« 
ture upon it The caixlifial issued his orders against him 
the smne night, but he escaped, and went into Germany, 
v^re he found out, and associated himself with, William 
Tyndale. The year following be wrote a little piece, 
cdled, ^ The Supplication of Beggars ;*^ a satire upon 
bishops, al:HK>ts, priors, monks, friars, and indeed tbe popish 
clergy in generaL About 1527 or 1528, after it bad been 
printed, a copy was sent to Anne Boleyne, and i>y her 
giv^en to tbe king, who was not displeased with it, and 
Woisey being now disgraced, Fish was recalled bom«, 
and graciously countenanced by the king for what he liad 
done. Sir Thomas More, who, when chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, had answered Fish's pamphlet, in 
anotber, entitled ^^ The Supplication of Souls in Purga<« 
lory/' being advanced to the^ rank of chance^Hor in tbe 

FISH. 821 

foom of Wolsey, the king ordered sir Tiiotnas not to med^ 
die with Fish, and sent a message to this purpose, with biib 
signet, by the hands of Fish. On his delivering the mes-^ 
fiage, sir Thomas told him, all this was sufficient for him* 
self, but not for his wife, against whom it was complained 
that she had refused to let the friars say their gospels in 
Latin at her house. The chancellor appears to have'made 
80me attempt to prosecute the wife, but how far he suc-^ 
ceeded is not known. Fish himself died about half a year" 
after this of the plague, about 1531, and was buried in the 
church of St. Dunstan in the West. In one of the lives of 
sir Thomas More, it is reported that he turned papist be- 
fore his death, but; this circumstance is not mentioned by 
Fox, The " Supplication" was one of the publications 
afterwards prohibited by Cuthbert Tonstall, when bishop 
of London. Tanner ascribes to Fish two works called 
'* The Boke of merchants rightly necessary to all folkes, 
newly made by the lord Pantapole ;" and " The Spiritual 
Nosegay." He also published about 1530, **The Summ 
of the Scrrpturesj" translated from the Dutch. His widow 
married James Bainbam, afterwards one of the martyrs. ^ 

FISHACRE, or FIZACRE (Richard), a learned scholar 
in the thirteenth century, was, if not of the city of Exeter^ 
at least a Devonshire man, and a Dominican friar. He 
studied at Oxford, first in the college of the great hall of 
the university, but afterwards taking the cowl, he removed 
to the Dominican convent, and was the first of the order 
that was honoured with the theological doctorate. His 
learning is reported to have been general and extensive^ 
and he made so great a proficiency in every branch, that 
be was esteemed one of the most learned. Aristotle was 
his principal favourite^ whom be read and admired, and 
carried about with him. But from these philosophical 
execcises he passed on to the study of divinity, and became 
as eminent in this as before he had been in arts, which so 
endeared him to Robert Bacon (see his article), that th# 
two friends were scarce ever asunder* And for this reason 
Lcjaad thinks he studied at Paris along with Bacon, and 
there considerably improved his knowledge ; but this may 
be doubted. Leland observes, that writers generally men* 
tion the two. Dominican friends together, both in respect 
of their friendship and learning ; and indeed the two Mat* 

1 Fox't Acts and Mod.— Ath. Ox. new edit, by Bliit. 

vouxiv. y 

82£ F I S H A C K R E. 

thews, Paris and Westminster, have joined them, and> 
therefore, it is probable that Fishacre, as well as Bacon, 
enjoyed the friendship of bishop Grosseteste. They both 
died in one year, 1248, and were interred among the Do* 
jninicans at Oxford, Bale is severe on the memory of 
Fishacre for no reason that can be discovered ; but Leiand 
speaks very highly of him in point of personal worth as well 
as learning. Both Leiand and Bale have given a list of his 
works, consisting of theological questions, postils, and com- 
mentaries, some of which may yet be found in the public 
libraries. ^ 

FISHER (Edward), supposed by Wood to be the son 
of sir Edward Fisher; of Mickleton in Gloucestershire, kut» 
was probably born in that county, and educated at Oxford, 
where he became a gentleman commoner of Brasen-nose 
college in August 1627, took one degree in arts, and soon 
after left college, being called home, as Wood thinks, by 
his relations, who were then in decayed circumstances. 
At home, however, he improved that learning which be 
had acquired at the university so much, that he became a 
noted person among the learned for his extensive acquaint* 
ance with ecclesiastical history, and the writings of the 
Fathers, and for his skill in the Greek and Hebrew lan- 
guages. Sharing in the misfortunes of his family, and 
being involved in debt, he retired to Caermarthen in 
Wales, where he taught school, but afterwards was obliged 
to go to Ireland, where he died, but at what time is not 
mentioned. He published, 1 . ^' An Appeal to thy Con- 
science,^' Oxford, 1644, 4to. 2* ^* A Christian cayeat to 
the Old and New Sabbatarians, or, a Vindication of our 
old Gospel Festival," &c. London, 1650, 4to. This tiract, 
of which there were four editions, was answered by one 
Giles Collier, and by Dr. Collings. 3. ^^ An Answer to 
Sixteen Queries, touching the rise and observation of 
Christmas, propounded by Mr. John Hemming of Uttoxe* 
ter, in Staffordshire;" printed with the << Christian Ca^* 
veat)" in 1655. But the most noted of his writings waft 
entitled " The Marrow of Modern Divinity," 1646, 8vo. 
This treatise is memorable for having occasioned a contro- 
versy of much warmth, in the church of Scotland, about 
eighty years after its publication. In 1720 it was reprinted 
in Scotland by the rev. James Hogg, and excited the at- 

1 Pegge's Life of Grotsettste.— Wood's Hut.«— Prince's Wort]iie9«r— Leiand.— 
Bale. — ^Tanner. 

FISHER. 323 

tention of the general assembly, or supreme ecclesiastical 
court of Scotland, by which many passageis in it were con- 
demned, and the clergy were ordered to warn their people 
against reading it ; but it was on the other hand defended 
by Boston, and the Erskines, who soon after seceded from 
the church (see Erskine), upon account of what they con« 
sidered as her departure from her primitive doctrines* 
Fisher's sentiments are highly Calvinistical. ^ 
"^ FISHER (John), bishop of Rochester, and a great be- 
nefactor to learning, was born at Beverley, in Yorkshire, 
1459. His father, a merchant, left him an orphan very 
young; but, by the care of bis mother, he was taught 
classical learning at Beverley, and afterwards admitted in 
Cambridge, of Michael-house^ since incorporated into 
Trinity-college. He took the degrees in arts in 1488, and 
1491 ; and, being elected fellow of his house, was a proctor 
of the university, in 1495. The same year, he was elected 
master of Michael-house ; and having for some time ap- 
plied himself to divinity, he took holy orders, and became 
eminent. The fame of his learning and virtues reaching 
the ears of Margaret countess of Richmond, mother of 
Henry VII. she chose him her chaplain and confessor ; ia 
which high station he behaved hiniself with so much wis- 
dom and goodness, that she committed herself entirely to 
his government and direction. It was by his counsel, that 
she undertook those magnificent foundations of St. John's 
and Christ's colleges at Cambridge; established the di- 
vinity professorships in both universities ; and did many 
other acts of generosity for the propagation of learning and 

In 1501, he took the degree of D.D. and the same year 
was chosen chancellor of the university ; during the exer- 
cise of which office he encouraged learning and good man- 
ners, and is said by some to have had prince Henry under 
his tuition in that university. In 1 502 he was appointed 
by charter the lady Margaret's first divinity* professor in 
Cambridge; and in 1504, made bishop of Rochester, at 
the recommendation of Fox, bishop of Winchester, and 
never would exchange this bishopric, though then the least 
in England ; for be called his church his wife, and was 
used to say, ^< be would not change his little old wife, to 
whom he had been so long wedded, for a wealthier." In 
1505 he accepted the headship of Queen's college^ in 

» Atb. Ox. vol. 11. 

y % 

324 I" I S H E H. 

Cambridge, which he held for little more than three yeari. 
The foundation of Christ's-college was completed under 
bis care and superintendence in 1306 ; and himself was ap- 
pointed by the statutes visitor for life, after the death of 
the munificent foundress. The king's licence for founding 
St. John's, was obtained soon after ; but, before it was 
passed in due form, the king died, April 1, 1509, and the 
lady Margaret herself, the 29th of June following. The 
care of the new foundation now deTolved upon her exe* 
cutors, of whom the most faithful and most active, and 
indeed the sole and principal agent, was Fisher; and he 
carried it on with the utmost vigour. In 1512 he was ap- 
pointed to the council of Lateran, at Rome, but never 
went, as appears from procuratorial powers, and letters 
recommending him to great men there, still extant in the 
archives of St. John's college. This college being finished 
in 1516, he went to Cambridge, and opened it with due 
solemnity; and was also commissioned to make statutes 
for it. He became afterwards a great benefactor to that 

Upon Luther's appearance and opposition to popery, in 
1517, Fisher, a zealous champion for the church of Rome, 
was one of the first to enter the lists against him. He not 
only endeavoured to prevent the propagation of his doc- 
trine in his own diocese, and in the university of Cambridge, 
over which as chancellor he had a very great influence, 
but also preached and wrote with great earnestness against 
him. He had even resolved to go to Rome, but was df- 
yerted by Wolsey's calling together a synod of the whole 
clergy, in whiqh the bishop delivered himself with great 
freedom, on occasion of the cardinal's stateliness and pride. 
Hitherto he had continued in great favour with Henry ; but 
in the business of the divorce, in 1527, he adhered so 
firmly to the queen's cause and the pope's supremacy, that 
it Irrought him into great trouble, and in the end proved 
his ruin. For the king, who greatly esteemed him for his 
' honesty and learning, having desired his opinion upon bis 
marriage with Catherine of Arragon, the bishop declared, 
that there was no reason at all to question the validity of 
it; and from this opinion nothing afterwards could ever 
Diake him recede. 

In the parliament which met Nov. 1529, a motion being 
made for suppressing the lesser monasteries, Fisher op- 
posed it in a very warm speech, at which some lords wercf 

FISHER. 32$ 


pleased, others displeased. The duke of Norfolk, addres^r 
iog himself to him, said, " My lord of Rochester, many 
of these words might have been well spared ; but it is 
often seen that the greatest clerks are not always the wisest 
men.'' To which the bishop replied, " My lord, 1 do not 
remember any fools in my time, that ever proved great 
clerks." Complaint was made by the commons of this 
speech to the king, who contented himself with gently 
rebuking Fisher, and bidding him ** use his words more 
temperately." In 1530 he escaped two very great dan- 
gers, first that of being poisoned, and then of being shot 
in his house at Lambeth-marsh ; upon which he retired to 
Rochester. One Rouse, coming into his kitchen, took oc- 
casion, in the cook's absence, to throw poison into gruel 
which was prepared for his dinner. He could eat nothing 
that day, and so escaped ; but of seventeen persons who 
eat of it, two died, and the rest never perfectly recovered 
their health. Upon this occasion, an act was made de-* 
daring poisoning to be high treason, and adjudging the 
offender to be boiled to death ; which punishment was sooa 
after inflicted upon Rouse in Smithfield. The other dan- 
ger proceeded from a cannon bullet, which, being shot 
from the other side of the Thames, pierced through his 
house, and came very near his study, where he used to 
spend most of his time. 

When the question of giving Henry the title of the su- 
preme head of the church of England was debated in con- 
vocation in 1531, the bishop opposed it with all his might; 
which only served the more to incense the court against 
him, and to make them watch all opportunities to get rid 
of so troublesome a person. He soon gave them the op- 
portunity they sought, by his^ remarkable weakness in 
tampering with, and hearkening too much to the visions 
and impostures of Elizabeth Barton, the holy maid of Kent; 
who, among other things, pretended a revelation from 
God, that " if the king went forwards with the purpose he 
intended, he should not be king of England seven months 
after." . The court having against him the advantage they 
wanted, soon made use of it ; they adjudged him guilty of 
misprision of treason, for concealing the maid's speeches 
that related to the king ; and condemned him, with five 
oti)e;rs^ in loss of goods and imprisonment during the king's 
pleasure j but be was released upon paying 300/. for his 
majesty's use. Afterwards an act v\ as made, which abso- 

326 FISHER. 

lately annulled Henry's marriage with Catherine; con- 
firmed his marriage with Anne Boleyn ; entailed the crown 
upon her issue, and upon the lady Elizabeth by name ; 
making it high treason to slander or do any thing to the 
derogation of this last marriage. In pursuance of this, an 
oath was taken by both houses, March 30, 1534, ** to bear 
faith, truth, and obedience to the king's majesty, and to' 
the heirs of his body by his most dear and entirely beloved 
lawful wife queen Anne, begotten and to be begotten," 
&c. Instead of taking this oath, Fisher withdrew to his 
house at Rochester : but had not been there above four 
days, when he received orders from the archbishop of Can- 
terbury and other commissioners, authorised under the 
great seal to tender the oath, to appear before them at 
Lambeth. He appeared accordingly, and the oath being 
presented to him, he perused it awhile, and then desired 
time to consider of it ; so that five days were allowed him. 
Upon the whole, he refused to take it, and was committed 
to the Tower April 26. 

. Respect to his great reputation for learning and piety, 
occasioned very earnest endeavours to bring him to a com- 
pUanee. Some bishops waited on him for that purpose, as 
did afterwards the lord chancellor Audeley, and others of 
the privy-council ; but they found him immoveable. Se- 
cretary Cromwell was also with him in vain, and aftenvards 
Lee, bishop of Lichfield. The issue was, a declaration 
from Fisher, that he would *^ swear to the succession ; 
never dispute more about the marriage ; and promise alle- 
giance to the king; but his conscience could not be con* 
vinced, that the marriage was not against the law of God.'* 
These concessions did not satisfy the king ; who was re- 
solved to let all his subjects see that there was no mercy 
to be expected by any one who opposed his will. There- 
fore, in the parliament which met Nov. 3, he was attainted 
for refusing the oath of succession ; and his bishopric de- 
clared void Jan. 2. During hil confinement, the poor old 
bishop was most barbarously used, was left without decent 
clothing, and scarce allowed necessaries. He continued 
above a year in the Tower, and might have remained there 
till released by a natural death, if an unseasonable honour, 
paid him by pope Paul IH. had not hastened his destruc- 
tion ; which was, the creating of him, in May 1535j car- 
dinal, by the title of Cardinal Priest of St, Vitalis. When 
the king heard of it, be gave strict orders that none should 

FISHER. 327 

bring the hat into his dominions : he sent also lord Crom- 
well to examine the bishop about that affair, who, after 
some conference, said, *^ My lord of Rochester, what would 
you say, if the pope should send you a cardinaPs hat; 
would you accept of it ?" The bishop replied, " Sir, I 
know myself to be so far unworthy any such dignity, that 
I think of nothing less ; but if any such thing should hap* 
pen, assure yourself that I should improve that favour to 
the best advantage that I could, in assisting the holy ca- 
tholic church of Christ ; and in that respect I would re- 
ceive it upon my knees.'' When this aiiswer was brought, 
the king said in a great passion, ^^ Yea, is he yet so lusty i 
Well, let the pope send him a hat when he will, Mothec 
of God, he shall wear it on his shoulders then ; for I will 
leave him never a head to set it on/' 

From this time his ruin was absolutely determined ; but 
as no legal advantage could be taken against him, Richard 
Rich, esq. solicitor- general, a busy officious man, went to ' 
him ; and in a fawning treacherous manner, under pretence 
of consulting him, as from the king, about a case of con- 
science, gradually drew him into a discourse about the 
supremacy, which he declared to be *^ unlawful, and what 
his majesty could not take upon him, without endangering 
his soul." Thus caught in the snare purposely laid for 
him, a special commission was drawn up for trying him, 
dated June 1, 1535; and on the 17 th, upon a short trial, 
he was found guilty of high treason, and condemned to 
suffer death. He objected greatly against Rich's evidence, 
on which he was chiefly convicted; and told him, that 
'.* he could not but marvel to hear him bear witness against 
him on these words, knowing in what secret manner he 
came to him." Then addressing himself to his judges, 
and relating the particulars of Rich's coming, he thus went 
on : '^ He told me, that the king, for better satisfaction 
of his own conscience, had sent unto me in this secret 
manner, tq know my full opinion in the matter of the 
supremacy, for the great affiance he had in me more than 
any other ; and farther, that the king willed him to assure 
me on his honour, and on the word of a king, that what- 
ever I should say unto him by this his secret messenger, I 
should abide no danger nor peril for it, nor that any ad- 
vantage should be taken against me for the same. Now, 
therefore, my lords," concludes he, *' seeing it pleased the 
king's majesty, to send to me thus secretly under the pre- 


tence of plain and true maaning, to kiiow my poor adrice 
and opinion in these his weighty and great affairs^ which I 
most gladly was, and ever will be, willing to send him ; 
metbinks, it is very hard and unjust to hear the messenger's 
accusation, and to allow the same as a sufficient testimony 
against me in case of treason." Hard and unjust it un- 
questionably was, but suitable enough to the temper of the 
king, who was not subject to scruples ; and his will, un- 
fortunately, was a law. June 22, early in the morning, 
he received the news of his execution that day ; and when 
be was getting up, he caused himself to be dressed in a 
neater and finer manner than usual ; at which his man ex- 
pressing much wonder, seeing he must put it all off again 
within two hours, and lose it : ^^ What of that," said the 
bishop ; ^' does thou not mark, that this is our marriage- 
day, and that it behoves us therefore to use more cleanli- 
ness for solemnity of the marriage sake ?" He was be- 
headed about ten o'clock, aged almost 77 : and his head 
was fix^d over London-bridge the next day. 

Such was the tragical end of Fisher, ^^ which left one 
of the greatest blots upon this kingdom's proceedmgs,'' 
as Burnet says in his ^^ History of the Reformation.'* 
He w£^ a very tall well-made man, strong and robust, but 
at the end of his life extremely emaciated. As to his 
moral and intellectual attainments, nothing could well be 
greater. Erasmus represents him as a n^an of integrity, 
deep learning, sweetness of temper, and greatness of soul. 
His words are remarkable, and deserve to be transcribed. 
« — " Reverendus Episcopus Roffensis, vir non soldm mira- 
bili integritate vitae, veri^m etiam alta et recondita doctrina, 
tum morum quoque incredibili comitate commendatus 
maximis pariter ac minimis. — Aut egregie fallor, aut is vir 
^t unus, cuu) quo nemo sit hac tempestate conferendus, vel 
integritate vitue, vel eruditione, vel animi magnitudine.'* 
It is, however, to be lamented that a man of such distin- 
guished worth and literature, should have been enslaved 
by narrow prejudices, and seduced by the enthusiasm and 
imposture of Elizabeth Barton, 

. He was the author of several works, as, 1. ^^ Assertio- 
iium Martini Lutheri confutatio.'' 2. << Defensio Assertionis 
H^nr'ici Octavi de septem sacramentis," &c. 3. ^^ Epistola 
|lesponsoria Epistolse Lutheri." 4. ^^ Sacerdotii Defensio 
contra Lutherum." 5. ** Pro Damnatione Lutheri." 6, 
'* De veritate corpqris et sanguiais Cbristi in Eucbwis.tia, 

FISHER. 329 

^dversus Oecolampadium." 7. " De unica Magdalena.'* 
8. " Petrum fuisse Romae." 9^ " Several Sermons, among 
which was one preached at the funeral of Henry VII. and 
one at the funeral of Margaret countess of Richmond." 
T^ie latter was republished in 1708, by Thomas Baker, 
B. 0. with a learned preface. And»one preached at Lon- 
don, on the d^y that Luther's writings were publicly burnt, 
10. Several Tracts of a smaller nature upon subjects of 
piety. 11. " His opinion of king Henry VIIL's marriage, 
in a letter to T. Wolsey." This is printed in the Collec- 
tion of Recordii at the end of the second volume of Collier's 
^' Ecclesiastical History." Most of the forementioned 
pieces, which were printed separately in England, were 
collected and printed together in one volunie folio at , 
Wurtzburg, in 1595, It is also supposed that he had a 
considerable hand in Henry VIIL's book, ^* Assertio septeot 
8acramentorum," &c. although bishop Burnet seems angry 
with Sanders for saying so : it is nevertheless highly pro- 
bable. In the Norfolk library of MSS. belonging to the 
royal society is an answer of bishop Fisher's to a book 
printed at London. in 1530, concerning king Henry'a mar- 
riage with queen Catherine. * 

• FISHER (John), an English Jesuit of the seventeenth 
century, whose true name was Piercy, was born in York- 
shire, and admitted in the English college at Rome, 
whence he removed to Louvaine, and became a Jesuit in 
1594. Afterwards he was s^ent on a mission to England, 
and laboured several years in endeavouring to make pro- 
selytes, until he was imprisoned and banished. Those of 
bis order then made him professor of divinity at Louvaine, 
and vice-provincial of the English Jesuits. Returning thence 
jto England, be made a considerable figure in the reigns of 
James I. aud Charles I. in various controversies and con- 
ferences with some noted divines of the church of England. 
His most remarkable conference was with Dr. Francis 
White, dean of Carlisle, and afterwards bishop of Nor- 
wich, which was held in the king's presence in 1622, at 
three different times, at the request of the duke of Buck- 
ingham, on account of his duchess being a Roman catholic. 
At the conclusion of these conferences, king James desired 
Fisher to return, an answer to nine points, proposed by his 

1 Life by Dr. ilal), published under the nane of Bailey, 1655, ISmo.— Biof« 
JJfiU— Dodld's Ch, Hist. 

330 r I S H E It 

majesty, which Fisher did in writing, except an article 
concerning/ the supremacy, about which he desired to be 
excused. He had conferences also with Laud, Featley, 
and others. He was alive in 1641, but how long after- 
wards we do not find. He published 1. ^' A Treatise of 
Faith," Lond. 1600, and St'Omers, 1614. 2. « A De- 
fence of the preceding against Wooton and White," St* 
Omers, 1612. 3. ^^ A Challenge to Protestants^ to shew 
the succession of their pastors, from Christ down/' ibid. 
1612. 4. " An Answer to nine points of Controversy pro- 
posed by king James I. with the censure of Mr. White's 
reply,*' 1625, 4to. In answer to him were published, 
1. " The Romish Fisher caught in his own net," by Dn 
F^atley, Lond. 1624, 4to. 2. Two other pamphlets bj 
the same. 3. '^ A Conference between bishop Laud 
and Fisher," ibid. 1639, by Laud. 4. " Reply to the re- 
lation of the conference between Laud and Fisher," by an 
anonymous author, 1640, 4to. 5. " Reply to Fisher's 
answer to some questions propounded by king James,** 
1624, by Francis White. 6. << Orthodox faith and the 
way to the church explained," by the same, 1617. 7/ 
** Fisher's folly unfolded," &q. by George Walker, 1624. 
8. ** Catalogus protestantium before Luther," by George 
Webb, 1624, 4to. 9. " An answer to Mr. Fisher the Jesuit, 
&c. in a dialogue," by Henry Rogers, 1623. 10. "The 
Protestant church existent, and by whom their faith pro- 
fessed in all ages," by the same, 1638, 4to. 11. "A 
Dialogue about this question. Where was your church be- 
fore Luther?" by C. W. 1623.* 

FISHER (Payne), or as he usually styled himself in bis 
Latin compositions, Paganus Piscatoh, was born at Warn- 
ford, in Dorsetshire, the seat of his maternal grandfather, 
sir Thomas Neale, in 1616, and became a commoner of 
Hart-hall, (now Hertford college), Oxford, in 1634. After 
continuing there about three years, he removed to Mag- 
dalen college, Ca^nbridge, wherie he took the degriee of 
B. A. and first discovered his turn for poetry. From Cam* 
bridge, having, as Wood says, ** a rambling head," he 
served for some time in the Netherlands, and soon after 
returned and bore an ensign's commission in the aroay 
raised by Charles I. against the Scots in 1639 ; on the dis* 
banding of which he went to Ireland, and obtained the 

> Alej;anibe Bibl. Script. Soc. Jesu.— Dodd's Church Hist. rol. II. 

FISHER. 831 

rank of captain, and on his return to England that of ma<-' 
jor. In July- 1644 he served at the siege of York, and was 
present at the battle of Marston Moor, which he celebrated 
in his first published poem. Soon after this he left his 
command, for what reason does not very clearly appear, 
and came to London, where he employed his pen against 
the cause which he had supported with his sword, and be-* 
came such a favourite as to be accounted poet-laureat to 
Oliver Cromwell. After the restoration he endeavoured 
to atone for all this, by flattering the men in power, but 
without effect ; and he henceforth lived, as Wood says, 
on his wits, which appear to have procured him but a scanty 
diet, arising chiefly from flattering dedications, and other 
implements of literary supplication. He was frequently 
in debt and in jail, and died at length, advanced in years, 
at a cofi^ee-bouse in the Old Bailey, April 2', 1693, and 
was buried in St. Sepulchre's church-yard. 

Wood has given a very long list of his productions, 
which are mostly Latin poems, epitaphs, or orations in 
praise of the leading characters or events of his day. 
Among the most remarkable are, 1. ^^ Marston -Moore, sive 
de obsidione prselioque Eboracensi carmen," Lond, 1650, 
4to. 2. " Irenodia gratulatoria, &c.'* in honour of Crom- 
well, and dedicated to the infamous Bradshaw, ibid. 1652, 
4to. 3. " Oratio anniversaria," in honour of the inaugu- 
ration of Cromwell, and delivered in the Middle temple 
hall, ibid. 1655, fol. 4 " Threnodia triumphans, &c.'* 
on the death of Cromwell, 1653, fol. Latin and English. 
5. " Epinicion ; vel elogium fcelicissimi sereniss. fortiss. 
Ludovici XIV. &c." fol. without date or place. This pa- 
negyric on the French king is curiously illustrated on the 
margins of each leaf with cuts of arms and military tro- 
phies, &c. He wrote also a book of Heraldry, printed at 
London, in 1682, with the coats of arms of such of the 
gentry as he waited upon with presentation copies, in hopes 
of a reward. From the little we have seen of his works, 
he appears to haive been a man of considerable talents, but 
in his character and conduct, irregular, vain, and con- 
ceited. ' 

FITZ-GEFFREY (Charles), a poetical writer of queen 
Elizabeth^s reign, was the son of Alexander FitzgefFrey, 
of a good family in Cornwall, and born in 1575. He be- 

1 Atk. Ox. vol. II.— Winstaaley'8 Poets. 

5S« FI TZ-G E F F R E Y- 

came a commoner of Broadgate-hall, Oxford, in 1592, 
took the degrees in arts, and entered into orders. At 
length he became rector of St. Dominick, in his own coun- 
ty, where he was esteemed a grave and learned divine, 
as he was, while at, an excellent Latin poet. 
He died at his parsonage of St. Dominick, and was buried 
in the chancel of the church therein 1636. His works 
are, I. " The Life and Death of Sir Francis Drake," which 
being written in lofty verse, while he was A. B. he was 
then called " the high towering Falcon." 2. ** AfFaniae 
sive epigrammata lib. 111. and Cenotaphia, lib. L" Oxford, 
1601, 8vo. 3. Several Sermons. Wood has erroneously- 
ascribed to him a qoUection of poetry, under the title of 
**, Choice flowers and descriptions," which belongs to Al- 
lot, but he appears to have been the author of a prose tract 
entitled " A curse for Corne-horders," 1631, 4to, and a 
religious poem, called " The blessed Birth-day," 1634, 
4to; 1636, 1654, 8vo. An interesting account of some 
of his works may be seen in our authorities.^ 

FITZGIBBON (John), earl of Clare, and lord high 
chancellor of Ireland, the son of John Fitzgibbon, esq. an 
eminent lawyer at the Irish bar, who died in 1780, was 
born in 1749, educated at the universities of Dublin and 
Oxford, and afterwards entered upon the study of the law, 
of which profession he became the great ornament in his 
native country. In 1784 he was appointed attorney-ge- 
neral on the elevation of Mr. Scott to the bench, and on 
the decease of lord chancellor Lifford in 1789, his lordship 
received the seals, and was raised to the dignity of the 
peerage by the title of baron Fitzgibbon of Lower Connello* 
To these dignities were added the titles of viscount Clare, 
Dec. 20, 1793, and earl of Clare, June 10, 1795; and 
the English barony of Fitzgibbon of Sidbury, in Devon- 
shire, Sept. 24, 1799. In 1802 his health appeared to be 
so seriously affected, that his physicians thought proper to 
recommend a more genial^climate ; and he had arrived at 
Dublin from his country seat at Mountshannon, designing 
to proceed immediately to Bath, or if his strength per- 
mitted to the south of France. The immediate cause of 
bis death was the loss of a great quantity of blood, while 
at Mountshannon, which was followed by such extreme 

' Ath, Ox. vol. I. — Sir E. Brydges's edit of Phillips's Theatram.<^Cen8. 
Literaria, vol. VI. — Bij'iogtapher, voi.U. 

F I T Z G I B B O N. 333 

weakness, that upon his arrival at Dublin on the 25th, 
there was reason to fear he could not survive the ensuing 
day ; on Wednesday these alarming appearances increased 
so much^ that upon a consultation of physicians, he was 
given over. On being made acquainted with this melan- 
choly truth, the firmness of his lordship's mind did not 
forsake him. To prevent any impediment to the public 
business, he directed the new law offTcers to be called, and 
from, his bed administered to them the necessary oaths. 
Soon after, his lordship fell into a lethargic slumber, and 
continued motionless until Thursday Jan. 28, 1802, when 
he ceased to breathe. 

His lordship married July 1, 1786, Miss Whaley, 
daughter of Richard Chapel Whaley, esq. of Whaley ab-» 
bey, in Ireland, by whom he had issue, John, the present 
peer, and another son and two daughters. At his death 
his lordship was a privy -counsellor, a lord of trade and 
plantations, vice-chancellor of the university of Dublin, 
and LL. D. In the elevated and arduous situation of lord 
chancellor, during a very eventful period, he uniformly 
acted with a manly decision and ability that extorted ap- 
plause even from his political adversaries. He banished 
chicanery and artificial delay from the court where he pre- 
sided ; and was on every emergent occasion the firm and 
undaunted supporter of the constitution of the British 
realms, at a time when it was every where assailed by se- 
cret machinations, and in his own country by open rebel- 
lion. For such emergencies he was peculiarly fitted by a 
dauntless spirit, joined to great ability, virtue, and pa- 
triotism in its true sense. The only printed document of 
his composition is his " Speech on the Union.'** 

FITZHERBERT (Sir Anthony), a very learned law- 
yer in the reign of Henry VIII. was descended from an 
ancient family, and was the younger son of Ralph Fit?- 
herbert, esq. He was born at Norbury, co. Derby ♦, but 

* The family from which our judge may be necessary to refer the reader 
descended, was the subject of a dis- to an elaborate letter on the subject in 
pute between Camden, in his " Bri- the Gent. Mag. vol. LXVIf. p. 645, 
tannia," and Brooke, in his " Discovery In a work like ours, we should exceed 
of Errors," the substance of which is all reasonable bounds, were we to en- 
given in the Biographia Brilannica j ter into the minutisi of pedigree. See 
but as Dr. Campbell, the. author of also sir C. Brydge&'s edition of CoU 
that article, has rather injudiciously lins*s Peerage, 
preferred the arguments of Brooke, it 

^ > Gent, Mag. 1802.— Park's edit, of Royal and Noble Authors.— Collins** 
Peerage, by sir £. Brydges. 

354 F I T Z H E R B E R T. 

it is not known in what year. After he had bfeen properly 
educated in the country, he was sent to Oxford, and from 
thence to one of the inns of court ; but we neither know of 
ivhat college, nor of what inn he was admitted. His great 
parts, judgment, .and diligence, soon distinguished him 
in his profession ; and in process of time he became so 
eminent, that on Nov. 18, 1511, he was called to be a 
Serjeant at law. In 1 5 1 6 he received the honour of knight- 
hood, and the year after was appointed one of his majesty's 
Serjeants at law. He began now to present the world with 
the product of his studies; and published from time to 
time several valuable works. In 1523, which was the fif- 
teenth year of Henry the Eighth^s reign, he was made one 
of the justices of the court of common pleas, in which ho- 
nourable station he spent the remaining part of his life ; 
discharging the duties of his office with such ability and 
integrity, that he was universally respected as the oracle 
of the law. Two remarkable things are related of his con- 
duct ; one, that he openly opposed cardirial Wolsey in the 
height of bis power, although chiefly on the score of alien- 
ating the church lands ; the other, that on his death-bed, 
foreseeing the changes that were likely to happen in the ' 
church as well as state, he pressed his children in very 
strong terms to promise him solemnly neither to accept 
grants, nor to make purchases of abbey -lands. . He died 
May 27, 1538, and was buried in his own parish church of 
Norbury. He left behind him a very numerous posterity ; 
and as be became by the death of his elder brother John 
possessed of the family estate, he was in a condition to 
provide very plentifully for them. The Fitzherbert fa- 
mily, in the different branches of it, continues to flourish, 
chiefly in Derbyshire and Staffordshire. 

This learned lawyer's works are, 1. " The Grand Abridg- 
ment collected by that most reverend judge, Mr. Anthony 
Fitzherbert, lately conferred with his own manuscript cor- 
rected by himself, together with the references of the cases 
to the books, by which they may be easily found ; an im- 
provement never before made.- Also in this edition. the 
additions or supplements are placed at the end of their 
respective titles.'* Thus runs the title of the edition of 
1577; but the. most esteemed edition appears to be that 
printed in folio by Pynson, in 1516, with additions to the 
first part under the title ^^ Residuum.'' Ames also men*' 

F I T Z H E R B E R T. 335 

tions an edition by Wynken de Worde, in 1516, Jtnd dates 
Pynson's edition 1^14, but it* is questionable whether this 
edition attributed to Wynken de Worde be not the pro- 
duction of a foreign printer. To the edition of 1577, is 
added a most useful and accurate table, by the care of 
William Rastall, seijeant at law, and also one of the jus- 
tices of the common pleas, in the reign of queen Mary ; 
which table, as well as the work, together with its author, 
is very highly commended by the lord chief justice Coke. 
Jt is indeed one of our most ancient and authentic legal 
records, as it contains a great number of original authori- 
ties quoted by different authors, which are not extant in 
the year-books, or elsewhere tq be found in print. 2. 
*^ The Office and Authority of Justices of Peace, compiled 
and extracted out of the old books, as well of the Common 
Law, as of the Statutes, 1538,^' and reprinted often, the 
last edition in 1617. 3. "The Office of Sheriffs, ^ailiffe 
of Liberties, Escheators, Constables, Coroners," &c. 1538. 
Though we give the titles in English, these three works 
are written in French ; only part of the second is in Eng- 
lish. 4.^" Of the Diversity of Courts," 1529, in French; 
but translated afterwards by W. H. of Gray's-inn, and 
added by him to Andrew Home's " Mirrour of Justices.'* 
5. "The New Natura Brevium," 1534, in French; but 
afterwards translated, and always held in very high esteem. 
The last edition, published in 1794, 2 vols. 8vo, has the 
addition of a commentary, supposed to be written by chief 
justice Hale, and was collated with the former editions^ 
and corrected, with some notes and references added, and 
the index considerably enlarged. 6. " Of the Surveying 
of Lands," 1539. 7. "The Book of Husbandry, very 
proQtable and necessary for all persons," 1534, and se<- 
veral times aifter in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. It 
jls said, in an advertisement to the reader, that this book 
was written by one Anthony Fitzherbert, who had been 
forty years an husbandman ; from whence many have con- 
cluded, that this could not be the judge. But in the pre* 
face to his book ^^ Of Measuring Lands," he mentions his 
book " Of Agriculture,'' and in the advertisement prefixed 
to the same book, it is expressly said, that the author of 
that treatise of ^^ Measuring,'' was the author likewise of 
the book " Concerning the Office of a Justice of Peace." 
Whence it appears^ that both those books were written by 


this author, who perhapb in the seasons which allowed him 
leisure to go into the- country, might apply himself ^^ ^'^k 
gorously to husbandry in the country, as to the law when 
•in town ; and comniit his thoughts to paper. He appears 
to have been the first Englishman who studied the.natuie 
of soils, and the laws of vegetation, with philosophical at- 
tention. On these he formed a theory confirmed by ex"- 
periments, 'and rendered tha study pleasing as wciU as 
profitable, by realizing the princrpies of the ancients, to 
the honour and advantage of hts country. These books 
being wriittn at a time wlien philosophy and science were 
but jostemerging from that gloom in which tliey had long 
bet'n buried, were doubtless replete with many errors; bm 
they contained the rudiments of true knoMedge, and'r^-^ 
vived the study and love of agriculture. •* ' - ' 

FITZHERBEHT (TSomas), grandson of Bir Anthohyi 
and a.very ingenious and learned man', was'bom in tfale 
county of Stafford, in 1552; and sent td either fixfeterbif 
Lincoln>college, in Oxford, in 1568. But haTingJlie^n 
bred a catholic, the college was uneasy to Hm; and though 
he would now and then hear a sermon, which was' jpermittetf 
him by an old Roman priest, who li 
ford, and to whom he recurred for i 
of religion, yet he would seldom go' I 
be was often admonished by the sub- 
At length, seeming to be wearied wi 
times, as he called it, biB receded witi 
patrimony : where also refusing to go 
he was imprisoned about 1572; bu 
liberty, he became still more zealous ; 
taining publicly, that caiho|ics ougb 
testant churches ; for which, being li 
drew, and lived obscurely with his wife 
when the Jesuits Caoipian and Parson 
he went to London, found them out, 
tached to tbem, and supplied th&m 
bringing himself into dangers and d 
voluntary exile into France, in 1532 
the cause of Mary queen of Scots, bu 
death of that princess, and of his own 
and went to Madrid, in order to imp! 

t I T ^ H E II * i: R Ti 53i 

t^iiilip II. ; but, upon the defeat of the armada, itt 1 5S8^ be 
left Spain, and accompanied the dxike of Feria to Milttti. 
This duke had formerly been in England with king Philip^ 
bad married an English lady, and was justly esteemed a 
great patron of the English in Spain. Fitzberbert con- 
tinued at Milan some time, and thence went to Rome ; 
where, taking a lodging near the English college^ he at- 

.(ended prayers as regularly as the residents there, aad 
spent the rest of his time in writing books. He entered 
into the society of Jesus in 1614, and received priest's 
prders much about the same time ; a^ter which he speedily 
removed into Flanders, to preside over the mission there^ 
and continued at Brussels about two years. His great 
parts, extensive and polite learning, together with the. 
high esteem that he had gained by his prudent behaviour 
at Brussels, procured him the government, with the title of 
irector, of the English college at Rom'e. This^ office he 
exercised for twenty-two years, with unblemished credit^ 
during which time he is said to have been often named for 
a cardinal's hat He died there, Aug. 27, 1640, in his 

. ^ighty- eighth year, and was interred in tbe chapel be<« 
longing to the English college. 

Wood has given a list of his writings, containipg ten 
different works, chiefly of the controversial kind, in de- 
fence of popery, and directed against Barlow, Donne, 
Andrews, and other English divines. But the treatises 
which were received with most general approbation by 
protestants and papists, a^e, 1. '' Treatise concerning Po- 
lity and Religion," Doway, 1606,"4to, wherein are con- 
futed several principles of Machiavei, The second part 
of the said treatise was printed also at Doway, 1610, and 
both together in 1615, 4to.: A third part was printed at 
London, in 1652, 4to. 2. ^* An sit utilitas in scelere, vel 
^e infelicitate Principis Machiaveliani ?'' Romse, 1610, 
^vo. . The language of these pieces is a little perplexed 
and obscure,, and the method, according to the manner of 
those times, somewhat embarrassed and pedantic ; but they 
evince strong sense, a generous disposition, ' with much 
reading and experience, and abound with matter, which 
has served as a fund to several authors, who have since writ- 
ten against Machiavel. ^ 


1 Bto|. Brib~Oodd>t ChaKh Hiit— Atb. Ox. tpL L 

YouXIV. Z 

«« t^lt« ft feftfefe fet. 

FITZHlERbERT X^tt^k!>fcXs), ^hdls6h aUo tb sir An- 
thony Pilzh^rbeA, ^>tiA eoittsih to Thon^as, wa>i born ^boot 
1550, aud b^catn^ a student of Exeter coll'ege in Oxforcj. 
ASiom 1572> fie leftliis native cotintry, i>alrebts, iind pa- 
trimony, for religi^h, as t S^luntary ixite. At first be 
settled lit Bblogna iti Italy, to 6btaih we knbwfedge olf th'^ 
civil latv, and was tb^re in 15^0. Not long after he w6nt 
to Rome^ and in 1587 began to live, ^^ his secretary, in 
the famrly of Will?am Alah. Vh6 Cardinal of England. . IIq 
contrnited with him till bis death, aft^r fca\'ing diftthigui^bef4 
biinself by Ms knowledge in thelstws, aftd in polite litera- 
ture. Heii'^iSuntotttinately droWrfed, 1^1 $2, in a jonrney 
he tnade froWi Rornie. He ptib1is3i€fd ^he fbllowing pieces ; 
I; " C«s8e Galatcfei de bonis moVibns,'* 1595} a translation 
from ItfelfaW. • 2. « OkOiiiensis in Angliii Acadettttiae t)e-r 
scriptio," '1602. 3. «*De AfitSqWfatO et tCOn'tinnatiOrte 
C^bolicflft Religiohi^ in Anglia,'* 160^. 4, " Vitfle Cardi- 
iialls A^ttni Epitome," Veo* : all printed at tlotne. He^lsa 
#rote thb'fife of th^t cardinal, who was hts patron, more at 
Itrgt ; which, for reksons Of stat^, Was never pablisheU/ . 
FITZHERBERT tSiR William), of Tissrtngton, .bart. a 
descendant of the same family ^s the prfecieding^ \he BOn Of 
Wiftkm FitjKherbert, 'of TissingtOn, fesij. was bbtn May^ 
27, IT4^, and was educated ab St. John's coflege, ^Oam*^. 
bridge, and obtained the degree of M. A. by mandamusi^ 
in 1767. Hit'Hng ssftudied t!t^ law, be Was, during sc^ven 
years, -k pradtising bairrist^r, but pkssied the latter part oi, 
hts Hfe at his seat in 'Derbyshire, and toot a Vefry active^ 
and •useful shkte tnthe public business of that cojtfntv ^ 
one 'Of Its niagistratei, kn4 as rediSrder g/f the borqugn 9C 
Derby. Hfe was creafted a barortfet Ja^ni 22, 178*. tJe w^i' 
for sohte ydiirs one of ihb gentlemen usHfers daily yaiters; 
to his pt^esent miyfesty, which hi^ resi^he^'btjlforehii dfelini,f 
which took place July SO, 17*9 1, !n his fofty-tWd v^jir/. 
He ^aslHe author'df two small tracts, one entlitled ^f Ms^r. 
imsr iiftd the oflier *« A 'Dialoguie on thleTflevfenc/fe^r.^*fj 
both 6f Which iire elegantly written, Wd dfeplaiy^ °*'?^^* 
llS^fal and practidtl knovirTodge'aftd Observation^ together 



present lord St. Helen's. • 

« Ath. Ox, rol; l.--^Biog. Brit-^%odd?8 Cb. flitt 

ri T Z J A M £ S. 83B 

' PITZJAME8 (jAMEi), duke of Berwick, hsturtl son of 
I'ai^es II. when duke of York, and' of Arabella Churchill, 
■ister to the g^eat duke of Marlborough, was born at Mou- 
lins in 16Tt}i when bis inother was on her return from the 
DiediciRsl ivatert of Bourboii. He was bred to arms in the 
French service, and in 1686, At the age of fifteen, was 
woiinded at the siege of Buda; he gighiilized binuelfalso 
in 16S7, at tbe^atile of Mohatz, where the duke of Lor- 
raine defeated the Turks. In IG88, after his father's ab- 
dtdatiou, he ms sgttt to command for him in Ireland, and. 
v^as'diiitingiiidhed, both at the siege. of Londonderry, ia 
161^0, and at the battle of the Soyne, where, he bad a 
horse killed under him. In no'i be commanded the 
tn^opi that Louis XIV. sent to Spaiq to support the claifi 
•f ?hilip V. In & single campaigebe made himself to astttr 
of,9eVei^l Gqrtified places. On hisretuVn tg franpebe was 
employed to redJKe the t-ebels in the Cevennea. He theu 
besieeed Nice, ttnd t6ok it in I7pj. For bis seryices ia 
this ckmpai^ he was' raised the next year to the dignity of 
naresciial of France; after which .be greatly signtlized 
liiroself in Spain against the Portuguese ai^d oth^^ In 
l707liBg^o£d the celebrated battle of Almanza, against 
die English undei- lord Galloway, an(I the Portuguese unr 
der Das-Mijias, who bad aho^^ ^^000 men killed on the 
field. This victory fixed the browi) ' ' ead of Philip 
v." who was itudious' to prayb'tiisg to the general 

CD whdm he was indebted for it. i he took Bar- 

delodii, t>eing' ^hea generalisumo 6 ties of Spain, 

\^hen the war between France a'liq jf broke out in 

]?3^ he t^ain went out at thbiBead'of the French army ; 
biit'iti'1734 he Wa^ killed by a cannon-ball before Philips- 
bar^^ wbicb lie was besieging. It was the fortune of the 
bouse (^ Churcfaill, says Montesquieu, speaking of tbQ . 
duke's <>f Marlborough and Berwick, to produce two beroei, 
Hae of whom was destined to shake, and the othw to sup- 
pert, tUe two l^reatest. monarchies of Europe. The cha. 
ractbr of Fitzjanies was in some degr^ dry and severe, 
but fall of integrity, sincerity^ and true greatness. He 
was unafliectedly religious ; and, though frugal in his per- 
^nat expences, seneraliy iii debt, from the expences 
lAx>ugBt upon him by his situotion, and the patronage he 
gave to fugitives from England, who had supported 
the cause of his father. *The French are lavish in his 
pritise, anS^ eertiitnly not withoai reawn. His chai'acter 

X a 

no F I T Z J AM E S. 

■ - I - . 

^ - ^ . 'I - _- 

bas been well and advantageously drawn by tbe great Monr 
tesqnieu ; and there are memoirs of him written by bioi^ 
self, with a continuation to bis death by the English edi- 
tor, Mr. Hooke, a doctorof the Sorbonne, ai^d son of the 
Roman historian. They were published in 2 vols. Bvo^ 
in 1779** 

FITZ-JAMES (Richard), bishop af Rochester, Chi- 
chester^ and London,, and a distinguished benefactor .tif> 
^Mlerton college, Oxford, was a native of a good family en 
Somersetshire. About 1459 he went to Oxford, and in 
1465 was elected probationer fellQw of Merton. college, 
ai^d when M. A. entered into boly orders, and in 1;^73 
served the office of proctor. In March 1474 he. became 
prebend of .Taunton in the church of Wells, and when 
-appointed ^chaplain to Edward IV. took his degrees in. di- 
^vinity; Jn March 1482. he was elected warden of Mer^ 
•coil^ge^ which office he retained for jUventyrfive yeax^p 
during v^faich he greatly advanced the credit and prosperity 
of the college, built the whole of what is now the ancient 
part of it, and made considerable additions to the fioe 
chapel* In March 1434-5 he was made vicar ofMinebeady 
and about the same time rector of Alier in Somersetshi^. 
In June 1495 he was admitted almoner to Henry YII> ^nd 
in May 1469 consecrated bishop of Rochester, from wbicb^ 
in Jan. 1503, he was translated to Chichester, and .in 
March 1505 was again translated to the see of London, On 
-this last preferotent he resigned his wardenship of Merton, 
which he bad hitherto held in commendam with Rochester 
and Chichester. While bishop of London, he was a muni- 
ficent contributor to the cathedral churchy and is also pn 
record as a great benefactor to the completion of St. Mary*8 
church, Oxford. Along with his brot|;ier, sir John f itz- 
James, lord chief justice of Englapii,, he founded thescbpol 
at Bruton, in Somersetshire. He died in 1522, very aged, 
and St. Paulas cathedral.* , 

fITZSIMONS (Hrnry), a celebrated- Jesuit, was 4be 
son of a merchant in Dublin, and born in ths^t city in 1569. 
•'He was educated In the protestant religion^ and sent to 
Oxford, where, in April 1583, he wa^ matriculated as a 
.-member of Hart^hall, and in December fuUowing appears 
%o have been elected student of Christ Church; but having 
conceived an inclination for popery, be left the university, 

> X«ai9trt af abavt. ^ Ath. Ox. toI. I.— Wood'i CollcfOi sad HcHs. 

F 1 T Z S I M O N S. »4I, 

mnd.went to Louvaine, where he entered among the Jesuits, 

abd iiad for his tutor the celebrated Jesuit Lesftius. Here^: 

by acute parts and much application, he acquired grea|< 

distinction, ^nd was appointed to teach philosophy pnh* 

Itcly. Having furnikfaed himself with missionary z^ and 

artifice, he returned to Ireland, where be became very 

active in gaining proselytes, and for some time laboured 

publicly, and witrhout an opponent, being accounted a 

very able disputant: He was, however, committed to -pri* 

son in Dublin castle in 1599, where he continued, aoitie 

say two, and Some "five years, without any alteration in 

his courage oi"resaliitk>n. Onthe contrary, havings thrown 

out something like a challenge to the protestants, the ciele- 

hrated Usher, then a young man of- only nineteen, uudei^- 

took to dispute with faim, and weekly meeting's wereap- 

j[>ointed for the putpose. Their- first subject waa. As^* 

chrtst, and after they had met tM^ice or thrice, Usher was 

'rtoily to have proeeedt^d, but Fttzsimons . declijied ai^y 

vfartber engagement. 'Afterwards, being set at fiberty, ta 

his promise to bterhave qilietly, and 'give no disturbance- to 

the king atid kingdom, he went into the Low Countries, 

' wh^ne he spent his time in performing offices requisite to 

' hik function, and in writing books^ particularly << A Catho- 

' lie Confutation of Mr. John Ridei^s Claim of Aiuiquiti^s, 

and'acalming comfort against his caveat, with a reply to 

Mr. Hider^s rostscripts, and ieI discovery of puritan partiaUty 

'ik his behalf'* To which is annexed, "An Answer to' 

' c^irt^din com plaintive Letters of' afflicted Catholics for Re- 

' 1M6ti r^^ all pHnted together at Rohan, in 1608, in which 

''veitr'he went, according to summons, to Rome,- where 

^ ueihg appointed by a mission of Ireland^ he published bis 

~ |:(rpfession of the four void's ; and then, being sent back to 

^^thk Low Countries, he went again into Ireland, where he 

;s)ientinahy years in confirming the Roman catholica in 

tb^ir religion,' and in making new proselytes. At length, 

,having.been a great encourager and abettor of the rebellion 

~yWhi<ih broke out there in 1641, he was, after the rebels 

'^ 'began to be subdued, forced to fly for shelter into woods 

^' aind on mountains, and to creep and sculk into every plice, 

f for fear of being taken by the English soldiers* 

'' In the beginning of 1643 he was forced to change his 

^" place, and retire for safety into a moorish and boggy 

gfound, where, sheltering himself under a shepherd's cot, 

- .Wibett^i: than 8^ hovel, which did not keep out the wind 

Ui F I T 2 S I MO N !?.. 

and r^io^ \^ tinted there, in « verj sorry candUiOB, uni hnif 
foi: bii$.|)eddiQg a pad of ^traw, which would be often wel. 
bjr the.rMiAg aud 4X>niipg in of the water. . NotJvithstiiDd# 
lag all this luii^fsry he seemed to he very jcheai:ful| and walk 
ready. to instruct the young ones about hioi, and comiori; 
others. But being iu.4i manner spent, and iua age not, 
able to be^r such iDisery long, ^ he was with grea^^diffiiL'uItjr^ 
taken away^ and being conveyed by some- of the. brethren; 
in|o a better placet be expired among them,. February 1^ 
lii43-4. By his death the Roman cathoUjcs lost a pUUr ai 
their . cbur,chy being issteemed, in the better part of his 
life^ u ornament among them, and the greatest de^ 
fender of th^hr ri^ligio^ in his time. . Besides the pi«K^c# ^ 
aUeady mention^^ be wpote, i. /^ A Ju^ification aud Ex-*-. 
positiofi of tbe.s|ifrifipe of .the Mass*'' ja two booHs^ ^or. 
more^ printed. iu iSli, ^4tu^ .2. *^ Britannomachia miuia-f 
troruoi yi plerisquQ et fidei fimdamentis et Bdei artic^Ua« 
dissid^tium,'' Duac. IdU, 3. ^^ A Catalogae of the^ 
Iri^b. Saints/.' Antwerp^ 1621, 8fo. Ware says, be alsck 
va^ote a«> treatise to prove, ttiat Ineland w^a cailed Sc^ia^ 

, but.)ie doubts whetber> this was ever pubiisbed.^ . . ^ 

FITZSTEPHEN (VViluam), an Englidi historian of 
the twi^lfth century, and author of th^e efidiest description, 
of London e^ctant, wa3 of Nocoiaa extractiooi but born of 
creditable, parents in Lo^cl^n^ . He. was a monk of Canter^ * 

' bttry, was dispatched, to , .bis jioliness the pope, who was- 
then probably at Rome, or Beneventoi, once at least, aud 
was. much connected with archbishop Becket. He tells us.. 
himself, that he- was one of his cfaerks, and an. inmate in 
hia family, H^ was alsoa remembrancer in his exchequer; . 
a subdeacon jn bis chapel whenever he officiate^; a reader, 
of bills and petitions, when the. archbishop sat to hear and 
determine causes, find sometimes,, when < bis graice.was, 
pjeaaed to, Fitzstephen performed the office, of aii 
advocate*. He was also pr^er>t with him. at^Nortbampton, 
and was. an eye.-* witness of bis murdev at Gantenburyy'Goti- 
tibuiog with him.after his other servants had had deserted 
bim. I He has: reported a speech.whijch haraade onocca-* 
^on.of the archbishop'^ fitting aion^.;w;ith the cross in bis 
band, at Northampton, when iieiifas forsaken by faia suf-» 
fragans, and expected, aa he relates, it, .to be assaulted 
and murdered. , This speech is memoGable, andbreatbep' 

i Ward's IreUndj >jf ,Uarrii^r-^i9|. .^ri^ v^i art, Udier^-*Ath. Ox. toL ilr . 

ttlbr^ 6f a Cbrf9t}?kn spirit (ban we sJipiiHI IpAyf cpspect^d^ iq 
t|ib>€; de^ys. Que of the arcbbi$i^Qp*s fri^iids ha(l rep9i^- 
ij^epded, th9-t if fi^]^ violent atieiyipt vast made upoq, ^^isf 
p?rspo, ia^i^e4ia^te^y toi expampi.vni9at^ the ps^^ties, which 
tfa^p w^ t\ip QiQ|$t dre^dfql venges^pc^ ari ecclesiastic 96til4 
ifa^i^t Fitz^iepjpep, 011. tl^e coptraiy, sa^d, <^ Far b^ that 
fffotii my ]of4« Tb^ holy apostles and p[iaftyrs, ^hen they 
sq^^npd, did not b^h^vf in f bftt paanne^/' ^nd e^pdeavoured 
^ di$j^ad€& tb^ ^rchbishqp frQpi) takjt^g $^ step that would 
^pQslr %9 prQ<2ee4 frpm ^ng^r ^nd ioip^tience, &c. Thi^ 
y^otthy BiQwk js ^uppoied to bare ^led in \\9\i hut aqtbor^ 
t^ry mufeb as t« tU^ pf^rti^mjar ^ipe wbert b^ cofli^osed hi| 
wdrjc, althq\)gb it s^em^ cf^rtaiQ that b^ wrote \t in f bq. 
reign of Henry I|. ;iqd (bat it vrfis part of ano^b^r wor^^' 
"The Wfe and P^ssiqh of ^rghbisbop Bcicket.?* Dir. P^ge 
fixje^ the peripd bfiiwef n the ye^rs 1170 and llS2.i Tfbi^ 
^* Description of the City of London," ftffprds, after Dq^^es- 
4fty Sopk, by far the raosj early ijccpupt w^^ harcj of that 
infetroppJiSf a|id, tP w^e bU editor's words, Y[p may chal- 
Ic^g^ any nation in Eurqpe to pro^uqe ;^n account pf i^ 
oapital, or any qtbi^r pf i|s gre^t cities^ .at^ §p remptef^ 
periled as the twelfth centyry. It was ^cpordingly i^ooix 
noticed by Leiand and 3tQvre, whq in^fu-ted a translation, 
qf it in bis ** Survey qf l4)ndQn.'' Bqf tbi? edition w^a 
grown not only obsolete, bn^ incorrect, wbien Pr. P^gg^ 
publi^bed in 177S9 4tQ) a qiore l^cnr^te translation, v^i^h 
nqt^St and a preliminary ^i^s^f^t^pp on i\\p apthon Fits;^ 
citispben was a person of excellent lefifping for bis age. 
Hb was well versed in Hprape, Virgil, Sallu^t, Qvid, t-M- 
oaii, Pemius, and ynth p^riiaps many other Qf the L^tin 
^asjlips, and bad even peeped into Pfatq ^n|l spm^ of the^ 
Greeks; If he wa$ in some respepts a little top crpdplou^,^^ 
it fl^ntt be imputed to the tim^ be lived |n. (fi^ apponnt 
of LopfJoU) hqwev^r, i^ in all yiews, cnripps and interest* 
ingf an4 tbe pompq^ition easy, n^tmr^l, and methodical, ^ 
'FITZWIl-WAM (Wjluam), an etnin^pt pa^al cpni- 
mmi^r, and earl pf Sou^mpton, in ^he ,9i:ict(^ntb cen*^ 
tury, was the tepond son of sir Thomas Fitzwilli^m, pf 
Aidwarlf^9 i^ Yorksbii^y knt. by Lucia, his wifei daughter 
and cff^beir tp John NeviUiS^ marquis Montacute. In 151C) 
he waji; inade opp of th^ esqnirei for jb^ body pf king^^ 
Kenry^ VIII. wfeiph o^^p w^ repewpd tfii km fqrlifeiflU- 


944 FIT 2 Wilt 1 A M/ 

15112; The ycjir foIi<>wing he was one of the chief «>tti«^^ 
manders in the fleet feent out against France, to cleaf the' 
aea of French ships before Henry and his allies attacked^ 
France by land ; and he was seriously wounded by an ar^^ 
row in attempting to destroy the French fleet' at Brest,- 
Shortly after he attended king Henry at the siege of Toui<«>^ 
niay, where his bravery procured him the honour of kf^ight*'' 
hood, in 1520 he was vice*sLdmiral of 'England, and 'ehnf-' 
ployed in guarding the channel at the tiitae the emperor 
Charles V. came to England. He so ingratiated himself 
with his royal master that be obtained firom him, in 1'5£1/ 
^ grant of the manor of Navesby in Northampton^irej pisifi' 
of the possessions of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingw' 
ham, then lately attainted. At that time be was ambas-" 
sador in :France ; but, upon a rupture b^etween that king^'' 
dom and England, he was recalled, Jan. 1521-2, and or-*' 
dered to sea with a strong fleet of twenty-height sail, to" 
secure our merchants, and take what F«<ench ships b^* 
could. Shortly « after he assisted at the taking of Morlaii^i* 
in Bretagne; and witli sir William Sandes and sir Matt-»^ 
rice B^keley^ went and burnt Marguison, which was Tiewly ' 
built and fortified, and many \illages. In 1523, the king 
of France, preparing to send John duke of Albany, reg<$nt 
of Scotland, into that kingdom in order to invade Engtaud'- 
from that quarter, sir William was made admiral, and dis^ ' 
patched with a strong fleet to intercept - him. Having^: 
zni$8ed him, he landed on the French coast at Treport; in- 
Normandy, and burn^ the suburbs of that town and several 
ships in the harbour, though there were but 700 'English 
opposed to 6000 French. The year following, bein^ ^^" 
tain of Guisnes, in Picardy, he grently annoyed Boulogne, 
and.other places adjacent. Before the end of that year^be 
was made treasurer of the king's household; and in*0()to^; 
ber sent to France with Dr. JcAu Taylor,- a civilian^'^tt) sei^'' 
the lady regent (whose son^ . Francis I. was then prtsoM)?'' 
in Sfiain) swear to observe the articles of a treaty nearly* * 
concluded between the two crowns, in 1520 he was on^6t 
those who subscribed the articles exhibited in parliament 
against cardinal Wolsey. At the grand interview between-" 
the. kings of England and France, in i6$2, he attended fM' 
master Henry VIII, to Boulogne, the place of inter^iew^- 
betiveen many other pei^sons of the highest ^quality. *4ii . 
May 1535, he was sent with the duke of N.orfolk, the 
)>tsbo|> of Ely, and Dr. Fox, to treat witii the French I^nj^^ 

F a 't ^ W I L L 1 A W. UB 

CQ^ioaiftftioners about a league betvreeo the crowns of Engv 
land and Fratu^e ; one of tbe articles of wbitih was^ that tber 
^ke oi Aogoolecney third son to the king of France,' 
should marry EUzabeth, second daughter of king Henry* 
Shortly after, he was made knight of the garter^ and chan^ 
cellof 'of the duchy of Lancaster ; and in 1 536 constituted 
admiral of England, Wales, - Ireland, Normandy, GaScony^ 
and Aquitaine. On Oet. IS, 1537, he was advanced to 
th/q^ title of earl of Southampton, and made lord privy^seaL 
OpL 27, 1539. hi April following, some disputes having 
arts^ between England and France, he, with John Idrd 
Rumpel, lalely made high Admiral, were sent over to Calais* 
wiiiii a fevi' troops of horse, and returned quickly after exe-/ 
eujtiiig their orders. He was also employed as captain of 
the Foreward in ^the expedition' to Scotland, in Octobet 
1542^ but died in hi^ way thither^ -at NewoasUej' so muchi 
esl^emed^ that, in honour of hi» memory, his standard was^ 
borne in the van^ard in all. ih^t expeditions By his wiii 
beadtig date Sepi. 10, of the -same year, he ordered^ hit- 
body to be buried in the church of Midhurst/ in Sussex; 
He left no issue by Mabel to wife^ daughter to Hknry' 
lord Clifford, and sister to Henry first earl of Cumberland.' 
0f:his personal character it is only recorded. that there vrai^' 
not 41 serviceable man under Jiisr command whose naliaiel^! 
knew not ; not a week passed but he paid his ships- ; notfa' 
prise^.but his seamen' shared in a^ well as himself; 4Midir 
was bis opinion, that none fought wiU'but tfatosewhbdid''^ 
it'fof « fortune, which may be admitted, in some dieoMure/ 
if we consider that fortune and honours in the naval aild' 
military services are generally joined. ^ • 

FIXLMILLNER (Placidus), an eminent German a^trti^ ' 
nomer, was born May 28, 1721, at Achieiten, a village ^ 
in hither Austria, not far from Kremsmunster^' He received 
the rudiments of his education inf :th6 convent of Krems-*' • 
nmnster, which was indebted to bis unde the abbot, Alexu^ 
ander Fiximilloer, for an excellent school and an obser-* • 
vatocy. Plaeidus conceived an early attachment to th^* ^ 
mathematics, and took so much pleasure in delini^athig - 
mathematical figures, that bis mother, out of derisiori^^ 
called him the aliS^anack-maker. After some stay at^the- 
ahove seminary be removed to Salzburg, i/l4iere be com^' 
pleted bis. course of philosophy, and obtained in' ihal^ 

^$ ?vi K L KILL N;« iR3 

£a,ou}ty tb0 degve^ Qf doQtor. Hit tast^ Iqr ll^Q a^emii^om 
hPW9ver» be<:£^aie ^tiU stronger, liU father b»v^g ^sh^ 
hm Qip^ 4«^y wb»t present be shoMU givebi^i, bQ requa^^ 
tVoliT^ Epi^ioqae of tbe Mathematics i wbicb be^ludiecl 
Yfitik tbe gFe$uest pleasure and satisfaction duii|»g sacti 
baurs as .be ^o^ld spare from^ bis otber aTOcationa ^ bq^ 
baving destined himself for tbe coiiyentt be was admsttedi 
^ noviciate at Kremsmunsteri in 1797, and neicty^arba^ 
publicly took tbe vows before the abbot Alexandfir. ^ A^tei^ 
a stf^ of two years in the coDvei|t| he was sent again* to^ 
$a]aburg| to complete his; studies in JMrisprudeace' a|if| 
theology ; bat at the same time be applied witb^gifeat assi^ 
duity tp the matbematiosi languagef» bistoi^, and ^f)ti# 
%qities. He learned also to .jHay 9P the baipsicbQrd :an(i 
organ, and made so muoh progress in miisiq, tbat be QOmn 
posed aev^ral pieces, both in the sacred a^d ib^atribat^ 
n/tyle. He disputed in some tbeological tbes^ ^ and ii^ 
^1^5 returned to bis canveat» wdierebe waa<c<uuaecYatedt«r 
t)ti0 prie^bood. , 

4bout this tim^ tbe Ritterschule having b^^n^^tabli^bed; 
9X Kreinimunster, Placidus was appointed p^qfeiisor of 
canoU'^Jaw; a department in which be bad acqui^^-igy^ilt 
ri^putatioii at tbe university. Thi^ o^c^ be beld for f^y 
yean^ and resigned it only a ^bart time before: bia^ 
4ea^b- Almost abwt th^ same period he was apppim^i 
4^a9 pftbe higher icbeolf and scion aft^r priiydp^l aege^^ 
oy^r tbe young. oobiUty { .whieh pla^e^be retain^lt aMlpliUf^ 
bin deaAb. He possessed great knowledge ^ %^P i^s^w^- 
lfH9V> :mA e.n tbat.a«eount was often employed in pirpc^saseii 
and other affairs relating to tbe convent. He waa likeimn^ 
i^aeeibed ApostoUccd notary in tbe Roman cpbrl* ' 

In 1 1760 be published a tbeological wodk fatitiad ^^ tlm^^ 
P^Uc«» $acre^ Origiuea Diviass,'' but bi^..aaquiimi' fti^ 
txme celebrity by his astronouMeal labai|TSy< botb a^-a^^^i^^ 
sener and js writer. Tbe abbot Aleaiiinder Ftubuillwyifiiii 
great friend of tbe sciences, and particularly pf tb? matbe^^^ 
iDatica» having resolved in 17i7 to ftam ^9m eita bli s lif ie ^ l 
in kw convent for prgmeaing the btter». first s0i apart '^r- 
spacious room for eontainij^ naadiematical md pb^eaoH 
pbical iiistrttBiciit^ Tbi$ paved tbte way for aoffietlrii»|^' 
iiiftb^r j.aiid be determined^ for daia inpn^emant of b»r 
ofinveutuals in aatroaomy» to erect an observatory* Ai^ei^i 
those convents which* for a long time have devoted tbeir^ 
lejsnre aud riches to the ad vanceeiient of: science and 

Fl X L M I t L N E R* Ui 

gpodn^mnkind, none bat difltiiig^kb^ ktelf more thin 
tbfU of Kreaisaittn9.ter. ThU very old abbey is not ibe 
fleet of infidelity and indolence^ bnt a patron of the noblest 
branches of science. The observatory founded in 1748^ 
was^ completed in I7i8, and tbe superintendence of it waf 
intfusted to Eugenios Qobl^r, a brother of the order, 
. Alexander's foooeMori the abbot Berthold VogeU whoi 
long reaided al Salabuc^) as professor of canon law and 
rector of tbe university, being well acquainted with FixU 
milhuBT^ii great knowledge, particularly in the mathematics, 
eppointed him in 1763 to be astronomer at Kremstnunster,. 
with leave to retain his office a$ professor of cancm-law. 
He now applied with great aeal ley render himself more fit 
ferhianew occupation, as be had not yet attended mach* 
to practical astronomy, and waa even but little acquaintj^d 
with those hooks frooiwhi^h hetcould obtain information. 
on tbe subject His great altadiment, however, to this 
aeienoe, fipe genius, ^ and a dettre of being useful to the 
institution in which he resided, and to tbe world, made 
kiin overeome 'OVi^ry difficulty* The first book that fell 
ipto his hands was Laiande*s <^ Exposition du Calcul As*' 
ttenninique," with which alone, without any oral instruct* 
tioot he began to study and to make observations. This 
work, together with Vlaeq's Logarithmic Tables, were 
fte BtloQg time bis dnly aourcea and guides, till he at length 
ob^ined Lalande's large work en astronomy. Fortunately, 
a^ carpenler, John Hlinger, born in a^ village belonging to- 
the abbey, though he could neither read nor write, waa- 
able, under the direction of Fixlmillner, to construct for 
biip very neat mural quadrants, aenitfa aectors, trawrat in-' 
struments, and pendwkm clocks. Otheir ihstrufitehts'were^^ 
made for him by Bmnder, of Angsbnrgfa, and be procured 
aohromatie telescopes from Dellend ^ -so that by hiOs activity > 
the observaixKy at Kremsmunster soon became one of the 
flio^l celebrated, «nd/best supplied with apparatus in Gejr«^ 
maoyto ?* .' . • ' ■ -J 

FisUniUoer. now acquired ^ oonstderable rank ainong^ 
astroQom real writers* In 1765 he published his ** Meri« 
dianiw $pec«il» Aatron^ Creausanensis,'^ in which h^' 
eataUisbed tbe first ehMnents of bis - observatory, and de« } 
tefmined its longteude and latitude*' In 1776 he publilhed^ 
iiis' second nstfonemical work called ^^ Decenntuin astro** 
nomkiim^^' wbieh oowtaiaed the observations made by hitit 
at Kremsmnnster from l7.€^ 177^9 and which is replete 

8« FIX L M I L L KE It: 

i#ith important and useful information, .tlis third wbrk^ 
dfi whith' he was employed towards the close of his life^ 
and which was printed after his death, appeared in 1792. 
It contains a valuable collection of observations made be- 
tween 1776 and 1791y together with a great many calcu- 
lations and treatises, which still add to his celebrity in this 
depairtment. Besides these, many important articles writ- 
ten by him are to be found in the " Journal des SavanV*' 
ahd other literary journals and. meQK>irs. 

The important service rendered to the science of astro«>' 
nomy by Fixlmiliner, is well known to all astronomers. 
The great number of bis observations of Mercury at a time ' 
when they were rare and difficult to be made, epabled Lzr 
lande to complete his accurate tables of that planet, for 
\rbich the French astronomer publicly returned him thanks. 
Fixlmillner was one of the 6rst astronomers who observed 
th^ oAit of the newly-discovered planet Uranus. He was ' 
also the first who supported Bode^s conjecture, that Ibe 
Mar 34 in the Bull, observed by Flamsteed in 169Q, and 
i^rhich afterwards disappeared, was the new planet. Fixl- 
millner was a man of so great application and . activity, 
that he not only made observations, but- calculated them 
all himself, and deduced from them the necessary results* 
All bis observations, of whatever kind,. he calculated on' 
the spot; and to avoid errors, he always cs^lculated tbe^ 
a- second time. To uncommon industry be ^united great 
* penetration and deep reflection, as is proved by the msnoy 
e&cellent remarks and discoveries to, be found in his worbs. 
It^ must here be added, that this ' able astrpi>omer liv^ in 
a^remote part of the country, at a distance from all tite^ 
rliry helps, and from others who pursued the same; studies ; 
from every thing, indeed, that could anitnat^ bis seal; yet 
he continued to the last day of his life, a singular inst^ince 
of perseverance and attachment to his favourite 8:ti|^.' 
But few men were so little subject to the imperious^^pqwer 
of the passions. Simple in his manners, be possessed gfeat 
-equanimity and firmness, like the ii&muUible.laws of je^* 
ture which he studied. His wide extended cel^briiy 4id 
not render him proud; whatetei^ was wmtea or^aid in bis 
praise, he endeavoured rather to conceal than to publish. 
His close application at length impaired his health,, and 
brought on obstinate obstructions, which ended in a 4i&r- 
rhfipa. He died Aug. 27, 179 J, in the seventy-first year 

F I X L iM I L L N E R- Uf 

jof Fis age, the fifty-third of his residence in the convent; 
and the forty-sixth after his entering into the priesthooi^^ 

FIZES (Anthony), an eminent physician of MonV 
pellier, the son bf Nicholas Fizes, professor of matheinatiqs 
in that university, was horn in 1690, and at first educated 
by his father, who hoped that he would succeed Inm in the 
inathematical chair; but his disposition being more to tb^ 
study of medicine, his father sent him to complete his 
medical education at .Paris, under the tuition of 0u Ver- 
ney, Lemery, and the two messrs. De Jussieu. On b^s 
return to Montpellier, he employed . himself in observing 
diseases in the hospital de la Charity, and in public teach- 
ing. On the death of his father, he was appointed joint 
professor of mathematics with M. de Clapiers, apd sokm 
became his sole successor. In 1732, the medical pmfes- 
sorship in the university being vacaut by the resignation Qf 

'M. Deidier, Fizes was elected his successor. He. fulfilled 
the duties of this chair with great propriety, but was more 
highly distinguished as a practitioner. He appreqiated |it 
once the character of the most complicated disease; and 
was above all admired for the accuracy of his prognostics. 
These qualifications placed him at the head of his profes* 
sion at Montpellier ; his fame extended to the metropolis^ 
and he was invited to the office of physician to the duke of 
Orleans. His age was now, however, advanced ; and the 
fear of the jealousy which this high appoint(nent might 
produce among his brethren, led him to make some efforjta 
•to be permitted to decline this. honour* He removed, to 
f'aris, nevertheless ; but, unused to the intrigues and rail- 
leries and cabals of a court, he was unhappy in his situa- 
tion ; his health began to fail, and be was induced to re* 
quest permission to resign his office^ and returned. to 
-Montpellier, after residing fourteen months at Paris, ho* 

' noured with the protection of the prince, and the friendship 

^ of M. Senac, Astruc, Bordeu, &c. He was accused of a 
little misanthropy on this occasion ; but he was an enemy 
to adulation and selfishness, and seemed to revolt from 
every species of artificial politeness. He resumed the 
functions of his professorship at Montpellier but for a short 
period ; for he was carried off by a malignant fever in the 
courscf of three days, and died on August 14, 1765, aged 

> TiUoch's PliilQiophical ]tf«faclaei toL X. . j 

tBo '• ¥ i z E a 

about'^tft years. His works were prihcipalTy 
essays on diflferentpoints of theory and practice. 1. " Die 
Hominis Liene sano,'* Moiitpellier, 1716; 2. ** De natu- 
ral Secretione Bilis in Jecore," ibid* 1719 ; S. ^* Speciflien 
de Supptiratione in Parttbus mollibas," ibid. 1722 ; 4. 
^-* Partium Corporis liumani SoKdarutn 'Conspectu* Ana- 
tomico-Mechanicus/* ibid. 1729; 5. <* De Cataratrta;^* 
6. " UniversiE PhysiologiaB Cotispfectui/* ibid. 1737 ; ii" 
*• De Tuiuoribns in G«nere,^* ibid. 1738 ; 8. ** Ttactattrsi 
de Febribus,*' ibid. l749. The gineat^ part of the wtitShg* 
of Fizes were collected in one 4to Tolume^ and were pub- 
lished at Montpellier in 1742.* ' * 

FLACCUS (Caius VAtfiRius), was itn ancient Latiti 
poet, of whom our accounts ate very imperfect. Th«^ 
are many places that claim him, bot Setia, now Se2zo, W 
town of Campania, seems to have the best title ;' aftvd it is 
from thence that he bears the surname Setinits. . Martial^ 
who was bis contemporary and friend, intimated that bb' 
lived at Padua, or at least *ras born ther^, as may be cot* * 
lected from an epigratti in which he i^di^ses him to qint ^ 
the beggarly study of poetry, and to apply himself to thfe 
bar, as the more profitable profession of the two. H« dfeci 
when he was about thirty years of ag6, in the year l^i hr 
94, and before he bad pot the finishing band to tlie pcrein 
which he left. ^ .. , -t 

Flaccus ebose the histcvy of the Argonaiitic expedkiou 
fur the subject of bis poem ; of which he lited V6 compose > 
no more than seven bocdc^, and part of an eighth. It fis 
addressed to the emperor Vtespasian ; and F^actus t^k^s ; 
occasion at the same time to compliment Doittitian <m Ills ' 
poetry, and Titus on bis conquest of Judeea. Th6! leai^ned 
world have been divided in their opinion of fbfi authblr; ' 
some not having scrupled to^xfidtbitn abovb ttUHhc^Xiiitfb ^ 
poets, Virgil only excepted ; while others have t^'bidi Us '* 
much below them. Thfe^ poe<n of fh^ Argonamic ^p«f* * 
dition is an imitation, ratlier than a trani^lalion, tf the<5feHr : 
poet Apollonios, four booka of wh()^e poem upon the samb' 
subject are yet remaining ; and it has' generally been agreed 
that the Latin poet hassucfceeded besttnlfhosepatlis wbeffe-' 
'h6 had not the Greek in view. AjybHonius has 'by t^ 
means suffered where Flaccus has seemetl to translate 6iQ>> - 
none of his spirit having been lost in the tiiansfuston ; ^ffntt 

) Diet Hift«-^Ha»er BibL M^ THMt-:|teeS'^Cy<^Fttdis; irina Eloy. 

If LAC CUB. S5i 

t/m^ htiSt^ rttAsei him among i!bt few wbose copies fattv^ 
ttvaUed their^originds* Hte pfofe^sedly imitated Virgil, land 
is often tn^cessf^i. Upon the whole, he does not deservts 
to be liro neglected as he has been ; especially while othe^ 
poets of antiqaity have been thonght worthy of notite^ 
who ar6 not superior to him either for matter, styte, or vef- 
'sificatio^. Quintilian seems to have entertained the highest 
opinion of his merit, by the short eulogiom he has left of 
hint: " ttmitum in Virferio Flacco nup^r amirimus*'* After 
si^raral ^editiotis oJF iflii^ poet, with notes of the learn ed^ 
Nip. Heinstes published him at Amsterdam, in 1680, 
12m6; which edition was rept^blisfaed in the same srze, in 
170^^ But the h^st edition is that, ^ cum notis integfrs 
Tiidprirm & Petti Burmanni,'^ printed at Leyden, m 
1724, 4to. 

^ It ngi^y; be proper, to mention, that John Bapti^a PiuSy 
at) ]ta|isn poetj epmpl^ted the eightli book of the Argo* 
n^titijcsj arid, added two mote, by way of supplement, 
piu(fl^ly::6?0|n AppUcmius; which supplement was also printed 
a(.tbe^^n4 pf Fiac^us, in Aldus's edition of l^^3, and has 
^een ^ubjoin^.t^i i^ll^ or at least, most <of the subsequent 

jI'lACrUS. See FRANCO WirZ. 

.,J5,A8lEETy or 0-FJ.AHERTY (Ropfiiiic):, an IriA 
gentief'man of learning, Who had a considerable knowledge 
in,l^b|9^t49Wy.|Blpd antiquities of hUcpun wasborn in 
l€JQ,,.^^;JVioycullin,, cgu XJalway, the aticienft estate of his 
t^mify, vfbrcti tiecame forfeited by the rebellion in 1641, 
wh^/h€|, was .only eleven years old. He published at 
l^idot;^ 1^S$4 a boolt undet the fdngtAat and mystic title 
otff:iQgygi9Lf or Bertim Hibemicarum Chronologia,''' con- 
tsuilij^jQ^cflidiogkt^l memoir^ npon the antiqtrities of the 
k\ng<^9mr€^!:]reliU94; compiled, as he observjes, ^ &x, per«» 
v^fjCr^f )|^ i]|$|f%tx}^nti^ ^deliter int^r se collatis eruta, atque 
e.a9$rJ^^#i^0^^ts litterin primarum orbis gentrum, tatn 
g§|i4af)9gi(as| quam ;chr0no|ogiois sjiffuha pr^sidiis?' This 
worktr^^^^l^O Ifoltfnie, j(iontaining about 600*pages, he fiedi^ 
cajfted to/tliife .then dnke of York, afterwands king James It. 
df |ingl2tn<i> The fEtrtbor commences his history from the de- 
']qg^,C0ni;rnties1t to the year of Christ 4^S,and has divided it 
ifitto't^ree^arts. The first describes the island, its varions 
natQigs^ilthal^ttants^ extent, kings, the manner of therr annual 

election^ &c. The a kind of chronological paraltei 
of the Irish affairs, with the events that happenefd during the 
same period in other countries. The third is a more ample 
detail of particular transactions in the same kingdom. To 
this is added a professedly exact chronological table of all 
the Christian kings who have ruled over Ireland, fronl 
A. D. 482 till A. D. 1022 ; and a brief felation of the most 
prominent historic features of the island till the time of 
Charles II. in 1685. To this succeeds a chronological 
poem, which forms a summary of Irish history to the same 
period. At the end is a very curious catalogue of the 
Scottish kings, Irish, who have reigned in the British isles. 
In his genealogical remarks on the regal house of the 
Stewarts, the author attempts to prove they were origi- 
nally an Irish family. It is surprising that neither the au- 
thor nor his work has been noticed by Macpherson of 
Whitaker in their controversy respecting the peopling of 
Hibernia, and the origin of the Caledonians ; although 
he is particularly noticed by O'Hallaran in his History of 

Mr. O* Flaherty promised a second part, in which be 
intended to give an account at large of the Christian king^ 
of Ireland, but never accomplished it; although Harris 
mentions a report that it existed in ijpanuscYipt, in the 
bands of his relations, which probably was only a short ab- 
stract of annals from 1187 to 1327, which Nicolson says 
was extant in his time. He wrote also a treatise in vindi- 
cation of his " Ogygia" against the objections of sir George 
Mackenzie and others, which was intended for the press, 
but we know not that it ever appeared. Sir Richard Cox 
. only seems to speak slightingly of the " Ogygia," which 
is highly praised by Dr. Dudley Loftus, Belling, and Stil- 

FLAMEEL, or FLAMAEL (Bertholet), a painter of 
historical subjects, was born at Liege in 1614, and begaa 
his studies in Flanders, but at the age of twenty- four he went 
into Italy to cultivate his talents by a view o( the works of 
the renowned painters of that country. At Rome^ he 
copied the best works of the great masters, and soon ac- 
quired a reputation which recommended hitn to the court 
of Florence, to which the grand duke invited him, aiid 
there employed him in several works, the executioa of 

1 V^are*! Ireland^ by Harris.— -Nicolson'i HUt. Libr.— Re«i*s Cjdopiedia* 

•F L A M E E L. 353 

'Which acquired for him the esteem^ of that prince, and the 
\ applause of the public. In returning from hence home- 
wards, after an absence of nine years, he went to Paris, 
where some of his best works were executed. In 1647 he 
returned to Liege, where he was received with great 
warmth, and by his subsequent works confirmed the high 
. opinion which his countrymen had conceived of his merit. 
He then visited Paris again, was admitted a member of 
the academy of painting, and appointed professor. Re- 
turning home, he became rich enough to build a iiouse at 
St. Remi, which cost 50,000 florins. He also embraced 

}he clerical profession, and although he knew nothing of 
^atip, was made a canon of St. Paul, by a dispensation 
from the pope. But in the midst of wealth, possessed of 
publie and private esteem, and of every other circum- 
, 3tange that could render life comfortable, he was seized 
with an unaccountable melancholy and dejection of spirits, 
V^hich ince^antly oppressed him, till it occasioned his 
. d^^tb in 1675 ; and many persons believed his disorder to 
have been occasione(]l by poison administered to him by 
., the .celebrated marchioness de Brinvilliers, with whom he 
had formed an unfortunate connexion,, but for this there 
af^pear^ no proof, and his death seems more reasonabh'- 
attributed to his disordered mind. He appears indeed to 
liave given way to that selfish jealousy which some hav^ 
^ reckoned a .system of approaching derangement. When 
. one of his scholars, Carlier, had begun to give extraordi- 
nary proofs of excellence .in his art, Flameel did every 
thing he could to discourage him, aud actually transferred 
^him-tQ a grinder of colours. Carlier, however, conscious 
of hi:* a^bilitiea, secretly painted ** the Martyrdom of St. 
Denis^'' whicji was placed in the church dedicated to' that 
saint ; and Flameel bad n6 sooner seen it, than he. threw 
his pencil into the fire, and never painted more. 

This master had a lively imagination, and a noble taste 
for historical compositiojos. He was singularly skilled in 
fLntjquities, and in all bis de.signs strictly observant of the 
.cpstviaie.' His pictures usually are enriched with porticos 
and. colonnades, as he was an accomplished architect; his 
.di^oice of nature was elegant, his expression animated, 
4iDd his pencil delicate. His coloirring was exceedingly 
good; and bis, taste of design was entirely of the Roman 
school, as well in regard to correctness, as to the objects 
wjbj^h h^ chose to represent. In the cupola of the bare-* 
Vol. XIV, A a 

i5i t L AM EEL. 

footed Carmelites at Paris, be painted, in fresco, Elijah 
ascending to Heaven in a Chariot of Fire, and Elisba be- 
low, with bis arnas extended, to catch the mantle of the 
Prophet. At Liege are several grand altar-pieces, among 
which one in St. PauPs church describes the Conversion of 
that saint ; and in the cathedral there is another by this 
master, representing the Resurrection of Lazarus, ^ 

FLAMEL (Nicholas), falsely celebrated as au a1cby*> 
mist, under which supposition some forged works have 
been attributed to him (as, ^* A Philosophical Summary,'* 
in verse, 1561, and a treatise *^ On the Transformation of 
Metals,'* in 1621), was a native ofPontoise, towards the 
close of the fourteenth century, and exercised tlie profe&r 
sion of a notary at Paris. He began life without any 
fortune, but suddenly became rich, which occasioned the 
fupposition that he had found the grand secret. He made^ 
however, no other use of his riches than in relieving the 
distressed, founding hospitals, and repairing places ot dU 
vine worship. To account for this sudden wealth iii » 
more probable way, it has been said, that be bought up 
the debts owing to the Jews when they were expelled in 
1394, and made great profits by the contracts. Tbis„ 
however, has been refuted, and the truth perhaps is, that 
he made his money by a profound knowledge of commerce^ 
at a time when men in general were ignorant of its princi- 
ples. He died at Paris, March 22, 1418. He and hi» 
wife Pernelle have been the subject of some curious in* 
quiries at Paris, where they pretended to have found hiji 
alchemical apparatus. Paul Lucas, a ^borough traveller^ 
asserted that he had heard of him alive in India, long aftef 
his real decease. In the " Essais sur Paris," by M, Su 
Foix, there are many particular^ of Flamel, also in th^ 
** Hermippus Redivivus," London, 1749, second edit. aQ4 
in the *• Varieties of Literature,'' 1795, 8va" 

FLAMINIQ, or FLAMINIUS (Mark Anthony), an 
eminent Latin poet, whose family name was Zarrabini, 
tras born at Serevalle in 1498. His father, John Anthony, 
K^ho -first changed the family name to Flaminio on entering 
^ literary society^ at Venice, was himself a man of learnings 
And professor of belles-lettres ii\ different academies iii 
Italy, and has left some works both in prose and verse, par* 

1 Pilkington.<— Argenrille, toI. III.«— Biogr. Unlvenelle io Berthokt. 
• Moreri._Dict. HmU— << Hist. CriU de Nic. FImmI," Vwb, 1161, 
tsolber Life wai published at Parii in 1 7Sa» 

» - 

* • * 

ticokfly twelve books of letters, in tvhicli are many partl- 
GuUrs of literary history. He bestowed great pains on the in- 
kruction of bis son, and sent him, when attheageof sixteen^ 
tto Rome, with a poem addressed to Leo X. exhorting hioi 
to make war against the Turks, and a critical work entitled 
'* Annotationum Sylvse.-' Leo appears to have been so 
pleased with the appearance of young Flaminio, as to re-, 
quest that he might remain at Rome, promising to encou- 
rage his studies there; but although this did not take place, 
in his after-visits to Rome, the pope patronized him with 
great liberality, and Flaminio answered every expectatloa 
that had been formed of his talents. In 1515 be accom- 
panied the count Castiglione to Urbino^ where he resided 
some months, and was held in the highest esteem by that 
accomplished nobleman for his amiable qualities and great 
endowments^ but particularly for his early and astonishing 
talents for Latin poetry. In this year be published at Fano^ 
the first specimen of his productions, with a few poems of 
Maruilus, not before printed, in a very rare volume in 
Syo. entitled, ^^ Michaelis Tarchaniotee Marulli Nenia^. 
Ejusdem epigramtnata nunquam alias impressa. M. An« 
tbnii Flaminii carininum libellus. Ejusdem Ecloga Tbyrsis.'* 
Of ihese poems some have been printed, often with varia- 
tions, in the subsequent editions of his works ; but several 
pieces appear there which are not to be found in the edi- 
tion by* Mancurti^ published at Padua, by Comino, in 1727, 
which is considered as the most complete; whence it is 
probable this early publication of Flaminio was not known 
to Kis editors. - 

After this, Flamirtio was removed by his father to Bologna 
for the study of philosophy, after which he returned again 
to Rome, and formed an intimacy with the most illustrious 
scholars of that city. Without devoting himself to any pro- 
fession, he for some years attached himself tp the car(hnal 
d^ Saiili, and after bis death resided with the prelate Ghi* 
berti, eithei^ at Padua, 6r at his see of Verona, where he 
secured the friendship of Fracastorius and Naugerius^ a 
friendship of the most generous and disinterested kind, aj^ 
appears from many passages in their writings. About ;53S 
he went to Naples in consequence of a long indisposition, 
add by relaxation from his studies, recovered his former 
health, and repaired to Viterbo, where cardinal Pole then 
reMed as pontifical legate, and honoured Flaminio by the 
ipost fijendly intimacyr He also accompanied the ca^diiv^ 

▲ ▲2 

356 J? L A M 1 N 1 O. 

to the council of Trent, but refused the office of sedr^taty 
to this council, and by this refusal, a$well as by other parts 
of his conduct, and a certain liberality of sentiment dis- 
played in some of his writings, gave rise to suspicions that 
he was inclined towards the opinions of the reformers^ 
Whether this was actually the case has been a subject of 
dispute among his biographers ; but that he was suspected 
Ascertain, for his writings were for some time prohibited 
in the Index Expurgatorius of the Roman church. Those 
who feel an interest in the question may consult Schelhor-. 
nius^ dissertation on the subiect in his *^ Amcenitates Hist. 

ccles/' and compare it with Tiraboschi's answer, who. 
after being obliged to admit that Flaminio had embraced 
the opinions of the reformers, informs us that he was re- 
called to his former faith by cardinal Pole. And anotbec 
account says, that cardinal Caraflfa (afterwards Paul IV.) . 
attended him on. his death-bed. His death, which hap- 
pened at Home in 1350, was lamented by all the learned? 
of his time, and he appears to have deserved their highest 
encomiums. His poems place him in the first rank of the 
Latin school. Most of his poems are in the ^* Carmina 
quinque illustrium poetarum;'*' but the scarce editions of 
his works are, 1. ^^ M. Ant. Flaminii in Librum Psalmorum 
brevis explaiiatio,"' Venice, 1545, 8vo. 2. ^* Epistoles .ali* 
quot de veritate doctrinse erudite et sanctitate religionis, ia 
Latinum veterem sermonem conversse, ex Italico hodiemo, 
necnon narrationes de Flaminio,'' &c. Noriberg. 1571, 8vo. 
S. '^ M. A. Flaminii Carmina sacra, quas extant omnia^ 
hoc modo nunquam hactenus edita,'' &c. Rostock, 1578^^ 
8vo. There is an edition of his works, with those of his 
father, by Maucurti, mentioned before, which. was re- 
printed in 1743. ' 

FLAMSTEED (John), a very eminent English astrond* 
mer, was born of reputable parents at Denby in Derby- 
shire, Aug. 19, 1646. He was educated at the free-school 
of Derby, where his father lived ; and at fourteen was. 
visited with a severe fit of sickness, which being folIo#id. 
by other distempers, operating upon a very delicate <sot^ . 
stitution, prevented his going to the university^ as was 
designee!. He was taken from school in 1662, and. within 
a month or two after had Sacrobosco^s bool^ ''De Sphsra,^ 

■ Tiraboschi.— Koscoe'8 Leo.— Gresweli'i Politiui.-«Clein«Bt £ibl. Cti.rie«iMa 
*— ^iSaxii OBemast, . 

t L A M S T E E D. 351 

put into his hand, which he set himself to read without any 
ilirector. This accident, and the leisure that attended it, 
laid the groundwork of all that mathematical and astrono-- 
Tiucal knowledge, for whic'h he became afterwards so justly 
celebrated. He had already pemsed a great deal of 
history, ecclesiastical, as well as civil: but astronomy was 
entirely new to him, and he found great pleasure io iti 
Having translated as much from Sacrobosco, as he thought 
necessary, he proceeded to make dials by the direction of 
such ordinary books as he could get together ; and having 
changed a volume of astrology, found among his father's 
books, for Mr. Street's Caroline Tables, he undertook to 
calculate the places of the planets, but found very little 
help from that concise author. 

Having, however, calculated by these tables an eclipse 
of the sun, which was to happen June 22, 1666, he im- 
parted it to a relation, who shewed it to Mr.. Halton of 
Wingfield manor in Derbyshire, a good mathematician, as 
appears from some pieces of his, in the appendix to 
Foster's ** Mathematical Miscellanies.'* He came to se^ 
Flamsteed soon after; and finding he was not acquainted 
with the astronomical performances of others, he sent him 
Riccioli's "Almagestum Novum," and Kepler's "Tabu- 
lae Rudolphinas," to which he was before a stranger. He 
prosecuted his astronomical studies from this time with all 
imaginable vigour and success. In 1669, he collected 
sOme remarkable eclipses of the fixed stars^ by the moon, 
wliich would happen in 1670, calculating them from the 
Caroline Tables ; and directed them to lord Brouncker, 
president of the royal society. This produced very good 
effects ; for his production being read before that society, 
was so, highly approved, that it procured him letters of 
thanks, dated Jan. 14, 1669-70, from Oldenburg their 
secretary, and from Mr. John Collins, one of their mem- 
bdfs, with whom he corresponded several years. These 
Jitters were in the hands of William lones, esq. F. R. S. 
father of the celebrated sir Willi?tm Jones. Extracts froiu. 
them are given in the " Biographia Britannica." 
' From this time he began to have accounts sent him of 
ajll the mathematics^l books which were published at home 
or^ abroad ; and in June 1670, his father, who had hitherto 
discountenanced his studies, taking notice of his corre^ 
spondence with several ingenious men whom he had never 
seen^ advised him to go to London, that he mi^bt be per:* 

ii$ f L AM 3 T £ £ D. 

sonally acquaiiued with them. ]9e gls^ly embraced this 
offer, and visited Oldenburg apd Collins ; and they introi- 
duced him to sir Jonas Moore^ who presented him with 
Townley^s micrometer, and undertook to procure him 
glasses for a telescope, at a moderate rate. At Cambridge, 
he visited ^^rrow, Newton, and Wroe^^ then fellow of 
Jesus- college, of which he also entered himself a student- 
In the spring of i672, be extracted several observations 
from Gascoigne's and Crabtree's letters, wbich had n<rt 
been made public, and translated them into Latin. He 
finished the transcript of Gascoigne's papers in May ;« and 
spent the remainder of th^ year in making observations, 
^nd in preparing advertisements of the approaches of the 
moon and planets to the fixed stars for the following year. 
These were published in the " Philosophical Transactions,** 
with some observations by the same author op the pla^neta* 
In 1673 he wrgte a small tract, in English, concerning the 
true and apparent diameters of all the planets, when at 
their nearest or remotest distances from xhe earth ; which 
.^ract he lent to Newton in 16S5, who made use of it in 
the fourth book of his ** Principia.'! 

In 1673-4, he wrote an Ephemeris, to shew the falsity of 
astrology, and the ignorance of those chat pretended tait; 
und gave a table of the mOon^s rising and setting cafefqUy 

. calculated, together with the eclipses and appulses of tbj^ 
moon and planets to the fixed stars. This fell into th^ 
hands of sir Jonas Moore, for whom he made a table of the 
nioon*s true southings ifor that year; from \vhich> and 
Philips's theory of the tides^ the high waters being made^* 
he found that they shewed the times of the Jturr^ of the 
tides very nearly, whereas the common seaman's coar^j^ 
rules would err sometimes two or three hours. In 1674, 
passing through London in the way to Cambridge, sir 

• Jonas Moore int'ovmed him, that a true account of th^ tide« 
would be highly acceptable to the king ; upoa which be 
composed a small ephemeris for his maj^esty's use. Sir 
Jonas had heard him often discourse of the barometer, aud 
the certainty of judging ftf the weather by it, from a long 
series of observations he had made upon it ; and now r^ 
quested of him to construct for him one of these glasses^ 
which he did, and left hlui materials foir making u^ore^ 
Sir Jonas highly valued this barometer; and me^tioi^iug it 
as. ^ cur^sity 4a the king aud duke of York, hfi was ordered 

r L A M S T E E D. I5» 

4a exhibit it the tiext day, which he did, together with 
Flamsteed's directions for judging of the weather from its 
rising or falling. Sir Jonas was a great friend to our au^ 
thor ; had shewn the king and duke his telescopes and mi- 
crometer before : and, whenever he acquainted them with 
'any thing which he had gathered from Flamsteed's dis- 
course, he told them frankly from whom he had it, and 
recommended him to the nobility and gentry about the 

Having taken his degree of master of arts at Cambridge^ 
he designed to enter into orders, and to settle on a small 
living near Derby, promised to him by a friend of his 
father's. In the mean time, sir Jonas Moore, having no- 
tice of his design, wrote to him to come to London, whi* 
^her he returned Feb. 1674t5. He was entertained in the 
house of that gentleman, who had other views for serving 
him, but Flamsteed persisting in his resolution to take 
orders, he did not dissuade him from it. March, follow- 
ing, sir Jonas brought him^a warrant to be the king^g 
astronomer, with a salary of iOO/. per annum, payable out 
of the office of ordnance, to commence from Michaelmas 
before ; which, however, did not abate his inclinations for 
orders, so that at Easter following he was ordained at Ely<^ 
bouse by bishop Gunning, who ever after con vei*sed freely 
with him, and particularly upon the new philosophy and 
opinions, though that prelate always maintained the old. 
August 10, 1675, the foundation of the royal observatory 
at Greenwich was laid*; and during the building of it* 
Fiamsteed lodged at Greenwich ; and his quadrant ana 

* The foundation of the observatory dnced from thenit fbr want of toor% 
owed its origin to the foUowinf circum- '* txact tables of the ntoon, and mor« 

•tancesj M. de St. Pierre, a Frenchman, correct places of the fixed stars, than 

who came to Lendon in 1675, having Tycho's observations, made with plaid 

demanded a reward from Charles II, sight, afforded. This being made knowlt 

for his discovery of a method of fint^ing to the king, he declared that his pilots 

th« longitude by the moon's distance and sailors should not want such an 

from a star, a commission was appoint- assistance. He resolved, therefore, to 

ed to examine into his pretensions, foand an observatory, for the pqrposo 

Flamsteed, who was appointed one of of ascertaining the motions of the moon, 

the commissioners, furnished St. Pierre and the places of the fixed stars, as m 

with certain data of obsecvation by raeaua of discovering that great d«f U 

which to calculate the longitude of a deratum, the longitude at sea ; an4 

iriven place. This he was unable to Flamsteed, who was recommended to 

do ; but excused himself by asserting his majesty by sir Jonas Moore, wat 

•that the data were failse: Flamsteed appointed astronomer royal, and tbo 

contended that they were true, but al- observatory, from him, has acquired 

lowed that QOtbiug certain could be de*> the name of Flamsteed house. 

360 F L A M S T E E D. 

telescopes being kept in the queen^*s house there, he oh« 
served the appulses of the moon and planets to the fixed 
stars. In 1681, bis "Doctrine of the Sphere" was pub- 
lished in a posthumous work of sir Jonas Moore, entitled^ 
" A new System of the Mathematics," printed in 4to. 

About 1684, he was presented to the living of Burstow, 
near Blechingley, in Surrey, which he held as long as he 
lived. He was, indeed, very moderately provided for, yet 
seems to have been quite contented, aspiring after nothing 
but knowledge, and the promotion of the sciences. This, 
however, as it raised him to the notice of the world, and 
recommended him to royal favour and protection, likewise 
procured him the friendship and confidence of some of the 
most illustrious persons for scientific pursuits; such as sir 
Isaac Newton, Dr. Halley, Mr. Molineux of Dublin, Dr. 
Wallis, Cassini, &c. He shewed the same assiduity in 
labouring for the improvement of astronomy, after this 
moderate provision was made for him, as he did before ; 
which appears from the numberless papers addressed by 
him to the secretaries of the royal society, many of which 
are printed in the Philosophical Transactions. He spent 
the latter, as he had done the former part of his life, in 
promoting true and useful knowledge; and died of a 
strangury, Dec. 31, 1719. Though he lived to above 73 
years of age, yet it is remarkable, that he had from his 
infancy a peculiar tenderness of constitution ; and in a let- 
ter to Mr, Collins, March 20, 1670-71, he says, that " he 
shall scarcely have time to transcribe, and fit his papers 
for the press, partly, because his occasions, but more fre- 
quently his distempers, withdraw and detain him from his 
pen-endeajvours. For the spring," says he, " coming on, 
my blood increases, which, if I should not exercise 
strongly, I should spit up, or receive into my stomach, 
with great detriment to my health.'^ He was married, but 
had no children. 

His great work, and that which contained the main ope- 
rations of his life, was the " Historia Ccelestis Britannica," 
published in 1725, in 3 large folio volumes. The first of 
which comains the observations of Mr. William Gascoigne, 
the first inventor of the method of measuring angles in a 
telescope by means of screws, and the first who applied 
telescopical sights to astronomical instruments, taken at 
Middleton, near Leeds in Yorkshire, between the years 
1638 and 1643 ; extracted from his letters by Mr. Crab- 

F L A M S T E E D. Sei 

.tree s with some of Mr. Crabtree's observations about the 
same time ; and also those of Mr. Fiamsteed himself, made 
at Derby between the years 1670 and. 1675; besides a 
muhitude of curious observations, and necessary tables to 
be used with them, made at the Royal Observatory, be- 
.tween the years 1675 and 1689. — ^The 2d volume contains 
his observations, made with a mural arch of near 7 feet 
radius, and 140 degrees on the limb, of the meridional 
zenith distances of the fixed stars, sun, moon, and planets, 
with their transits over the meridian ; also observations of 
the diameters of the sun and moon, with their eclipses, 
and those of Jupiter's satellites, and variations of the com- 
pass, from 1689 to 1719 : with tables shewing how to ren- 
der the calculation of the places of the stars and planets 
easy and expeditious. To which are added, the mpon^s 
place at her oppositions, quadratures, &c. ; also the pia« 
nets' places, derived from the observations. — The 3d vo- 
lume contains a catalogue gf the right-ascensions, polar« 
distances, longitudes, and magnitudes of near 3000 fixed 
stars, with the corresponding variations of the same. To 
this volume is prefixed a large preface, containing an ac- 
count of all the astronomical observations made before his 
time, with a description of the instruments emplo3^ed ; as 
also of his own observations and instruments; with a new 
Latin version of Ptolemy's catalogue of 1026 fixed stars; 
and Ulegh-beig's places annexed on the Latin page, with 
the corrections : a small catalogue of • the Arabs : Tycho 
Brahe's of about 780 fixed stars : the Landgrave of Hesse's 
of 386 : Hevelius's of 1534: and a catalogue of some of 
the southern fixed stars not visible in our hemisphere, cat- 
culated from the observations made by Dr. Halley at St. 
Helena, adapted to the year 1726. 

This work he prepared in a great measure for the press, 
with much care and accuracy ; but through his natural 
weakness of constitution, and the decline of age, be died 
before he had finished it, leaving the care of finishing and 
publishing his work to his friend Mr. Hodgson. A less 
perfect edition of the " Historic Coelestis" had before been 
published, without his consent, viz. in 1712, in 1 vol. 
folio, containing his observations to 1705. Thus then, as 
X)r. Keil observed, our author, with indefiuigable pains, 
for more than forty years watched the motions of the stars, 
and has given us innumerable observations of the sun, 
mooa, and planets, which he made with very large instru- 


snents, accurately divided, and fitted with telescopic sights; 
whence we may rely much more on the observations he 
has made, than on former astronomers, who made their 
observations with the naked eye, and without the like as- 
sistance >of telescopes. 

Of his personal character we are only told that he was 
a man of warm passions, but of great good nature and hu<- 
jnpur, and associated with some of -the wits of his day.^ 

FLATMAN (Thomas), an English poet, was born in 
Aldersgate-street, London, about 1633; and educated at 
Winchester schooL He went from thence to New col- 
lege, in Oxford ; but leaving the university without a de- 
gree, he removed to the Inner Temple, where in due time 
he became a barrister. It does not appear that he ever 
followed the profession of the law ; but^ having a turn for 
the fine arts, he indulged his inclination, and made some 
proficiency, both as a poet and a painter. He speaks of 
himself as a painter, in a poem called ^^ The Review/' and 
it appears from thence, that he drew in miniature. The 
third edition of his poems, with addition^ and aniend- 
mentSy was published by himself, with his portrait before 
Ihem, in 1682, and dedicated to the duke of Ormond. 
The first poem in this collection is, ^^ On the Death of the 
right honourable Thomas earl oft Ossory," and had beeti 
published separately the year before^ Soon after, it was 
read by the duke of Ormond his father, who was so ex* 
tremely pleased with it, that he sent Flatman a mourning 
ring, with a diamond in it worth 100/. He published also 
in 16S5, two Pindaric odes; one on the death of prince 
Kupert, the other on the death of Charles II. 

In 1660, came out, under the letters T. F« a collection 
of poems, entitled " Virtus Rediviva ; a Panegyric on the 
late king Charles the First, of ever blessed memory," &c« 
but these not being reprinted in any edition of his *' Poems," 
Wood will not affirm them to be Flatman 's. In 1661, was 
published a piece in prose, entitled ^^-Don Juan Lamberto^^ 
or a Comical History of the late Times,'? with a wooden 
cut before it, containing the pictures of giant Desborough 
with a great club in his right hand, and of Lambert, both 
leading under the arms the meek knight Richard Crom^ 
lyeli ; and this being very successful, a second part was 

" ^ Biog. Brit — ^Whiston's Life. — LysoDs's Eavirons, rol. IV. — Ward'E Gff* 
sham Prof«ssors.^-{ilartiu's Biog. PtulQ86phic«,->-HuttQ&'t Dictiooaiy. 

F L A T M A N. 36^5 

.publishecl the same year, with the giant Husonio before 
it, and printed with the second edition of the first. This 
.satirical work has to it the disguised name of Montelion, 
knight of the oracle; but Wood says, the acquaintance 
and contemporaries of Flatman always averred him to be 
the author of it. Montelton's Almanack came out in 1660, 
.1661, 1662. The Montelions of the two last years are 
supposed to be Flatman^s, that of the first was written by 
Mr. John Philips. It is remarkable, that Flatman, in his 
younger days had a dislike to marriage, and made a son^ 
describing the incumbrances of it, with this beginning : 

«' like a dog with a bottle tied close to his tail, 
like a tory in a bog, or a thief in a jail/* &c. 

But being afterwards, according to Wood, ^* smitten with 
m fair virgin, and more with her fortune, he espoused her 
in 1672; upon which,*' says the same author, '< his inge- 
aious comrades did serenade him that night with the said 
song.'* He died at his house in Fleet-street, London, in 
1688; his Either, a clerk in chancery, being then alive» 
and in his eightieth year. Although of very little value as 
^, poet, he succeeded better as a painter, and as Granger 
says, one of his heads is worth a ream of his Pindarics.' 

FLAVEL (John)^ a very popular nonconformist divine^ 
was bom in Worcestershire abotit 1627, and educated at 
University^college, Oxford, where he took his degree of 
B. A. In 1650 he settled as assistant minister to Mr. Wal- 
plate, rector of Diptford, in Devonshire, and shortly after 
succeeded to the rectory, which, however, in 1656 he re* 
signed to become minister of a very populous parish at 
Dartmouth, thougU the stipend in this situation was much 
less. In 1662, when ejected with the other nonconformists, 
he oceasionaily preached and administered the sacrament 
privately till the passing of the Oxford act, in 1665, when 
he was obliged to retire to Slapton, a village five miles 
ffom Dartmouth, where also he sometimes preached when 
be could do it with safety, and sometimes when his safety 
was endangered^ In 1685, the mob was excited against 
him, and would probably have destroyed him, had he fal- 
len into their hands. He then came to London, where he 
narrowly escaped being apprehended, but returning to 
Dartmouth, when in 1687 king Jfames granted more liberty* 
to nonconformists, Mr. FlavePs congregation immediately 

y Atii« Ox. vo>. ^.--Nidiole's Poem«.*— Walp^le't Asec^otis; 

364 . T L A V E L. 

obtained for him a large place, in which he was ena1>lea 
to exercise his ministerial functions ; and by the revolution 
in 1688, he enjoyed complete liberty. He died at Exeter 
in 1691, in his sixty-fourth year, having long possessed^ 
in an eminent degree, the respect and esteem of all good 
men. He was a man of exemplary piety, and his various 
works are still in considerable popularity, and are regarded 
by those who hold Calvinistic sentiments. They were col- 
lected after his death, in 2 vols, folio, and have been since 
often printed in 6 vols. 8vo.* 

FLAVIAN, patriarch of Antiocb, in the fourth century, 
was a man* of illustrious birth, and still superior virtues, 
and was placed on the patriarchal throne during the life 
of Paulinus. This election being co^ifirmed by the council 
of Constantinople in the year 382, was the origin of a 
schism, which was terminated by the prudence of Flavian, 
and the death of bis rival, Paulinus. After this, he 
evinced his zeal for orthodoxy by prosecuting the Arians, 
and he expelled the Messalian heretics from his dipcese. 
When the inhabitants of Antiocb, vexed at a new tax im^ 
posed to celebrate the tenth year of the emperor's reign, 
had proceeded to various acts of optrage, particularly 
against the statues of the emperor and empress, Flavian 
interceded with Theodosius for them, and obtained their 
pardon by his eloquence. This happened in the year 387. 
He died in the year 404, after having been patriarch thir- 
teen years. He wrote some epistles and homilies, of which 
fragments only remain. * 

FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople in the fifth cen - 
tury, succeeded Proclus in that dignity, in the year 447 ; 
and although Chrysaphius, favourite of the younger Theo* 
dosius, wished to drive him from his see, Flavian despised 
his menaces. In his time arose the Eutychian heresy,, 
which he condemned in a synod held at Constantinople. But^ 
the partisans of Eutyches condemned and deposed Flavian 
in the year 449, in the council called <* Latrocinium Ephe- 
sinum,** or " Conventus Latronum," the '* Assembly of 
fiLobbers." Dioscurus bishop of Alexandria, was placed 
at the head of this council by Theodosius, who carried 
matters with such violence, that Flavian was . personally 
mal-treated, publicly scourged, and banished to. Hypsspa,. 

* Calamy. — ^Ath. Ox. vol* 11.— JLife prefixtd to h's Works. — Prot Diw. 
vol. XL and ill. ^ Ciive.i*>Dupm,-^Iureru 


in Lydia, where he died soon after, in consequence of this 
scandalous usage. Before his death he appealed to Leo, 
and this appeal produced another council, in which Eu« 
tyches was condemned, and the savage Dioscorus deposed. 
Flavian was the author of *^ Two Letters*' to pope Leo, 
which are printed in the fourth volume of the ** Collectio 
Conciliorum^*' and of a <^ Declaration of Faith delivered* 
fo the emperor Theodosius.*' ^ 

FLAVIGNI (Valerian de), a learned doctor of the 
house and society of the Sorbonne,, was born in the dio^ 
cese of Loan. He took a doctor's degree in 1621, and 
was canon of Rheims, and Hebrew professor at the royal 
college, in 1630. In 1656 he was promoted to be dean 
of the college royal, and died April 29, 1674, in the Sor-^ 
bonne. Flavigni assisted M. le Jay in the'Polyglott Bible, 
and wrote against Abraham Echellensis, in bis ** £pistol» 
de Heptaplis Parisiensibus," the most important of his 
works^ He also left the defence of a thesis he had signed, 
in which it was asserted that episcopacy was not a distinct- 
sacrament from the priesthood. This apology was printed 
at Tour nay, 1668, 4to, 128 pages. His style is said to 
bave been as violent as his temper. * 

FLAVIO, or FLAVIUS BLONDUS, an Italian anti- 
f]tiary and historian,- was born at Forii, in 1388. We have 
only a very slight account of his early years, but he ap^ 
pears td have been young when he was sent to Milan by 
bis fellow-citizens to negociate some affairs for them. In 
1434 he was secretary to pope Eugene IV. in which office 
be served three of the successors of that pontiff, but was not 
always with them. He travelled much through various 
parts of Italy, studying carefully the remains of antiquity. 
He died at Rome, in 1463, leaving three sons well edu- 
cated^ but without any provision, his marriage having . 
prevented him from rising in the church. His long re- 
sidence at Rome inspired him with the design of publishing^ 
an exact description of all the edifices, gates, temples, 
and other remains of ancient Rome, which then existed as 
jTuins, or had been repaired. This he executed in a work, 
entitled ** Rom» instauratae lib. III.'' in which he displays 
great learning, as he did in his ^^ RomoB triumpbantis, lib. 
X/* in which he details the laws, government, religion, 

ceremonies, sacrifices, military state, and wars of the 


t CaTe.«-Mtreri«^Saxii OnomMt. 9 Qen. Dict-rMoreri. 

»«« F L A V I O. 

•ncieiil republic. Anofcher ^borate vfoA from kis pi^n, Mrmi 
bis ^^ Italia illustrata)** or ancient state of Italy ; add he 
published also a biatory of Venice, ^* De origine et gestis 
Venetorum." At bis death be bad tnade some progress in 
a general history of Rome from its decline to his own tirae^^ 
the mangscript of which is in the library of Modena. Hi» 
style is far from elegant, nor are bis facts always correct ; 
but be has the merit of paving the way for future antiqna-^ 
ries, who have been highly indebted to his reseifrrches. 
A collection of bi» works was published at Basil, in 1 531.^ 

FLAUST (John B^^^iste). If a. man deserves to be 
celebrated who employs fifty years on one work^ the name 
of Flaust should not be omitted. He was an advo^ite iir 
the parliament of Rouen, and his great work was entitled 
'* Explication de la Jurisprudence et de la codtnme de 
Normandije, dans une ordre simple et facile.^' *^ Expli- 
cation of the Jurisprudence and Usage of Normandy, ki an 
easy and simple order." In 2 \o\^ folio. He died in 1783, 
M the age of seveiUy-two. * 

FLECHIER (Esprit), the celebrated bishop of Nismes, 
distinguished equally for elegant learning, abilities, and. 
exemplary piety, was born June 10, 16S2, at^Perne, near 
Avignon, in Provence, and educated in the study of li- 
terature and virtue under bis uncle Hercules Audiffretr 
After the death of this relation, who was principal of the 
CQ^igregation styled J)e Id Doetrine ChrHiemUj Ite ap^ 
peared at Paris, about 1659, where be was soon distin- 
guished as a man of genius, and an able preacher. A de- 
scription of a carousal, in Latin verse, which, notwithstand- 
ing the difficulty of a subject unknown to the ancients, was 
pure and classical, first a^racted the pubtic admiration; 
It was published in 1669, in folio^ and entitled 5< Cui^us 
Regius,*' and has since been included in bis miscellaneous 
works. His funeral orations completed the fame which 
bis sermons bad begun. He bad pronounced one at Nar* 
bonne, in 1659, wben professor of rhetoric there, on the 
bishop of that city, but this is not extant. The first of 
those that are published, was delivered in 1672, at tbe 
funeral of madam de Montauster, whose husband bad be* 
come bis patron and friend. He soon rose to be the rival 
of Bossuet in this species of* eloquence^ Bis oration on 

> TirabofcU.--Gi8gtten4 Hiit lit. d'ltalie, ^ toI. HI.— Dupiik— Morari I» 
lUondus, s Pict Hist. i 

F L E C H I E R. Sfif 

Jaareschal Tarenne, pronounced in 1676,^9 esteemed the 
most perfect of these productions ; it excited at once the 
liveliest regret for the deceased hero, and the highest ad» 
miration of the orator. The la^t oration in the collection 
^ust have agitated bis feeUngs as well as exercised bit 
talents, for it was in honour of his well-tried friend the 
duke of Montausier^ who died in 1690. In 1679 he pub^ 
lished his history of the emperor Theodosius the Great, the 
only part that was ever executed, of a plan to instruct the 
dauphin, by writing for him the lives of the greatest Chris- 
tian princes. The king, after having testified his regard 
for him by giving him the abbey of S. Severin, »nd the office * 
q£ almoner in ordinary to the dauphip, promoted hiin in 
1685 to the see of Luvaur, saying to him at the same time^ 
^^ Be not surprised that I so long delayed to reward your 
merit ; I was afraid of losing the pleasure of hearing your 
discourses.'* Two years after, he wa^ made bishop of * 
l^ismes. In his diocese he was no less remarkable for thii 
mildness and indulgence by which he drew back several 
protestants to his church, than for his general charity, and 
attention to the necessities of the unfortunate of all descrip^ii 
lions. At the time of a famine, in 1 709, his charity wai 
unbounded, and was extended to persons of all persuasions} 
and his modesty was at all times equal to his benevoleiree* 
Numbers were relieved by him, without knowing tbesoisrce 
of their good fortune. His father had been a tallow** 
chandler; but Flechier had too much real greatness of 
mind to conceal the humbleness of his origin •; and, beinjg 
once insolently reproached on that subject, he had the 
qptirit to reply, '^ I fancy, sir, from your sentiments, if 
you had been so born, you would have made candles stiii.^*^ 
It is said that he had a presentiment of his death by meansi 
of a dream; in 'consequence of which, he employed ann 
artist to design a monument for him, wishing to have on^ 
that, was m6dest and plain, not such as vanity or gratitude- 
might think it necessary to erect He urged the artist to- 
execute this design before his death, which happened Feb. 
16, 1710. **Ue died," says d'Alembert, ^Mamented by 
tt^ catholics,^ regretted by the protestants, having always^ 
exhibited to his brethren an excellent model of zeal and« 
charity, simplicity and eloquence.** 

His works are, 1. ^' CEuvres M£sI6es,*' miscellaneous^ 
works, ]2mo, in verse and prose, both French and Latin.^ 
Of his compositions in the latter language, it is generally 

ses 1 1 E C n i E R. 

remarked, that they are distinguished by classical purity 
and good taste. 2. An edition of Gratiani, " De casibus 
illdstrium Virarura," 4to. 8. " Panegyrics of the Saints^** 
esteemed one of the best works of the kind. 4. His funeral 
Orations, which are eight in number. 5. His Sermons, itt 
3 vols. If mo, Jess forcible than his panegyrics, or his ora- 
tions. He had studied old quaint discourses, which he 
ridiculed, and called his buffoons; yet they had in some 
degree vitiated his style of writing sermons. 6. " The 
History of Theodosius," above-mentioned. 7. " The Life 
of cardinal Ximenes," one volume, 4to, or two volumes, 
% 12mo. 8, " Letters," 2 vols. 12mo, in a pure, but nor 
an epistolary style. 9, " The Life of cardinal Commen- 
don, translated from the Latin of Gratiani," one vol. 4 to, 
or two vols. 12mo. 10. Posthumous Works, containing 
pastoral letters of the most excellent paternal tenderness, 
iind. other matters. Of all these a handsome edition was' 
printed in 1782,. 9 vols. 8vo. But in this iedition the cor- 
respoiidence with Baville, the persecuting intendant of 
Languedoc, which had been promised, was suppressed by 

They i¥ho compare the eloquence of his funeral oration^ 
with those of Bossuet, whom he rivalled, say, that in Bos- 
suet there is less elegance and purity of language, but* 
greater strength and masculine character. The style of 
Flecbier is more flowing, finished, and uniform ; that of 
Bossuet unequal, but fuller of those bold traits, those' 
lively and striking figures, which are characteristic of true 
genius. Flechier owes more to art, Bossuet to nature. * 

FLECKNOE (Richard), an English poet and dramatic 
writer in the reign of Charles IL whose productions, aU 
tjaough not without some proportion of merit, would not 
have preserved his name so long as the satire of Dryden, 
entitled *' Mac Flecnoe," is said to have been originally a 
Jesuit, and to have had connections with some persons of 
high distinction in London, who were of the Roman catho- 
lic persuasion. What was the cause of Dry den's aversion' 
is not determined. Some have said that when the revolu- 
tion was completed, Dryden, having some time before 
turned papist, became disqualified for holding his' place of 
poet-laureat. It was accojdingly taken from him, and 
conferred on Flecknoe, a man to whom Dryden is said to 

* Eulogy by D'AIembert.-^Moreri.^-ri^iceroi), tqIs. I. •nd X. ^ 

IR L E C K N O B. ^69 

^ttvc Ii8d\aIr6«diy:3ConfiFniiddaTersfo{<; aUd tbiff pivodiieed 
the faMDoUsi satife, called from him Mac Fleoknoey on^ of 
itbe most spirited amd amusing of Drydeo^s po«tni$ j and, 
in some degvee^ the ttiodet of the Dunetad. That Hm h a 
spirited poenv is as certaini as tkat aU the precedingt ae>- 
count feooir CibbeV and hi? copiers is ridicaious; SbaidweH 
was the successer of Dryden^ afs lairrdat, smd iiv this: poena 
is ridiculed as the poetical son of Flecknoe. Hoti^e'Nsr eow^ 
temptibly Dryd^n treated Flecknoe^ tbe latter at 6ne tim0 
wr^^te an epigram in hts praise^ ^bicb^ with Ms r6li^oif» 
might have o6rnciHa4ed both Drjden and Pope. Pc^rnap^ 
I>ryden> says a modern critic^ was offended at Irifs itiviBe^ 
tiYes against tbe oMcenity of thests'ge, knowing bow oifvek 
be bad cotitrifotited to it. Be this as: it may^ Ptecknoe him- 
self wrote some piays, but not more tbany one of them was 
acted. His comedy^ called ^ Damoiselioa h la ndede/' waa 
priiited in ldG7y arrd addtessed to the dvke and docfa^s of 
Newcastle; itbe author had designed it for tbe tfaeatriey and 
-was^ not a Httle chaigrioed at tbe players for refusingf it. 
He said npon ibis occasion : '^ For the acting thisr comedy^ 
thosO who have tbe government of the stag^ ba^ve tbe^ 
huoiours, and wovM b^ intreated; and I hatve mine, and 
wotv't lotMiat thebi : a»d were all d^attiaitic writers of my 
niind, they should weaa^ their old plays tbvead-baafe^' ere 
they flboioAd have any newy till they better understood 
thehr own inteftst, and how to di»linguisfa bcit ween good 
»aA bad."^ 

His other drainsitio pieces are, ** Enmna, dr tbe Chaste 
Lady ;'*>«♦ Lov«'s Dominion;" and, "The Marriage of 
Ocoaniis a»d Britannia." The second of these perfor- 
mances wasi printed ia }654v ^i^tl dedicated to tbe (ady 
Kliaabetb Claypole ; to whom the aittbov insinuates ti^ 
UM of plays^ :a»d begs her mediation to gain a licence for 
aSDCing them. It? Was afterwards lieprahlisl^ m 1^064, on- 
^if t^ritle of << Lo^^s Kingdom^'' and dedicated to tb^ 
ttiat%}oisl of Newcastle. • The author then wilh great pains 
i!»trodiie^d^ it on tbe stage^' but it waa cotldemoed by the 
lUidienee) ^llich Flechnoe styles the people^ and calls 
themjn^eift wiibouti judgmeoe. We owns that his play 
yffWU m^h' of cbe o^naments^of the stagey bat that, he 
ssiysy' may hftf^easily auppiied by « tirely imaginal^ion. His 
other wprks consist of, 1." Epigrams and Enigoiatical Cha- 
tacters,'* usually bouad up with Bis " Love*^s Dpniinion ^\* 
but there is a separate edition in 1670, 8vo, " by Richard 

Vol. XIV. 9 B 

3?/» F L fi C K N O E. 

Flecnoe^ priest.*' 2. " Miscellanea, or poems of all sorts, 
.with divers other pieces/' 1653, 12tno. 3, " Diariiun, or 
the Journal, divided into twelve jornadas, in burlesque 
verse,'' Lond. 1656, 12mo. Mr. Harris mentions also a 
book in the catalogue of the Bodleiau library written bj 
one Rich. Fldcknoe, entitled " The Affections of a pious 
soul unto Christ,'V 1640, Svo. He thinks it probable this 
was the same person, and that he wrote it in his younger 
years, " before his principles were debauched by the 
.world." Flecknoe died in the summer of 1678, according 
to Mr. Malone, who speaks with as much contempt of 
Flecknoe as if he were personally interested in Dryden's 
antipathies. Mr. Sputhey, in his " Omniana," has a far 
more favourable opinion of our poet, and confirms it by. 
extracts from his works, some of which refute Mr. Harris's 
opinion of Flecknoe's principles being debauched* He 
indeed every where expresses an abhorrence of immorality.* 
FLEETWOOD (Charles), lord deputy of Ireland du- 
ring the usurpation, descended of a good family in Lin- 
colnshire and StaflFordshire, was the son of sir William 
•Fleetwoodii knt. cup-bearer to James L and Charles L and 
comptroller of Woodstock park. His grandfather, sir WiU 
iiam. Fleetwood, had been receiver of the court of wards, 
an office, which in May 1644^ was conferred upon the 
subject of this article, who enibarked on the parliamentary 
side in the beginni.^g of the rebellion. He was next, ia 
May 1644-45, advanced to the rank of colonel of horsey 
and in Oct. following made governor of Bristol, and knight 
of the shire for the. county of Bucks, In July 1647, be 
was appointed, one of the commissioners of the army for 
treating with those of the parliament, with relation to th^ 
points in dispute between, those two bodies^ biit.notwith- 
•standing his zeal for the interests of the former, be was 
not personally, concerned in the death of Charles I. After 
the establishment of the cdmmon wealth he was raised to 
the rank of lieutenantrgeneral, and in Feb. 165P-1 cbpsea. 
a member* of the council .of: state, and Sept. 3 foAlowing^ 
bad a .considerable share in the victory gained at Wor<:estcr 
over king Charles 11. Soon aftet: this be. was present at 
the confereiice held between seiseral. members of the jfts^ 
liameut, aiHl. the principal officers of tbe ariny, j^. tb^ 

. 1 Gibber's Ijvei'— Langbaine»— Sbuthey>s Omniana. — Ware'* Ireland^ hj 
Qf rris, &d.-^Maldne*8 Life of Dryxi^a; p.' 168; flc<«;— ^EttlK's SpelBimcflSi 

. f • , j'r , '. i ' . . I • ■ . >' \ r .. ' ^ ' 

r L Set wood. in 

speaker's house^ concerning thesettlement of the nation/ 
in which he declared that it appeared to him very difficult 
to determine, whether an absolute republic, or a mixdd 
monarchy, was the most proper form of government to be 
established; though the soldiers in general discovered 
themselves to be averse to any thing of monarchy, whi(e 
every one of them was a monarch in his own regiment or 
company. The lawyers, however, were, most of them, 
for a mixed monarchical government. 
. After the death of general Ireton, Cromwell fixed uport 
him to marry his widow, not only on acc^ount of his own 
interest, but also that- of bis numerous relations, several 
of whom were persons of no small weight in the army, par- 
ticularly Lambert; and being now CromwelPs son-in-law, 
the latter in 1652 appointed him commander in chief of 
the forces in Ireland, and one of the commissioners for the 
civil affairs of that kingdom ; upon which posts he entered 
in September following, and under his conduct Ireland 
was soon reduced to a perfect subjection ; and he was made 
lord deputy of it •after his father-in-law had assumed the 
protectorship. Notwithstanding this, he, in conjunction 
with Disbrowe and , Lambert, vigorously opposed Crotn- 
well's taking the title of king, when pressed upon him by 
the parliament in May 1657 ; on which account, it is pro- 
bable, he was soon- after removed froni his post of lord 
deputy, which was given to Henry Cromwell, the pro- 
tector's younger son : though Fleetwood had afterwards so 
niuch regard shewn him, as to be appointed, in December 
following, one of the other house o